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PLS 100 EXAM 2
PLS 100 EXAM 2
98
Political Studies
03/15/2013

Additional Political Studies Flashcards

 


 

Cards

Term
constituency
Definition
The district making up the area from which an official is elected
Term
bicameral legislature
Definition
a legislative assembly composed of two chambers, or houses.
Term
incumbency/INCUMBENCY ADVANTAGE
Definition
holding a political office for which one is running

incumbents win re-election at extremely high rates. why? the electoral connection. often do things with re-election in mind.
Term
casework
Definition
an effort by members of congress to gain the trust and support of constituents by providing personal service. one important type of casework consists of helping constituents obtain favorable treatment from the federal bureaucracy.

services or response to a request by a constituent. acting as a problem solver, its not political.
Term
pork-barrel legislation/EARMARKS
Definition
the appropriations made by legislative bodies for local projects that often are not needed but are created so that local representatives can carry their home district in the next election

aka pork or earmarks. for the district. (like new bridges or roads, new convention center, etc.) helps to win constituency support
Term
speaker of the house
Definition
the chief presiding officer of the House of Representatives. the Speaker is elected at the beginning of every congress on a straight party vote. he or she is the most important party and house leader.

John Boehner (R-OH)
leader of the majority party (chosen by party caucus) elected as speaker by full house (along party lines)
roles and duties: preside over the house or delegates role to another member of party.
refer legislation to committees
involves in committee assignments o partys members
involved in setting the agenda of house
spokesperson for party
Term
majority leader
Definition
the elected leader of the party holding a majority of the seats in the House of Representatives or the senate. In the House, the majority leader is subordinate in the party hierarchy to the speaker.

spokesperson for their party and help set legislative agenda and strategy.
majority--eric cantor (R-VA)
Term
minority leader
Definition
the elected leader of the party holding less than a majority of the seats in the house or senate

also spokespersons for their party and help set legislative agenda and strategy. Dem minority=Nancy Pelosi (D-CA)
whip system=relay info both down (convey party goals) and up (vote counting) whip party members into line
Term
PRESIDENT PRO TEMPORE
Definition
by convention, most senior majority party member (in senate?)
not like the speaker of the house
Patrick Leahy (D-VT)
Term
PRESIDING OFFICER
Definition
in the senate.
constitutional president of the senate
VP (biden) just shows up to break the votes
Term
standing committee
Definition
a permanent legislative committee that considers legislation within its designated subject area; the basis unit of deliberation in the House and Senate.

are a central part of the policy making process. introduced bill is referred to committee with pertinent jurisdiction. are the main type dealing with passing bills. are permanent, separate committee system for house and senate
Term
SELECT COMMITTEE
Definition
temporary committees to deal with some new problem. Global warming, initially homeland security
Term
JOINT COMMITTEE
Definition
house and senate. ex: on deficit reduciton. super congress that failed and led to "fiscal cliff"
Term
Gate keeping authority
Definition
the right and power to decide if a change in policy will be considered
rules committee is final gate keeper in house.
Term
proposal power
Definition
The capacity to bring proposal before the full legislature.
Term
conference committee
Definition
a joint committee created to work out a compromise for House and Senate versions of a piece of legislation
Term
oversight
Definition
the effort by Congress, through hearings, investigations, and other techniques, to exercise control over the activities of executive agencies
Term
seniority
Definition
the priority or status ranking given to an individual on the basis of length of continuous service on a congressional committee
Term
agency loss
Definition
the difference between what a principal would like an agent to do and the agent's performance
Term
closed rule
Definition
the provision by the House Rules Committee that prohibits the introduction of amendments during debate
Term
open rule
Definition
the provision by the House Rules Committee that permits floor debate and the addition of amendments to a bill
Term
filibuster
Definition
a tactic used by members of the Senate to prevent action on legislation they oppose by continuously holding the floor and speaking until the majority back down. Once given the floor, senators have unlimited time to speak, and it requires a cloture vote of 3/5ths of the senate to end a filibuster.
Term
cloture
Definition
a rule allowing a supermajority of the members of a legislative body to set a time limit on debate over a given bill.
Term
distributive tendency
Definition
the tendency of congress to spread the benefits of a policy over a wide range of members districts
Term
party vote
Definition
a roll call vote in the house or senate in which at least 50% of the members of one party take a particular position and are opposed by at least 50% of the members of the other party. party votes are less common today than they were in the 19th century
Term
PARTY UNITY SCORE
Definition
measure how much the party agrees. should be 50-50. high party unity score today cuz high partisianship.
Term
roll-call vote
Definition
votes in which each legislators yes or no vote is recorded
Term
whip system
Definition
a communications network in each house of Congress. Whips poll the members to learn their intentions on specific legislative issues and assist the majority and minority leaders in various tasks
Term
logrolling
Definition
a legislative practice wherein reciprocal agreements are made between legislators, usually in voting for or against a bill. in contrast to bargaining, logrolling unites parties that have nothing in common but their desire to exchange support
Term
impeachment
Definition
the charging of a governmental official (prez or otherwise) with "treason bribery or other high crimes and misdemeanors" and bringing him or her before congress to determine guilt
Term
CONDITIONAL PARTY GOVERNMENT
Definition
partisianship in congress influences legislative behavior
the extent to which it does varies over time is conditional party govt
parties are internally homogenous (lots of consensus w/in each party) parties are clearly different from each other (parties polarized from one another)
Term
DIRECT LOBBYING
Definition
directly looking and lobbying for votes
Term
BLACK'S MEDIAN VOTER THEOREM
Definition
policies in the middle defeat any other alternative.
no matter how liberal or conservative, given the choice between the middle and the extreme the middle will always be chosen
Term
commander in chief
Definition
the power of the president as commander of the national military and the state national guard units (when called into service)
Term
war powers resolution
Definition
a resolution of congress declaring that the president can send troops into action abroad only by authorization of congress or if us troops are already under attack or seriously threatened
Term
executive agreement
Definition
an agreement between the president and another country that has the force of a treaty but does not require the senate's "advice and consent"
Term
executive privilege
Definition
the claim that confidential communications between the president and the president's close advisers should not be revealed without the consent of the president
Term
veto
Definition
the president's constitutional power to turn down acts of congress within 10 days of their passage while congress is in session. a presidential veto may be overridden by a 2/3rds vote of each house of congress
Term
pocket veto
Definition
a veto that is effected when congress adjourns during the time a president has to approve a bill and the president takes no action of it.
Term
line-item veto
Definition
the power of the executive to veto specific provisions (lines) of a bill passed by the legislature
Term
legislative initiative
Definition
the presidents inherent power to bring a legislative agenda before congress
Term
executive orders
Definition
the rule or regulation issued by the president that have the effect and formal status of legislation
Term
cabinet
Definition
the secretaries, or chief administrators, of the major departments of the federal govt. cabinet secretaries are appointed by the president with the consent of the senate
Term
national security council
Definition
(NSC) a presidential foreign policy advisory council composed of the president, the vice president, the secretaries of state, defense, and the treasury, the attorney general, and other officials invited by the president.
Term
white house staff
Definition
the analysts and advisers to the president, often given the title "special assistant"
Term
kitchen cabinet
Definition
an informal group of advisers to whom the president turns for counsel and guidance. members of the official cabinet may or may not also be members of the kitchen cabinet
Term
executive office of the president
Definition
(EOP) the permanent agencies that perform defined management tasks for the president. created in 1939, the EOP includes the Office of Management and Budget, the Council of Economic Advisers, the National Security Council, and other agencies
Term
signing statement
Definition
announcement made by the president when a bill is signed into law.
Term
bureaucracy
Definition
the complex structure of offices, tasks, rules, and principles of organization that are employed by all large scale institutions to coordinate the works of their personnel.
Term
implementation
Definition
the efforts of departments and agencies to translate laws into specific bureaucratic routines.
Term
rule making
Definition
a quasi-legislative administrative process that produces regulations by govt agencies
Term
administrative adjudication
Definition
the application of rules and precedents to specific cases to settle disputes with regulated parties
Term
regulatory agency
Definition
a department, bureau, or independent agency whose primary mission is to eliminate or restrict certain behaviors defined as negative in themselves or negative in their consequences
Term
administrative legislation
Definition
rules made by regulatory agencie and commissions
Term
federal reserve system
Definition
(the Fed) consisting of 12 federal reserve districts, the fed facilitates exchanges of cash, checks, and credit, it regulates member banks; and it deploys monetary policies to fight inflation and deflation
Term
bureaucratic drift
Definition
the oft-observed phenomenon of bureaucratic implementation that produces policy more to the liking of the bureaucracy than faithful to the original intention of the legislation that created it, but without triggering a political reaction from elected officials.
Term
oversight
Definition
the effort by congress through hearings, investigations, and other techniques to exercise control over the activities of executive agencies.
Term
"POLICE PATROL" MONITORING
Definition
congress can actively monitor (oversight) through hearings and investigations by committees. but its time consuming and takes up resources
Term
"FIRE ALARM" MONITORING
Definition
rather than constantly spend resources actively monitoring agencies, congress can wait until someone pulls a fire alarm. those directly affected by agency's actions, like interest groups pull the fire alarm. its more efficient and easy way for congress to keep control
Term
ch 9--criminal law
Definition
the branch of law that deals with disputes or actions involving criminal penalties (as opposed to civil law)

individual violating a statue (law) like tax evasion, breaking environmental law
Term
civil law
Definition
a system of jurisprudence, including private law and governmental actions, for settling disputes that do not involve criminal penalties

disputes between individuals or between individuals and government without violating a statute. ex: not fulfilling a contract
Term
precedents
Definition
prior cases whose principles are used by judges as the bases for their decisions in present cases
go off of past cases to make the decisions
Term
stare decisis
Definition
literally "let the decision stand" the doctrine whereby a previous decision by a court applies as a precedent in similar cases until that decision is overruled

this case can have precedent and can influence future rulings. legal principles set in previous cases should determine court rulings.
Term
public law
Definition
type of civil law. case involves actions/powers of govt. like constitutional law and administrative law.

cases involving the action of public agencies or officials
Term
trial court
Definition
the first court to hear a criminal or civil case
Term
court of appeals/appellate court
Definition
a court that hears the appeals of trial court decisions
Term
supreme court
Definition
the highest court in a particular state or in the US. this court primarily serves an appellate function
Term
jurisdiction
Definition
the domain over which an institution or member of an institution has authority.
Term
due process
Definition
proceeding according to law and with adequate protection for individual rights
Term
writ of habeas corpus
Definition
a court order demanding that an individual in custody be brought into court and shown the cause for detention. Habeas corpus is guaranteed by the constitution and can be suspended only in cases of rebellion or invasion
Term
chief justice
Definition
the justice on the supreme court who presides over the court's public sessions
Term
senatorial courtesy
Definition
the practice whereby the president, before formally nominating a person for a federal judgeship, finds out whether the senators from the candidate's state support the nomination
Term
judicial review
Definition
the power of the courts to declare actions of the legislative and executive branches invalid or unconstitutional. the supreme court asserted this power in Marbury v. Madison in 1803
Term
supremacy clause
Definition
a clause of Article VI of the constitution that states that all laws passed by the national govt and all treaties are the supreme laws of the land and superior to all laws adopted by any state or any subdivision
Term
standing
Definition
the right of an individual or an organization to initiate a court case
Term
mootness
Definition
a criterion used by courts to avoid hearing cases that no longer require resolution
Term
writ of certiorari
Definition
a formal request by an appellant to have the supreme court review a decisoin of a lower court. certiorari is form a latin word meaning "to make more certain"

"cert" petition to make them hear it. vote on the cert petition. need 4 out of 9 to hear it. if not, just go with the rule of lower court.
Term
amicus curiae
Definition
"friend of the court" an individual or group who is not party to a lawsuit but seeks to assist the court in reaching a decision by presenting an additional brief

other interest groups that can put their say in a case.
Term
brief
Definition
a written document in which an attorney explains--using case precedents--why the court should rule in favor of his or her client

written by both sides presenting their arguments
Term
oral argument
Definition
the stage in supreme court proceedings in which attorneys for both sides appear before the court to present their positions and answer questions posed by the justices

only half an hour for each side
Term
opinion
Definition
the written explanation of the supreme courts decision in a particular case

opinion writing explaining their votes
Term
dissenting opinion
Definition
a decision written by a justice who voted with the minority opinion in a particular case, in which the justice fully explains the reasoning behind his or her opinion.
Term
judicial restraint
Definition
the judicial philosophy whose adherents refuse to go beyond the test of the constitution in interpreting its meaning
Term
judicial activism
Definition
the judicial philosophy that posits that the court should see beyond the text of the constitution or a statute to consider broader societal implications for its decisions
Term
rule of four
Definition
the rule that certiorari will be granted only if four justices vote in favor of the petition.
Term
class-action suit
Definition
a lawsuit in which a large number of persons with common interests join together under a representative party to bring or defend a lawsuit, as when hundreds of workers join together to sue a company
Term
JUDICIAL APPOINTMENTS
Definition
lots of conflict on it.
president appoints subject to confirmation by senate
appointed for life
its important cuz of stare decisis
Term
why do incumbents in Congress get re-elected at such high rates? That is, what are they doing while in office that contributes to the incumbency advantage?
Definition
cuz of what they do for the constituents.
roll call votes keeping in mind what constituents want
claim credit through pork barreling=bringing federal $$ to home district just to claim credit for it
get on the right committees for the constituents
casework aka favors for constituents
Term
how has the amount of partisanship in Congress varied over the 20th century (and through today)? What explains this variation?
Definition
50s and 60s weak partisanship/"textbook congress" era of week parties and strong committee chairman.
70s and 90s=strong party government
why the change? cuz of conditional govt. need to satisfy two things to have a strong party govt 1) homogenous within each party/lots of agreement 2)parties are polarized. in the 50s and 60s these 2 points werent satisfied.

also rewards and punishments more in strong party govt

weak=power in committee chairman and seniority
strong=power in party and party loyalty for committee assignments
Term
besides using veto power, in what ways can the president influence public policy?
Definition
executive orders and signing statements

exec orders act as law. telling exec branch to do something that congress may not have passed on its own. Ex: Obama and Guantanamo bay
signing statements=sign a bill and attach a statement that says how they will actually implement it
Term
explain how the threat of filibusters and vetoes can influence legislation. that is, how can the threat of a filibuster, for instance, influence what policy the Senate passes, even if a filibuster does not actually occur?
Definition
filibuster needs a cloture to avoid it which is 60 votes. so for senate to pass something controversial they have to invoke cloture and a super majority which both enforce bipartisanship.

vetoes make them change what the bill says so as to avoid a veto and get the bill signed. republican majority will try and appease a democratic president in order to get a bill signed instead of vetoed and starting the process over again.
Term
how does a bill become a law?
Definition
only MCs can introduce legislation.
then referred to committees by senate presiding officer or house speaker
also go into subcommittees
in committees they do mark ups/decide on final version of bill. report out of committee (most bills die in committee)
House=get on the calendar/determined by speaker
rules committee=final gatekeeper in house. determines open or closed rule
then debate and roll call vote

senate=intro, referral all the same as house but not rules committee but UCA (unanimous consent agreement) if not then can filibuster/cloture/then debate and vote for supermajority

must be passed by both chambers till bill is the same then sometimes conference committees (both house and senate)
finally to prez to sign or veto
Term
what are the differences in the legislative process between the house and senate?
Definition
senate is more individualistic
organization matters less in senate
speaker stronger than senate leaders
each individual senator has lots of power. house members get power from their position (e.g. which committee they are on or whether they are a committee chair)
Term
how do we elect the President? That is, how does the electoral college work?
Definition
electoral votes for state=# of senators (2) + # of House seats
and winner take all for each state but need to win majority of 270 electoral votes out of 538
indirect democracy system and gives clear majority to winner rather than a close popular vote
ppl vote for ppl that represent them in voting for in electoral college for the prez.
Term
what are the ways the President and congress separately try exert control over the bureaucracy? in what ways are they competing over control of the bureaucracy?
Definition
like a principal agent relationship. congress (principal)/or prez. delegating to the bureaucracy (agent)

"police patrol" monitoring. congress can actively monitor (oversight) through hearings and investigations by committees
"fire alarm" monitoring. congress only steps in when interest groups etc pull the "fire alarm"

President as chief executive. can use signing statements. also appointments being subject to senate is a complication.
red tape=rules and regulations that determine actions of lower level bureaucrats to help efficiency and make it routinized
Term
why are appointments to the federal judiciary (either supreme court or lower federal courts) oftentimes so conflictual between congress and the president?
Definition
because of precedent. the court cases they decide on have stare decisis or implications for later cases and laws. determine if constitutional for years to come.
Term
how does a case get to the supreme court?
Definition
starts in district courts (89 of them)
if appealed then to court of appeals (11)
then appeal to SCOTUS (supreme court of the US) also appellate court

need to vote on writ of certiorari or cert (rule of 4) to be heard in SCOTUS
Term
what are some examples of the supreme court acting as a referee between 1) federal vs. state govts 2) congress vs. president
Definition
can rule on constitutionality of state laws.
ex: segregation laws. limit provisions in 23 states. line item veto denied by supreme court cuz it allowed prez to veto certain parts of bill