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Physiology
Exam 1: Slide Set 5
36
Physiology
02/09/2010

Additional Physiology Flashcards

 


 

Cards

Term
describe the relative distributeions of Na, K, Cl in and out of a cell
Definition

high K+ inside

high Na+ outside

high Cl- outside

Term
three major fluid compartments
Definition

blood plasma

cytosol

interstitual fluid

Term
the concentrations of ions/electrolytes in blood plasma are similar to what other body liquid?
Definition
interstitual fluid
Term

diffusion

 

net flux

Definition

movement of particles from hi to lo concentration

 

net flux is diffusion rate

Term
how does net flux change with particle mass, temperature, path length and concentration gradient?
Definition

decreases with more mass

increases with more heat

decreases with more length

increases with a greater concentration gradient

Term
Definition
Term
what is range of kJ/min MBR for humans? highest it can go?
Definition

5-8kj/min

80 kj/min

Term
where is most of your body liquid stored?
Definition
cytoplasma
Term

osmoles

 

osmolarity

Definition

osmoles: total quantity of solute particles in solution

 

osmolarity: osmoles/liter H20

Term

isosmotic

 

hyperosmotic

 

hyposmotic

Definition

iso: same osmolarity

 

hyper: higher osmolarity

 

hypo: lower osmolarity

Term
osmosis
Definition
net diffusion of h20 through a semipermeable membrane
Term
tonicity
Definition
effect a solution has on cell volume
Term

isotonic

 

hypertonic

 

hypotonic

Definition

iso: solution with no effect on cell volume

 

hypertonic: solution has higher osmolarity and therefore draws water out of the cell

 

hypotonic: solution has lower osmolarity and therefore loses H20 to the cell

Term
what are the molecules that make up the plasma membrane called (specific)?
Definition
phosphoacyglycerol
Term
what does plasma membrane NOT allow diffusion of?
Definition

large uncharged molecules

charged molecules and ions

 

Term
hydration shell?
Definition
ions in h20 solution become surrounded by h20 due to it's polarity. this creates a layer around the ion and prevents its passage through the plasma membrane
Term

glycoprotien

 

glycolipid

 

where are they usually found?

Definition

glycoprotein is a protein with a carbohydrate attached to it

glycolipid is the same thing but a lipid instead of protein

 

they are found in the plasma membrane.

Term
what are the two surfaces of the plasma membrane?
Definition

extracellular

 

intracellular

Term

what are the proteins called that are in the plasma membrane?

 

what are the main two types?

Definition

intrinsic membrane proteins

 

1. Type 1: don't go all the way through

2. Type 2: transmembrane protein.

Term
rate of diffusion equation
Definition

 

 

 

rate of diffusion α = available surface area*concentration gradient

                                          membrane resistance*membrane thickness

Term
what does it mean to ave both a hydrophobic and hydrophillic part?
Definition
amphipathic
Term
what are the molecules that the plasma membrane allows to diffuse?
Definition

small unpolar: o2, co2

small/polar: ethanol

large/slightly polar: lipids and fatty acids

 

Term
two GENERAL types of mediated transport
Definition

facilitated diffusion: utilizes energy store in a concentration gradient

 

active transport: requires atp

Term

types of facilitated diffusion proteins

 

describe what they do

Definition

carrier proteins: the solute hits the extracellular part of the protein. causes conformation change where the protein "accepts" the solute and then lets it go through into the cell.

 

 

 

 

channel proteins: proteins lined with hydrophillic groups to allow polar and charged things through freely

Term

most prominent example of a carrier protein

 

how it works...briefly

Definition

protein in the body that accepts glucose from capillaries and lets it into the cell with insulin.

 

after the glucose-insulin hits the carrier protein and is accepted into the cell, it is phosphorylized by glucokinase into g6p

Term

what is the most prominent example of a channel protein?

 

which direction do the molecules move through the channel?

Definition

Sodium/Potassium leak channel

 

Na moves into the cell

K moves out of the cell

Term

Gated Channels

 

types

Definition

These can be active or facilitated diffusion.

 

It's a channel that opens in response to a stimulus.

 

types: voltage gated, ligand gated, phosphorylation gated

Term
Definition
Term
describe the steps involved in the Na+/K+ pump action
Definition

CC=conformation change

 

1. 3 Na from the cytosol hit the α unit of the protein causing CC1

2. CC1 allows ATP to phosphorylate the α subunit causing CC2

3. CC2 kicks the 3 Na out of the cell making room for the next step

4. 2 K+ are accepted into the α subunit

5. The acceptance of the 2 K+ allows the protein to lose the Pi group attached to it from step 2

6. Losing the Pi group lets the 2K+ into the cytosol

Term

what counteracts the Na+ K+ pump?

 

 

Definition
the Na+ K+ leak channel
Term

secondary active transport

 

two types and example of each

Definition

atp is not direcly used in the transportation, but it is used to create the electrochemical gradient

 

symport: two molecule going in the same direction (Na+/glucose go INTO the cell)

 

antiport: two molecules moveing in opposite directions

(K+ movint OUT of cell, Na+ moving INTO cell)

Term
How does glucose get into the blood stream?
Definition
It is cotransported across the small intestine with Na+
Term

what are the 3 ways in which Ca2+ is transported around and in and out of a cell?

 

What are the comparative concentrations of Ca2+ inside and outside of a cell?

Definition

Ca2+ is transported into the smooth endoplasmic reticulum via a Ca2+ATPase. This requires atp...obviously.

 

The Ca2+ATPase is also used to ship Ca2+ out of a cell

 

A Na+ Ca2++ countertransport or antiport is also used to ship shitloads of Ca2++ out of a cell.

 

Ca2+ concentrations are higher outside of a cell.

Term
what does the smooth endoplasmic reticulum do?
Definition
store calcium and make lipids.
Term
where does most of digestion occur?
Definition
small intestine
Term
Definition