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physiology 206: test 1
Test 1: Dexter Speck
219
Physiology
09/13/2011

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Term
physiology
Definition
the study of how living things work
Term
scientific method: 4 steps
Definition
hypothesis, experiment, revised hypothesis, theory
Term
4 homeostatic control mechanisms
Definition
1. variable
2. sensor (receptor)
3. integrating center
4. effectors
Term
negative feedback
Definition
a change in a variable that leads to responses that move the variable in the direction of the initial change
Term
variable
Definition
the factor that is being regulated
Term
sensor (receptor)
Definition
detects changes in the environment from a particular set point
Term
integrating center
Definition
receives information from the sensors and makes a decision about what needs to be done
Term
effectors
Definition
makes changes according to the information they receive from the integrating center
Term
starting at set point->
Definition
control center->effector->controlled variable-> sensor-> back to control center
Term
classic example of negative feedback
Definition
thermostat.
Term
homeostasis is best described as a state of ___
Definition
dynamic constancy
Term
dynamic constancy
Definition
state in which condition hover above and below a set point
Term
negative feedback mechanisms act to ___
Definition
correct deviations from a normal range within the internal environment
Term
homeostasis refers to the ability of ___
Definition
the internal environment to remain remarkably constant despite changes in the external environment.
Term
positive feedback
Definition
a change in a variable that leads to responses that move the variable in the same direction as the initial change.
Term
positive feedback typically results in ___
Definition
death
Term
2 examples of useful positive feedback
Definition
blood clotting, contractions of the uterus during childbirth
Term
most disease is due to a disturbance in ___
Definition
homeostasis
Term
with age, our ability to maintain ___ decreases
Definition
homeostasis
Term
a hormone called parathyroid hormone acts to help raise the blood calcium concentration. According to the principles of negative feedback, an effective stimulus for parathyroid hormone secretion would be a ___ in blood calcium levels.
Definition
fall
Term
the act of breathing raises the blood oxygen level and ph, and lowers the blood co2 concentration. Accoring to the principles of negative feedback, sensors that regulate breathing should respond to a rise in ___.
Definition
blood oxygen, blood ph, or blood co2 concentration, all work
Term
3 main parts of a cell
Definition
cell membrane, cytoplasm, and nucleus
Term
a cell is the ___.
Definition
basic unit of structure and function
Term
tissue
Definition
similar cells grouped together that function for a similar purpose
Term
primary tissues
Definition
muscular, connective, nervous, epithelial
Term
tissues organize to form an ___
Definition
organ
Term
organs are part of ___
Definition
an organ system
Term
Plasma membrane composed of these 5 structures
Definition
1. lipid bilayer with embedded proteins
2. proteins
3. carbohydrates
4. fluid mosaic model
5. other associated structures
Term
lipid bilayer with embedded proteins is composed of ___.
Definition
phospholipids
Term
phospholipids consist of ___
Definition
a glycerol molecule with 2 fatty acids and a phosphate group
Term
phospholipid arrangement prevents ___ from moving across the ____.
Definition
water-soluble (hydrophilic) substances from moving across the plasma membrane
Term
2 main proteins of the lipid bilayer
Definition
integral proteins and peripheral proteins
Term
integral proteins
Definition
span the entire width of the plasma membrane, transporters, channels, receptors, carriers
Term
peripheral proteins
Definition
partially embedded on either side of the plasma membrane. enzymes, structural support, receptors
Term
carbohydrates of the lipid bilayer
Definition
glycolipids and glycoproteins
Term
fluid mosaic model
Definition
there are no bonds between the lipids and proteins that make up the membrane.
Term
3 other associated structures with the lipid bilayer
Definition
cilia, flagella, and microvilli
Term
cilia
Definition
short cell surface projections
Term
flagella
Definition
longer than cilia; whip like structures that propel sperm
Term
microvilli
Definition
very small, finger like extensions of the plasma membrane
Term
the Plasma Membrane seperates ___
Definition
intracellular fluid from extracellular fluid
Term
the plasma membrane is selectively ___
Definition
permeable in size, charge, and polarity
Term
the proteins in the cell membrane act as ___
Definition
receptors
Term
the proteins in the cell membrane provide ___.
Definition
structural support
Term
the proteins in the cell membrane help ___
Definition
transport molecules across the membrane.
Term
movement across the plasma membrane can be achieved by ____
Definition
diffusion through membrane or pores.
endocytosis and pinocytosis.
phagocytosis and exocytosis.
Term
the cytoplasm is the cellular region the ___.
Definition
nucleus and plasma membrane
Term
cytoplasm includes the ____.
Definition
cytosol and organelles
Term
cytosol is the ___
Definition
fluid in which the organelles are suspended
Term
cytosol is composed of ____
Definition
water and many dissolved substances
Term
cytosol contains ___ which function as a ___
Definition
protein fibers (microfilaments and microtubules), cytoskeleton
Term
6 main types of organelles
Definition
ribosomes, endoplasmic reticulum, golgi apparatus, mitochondria, lysosomes, and peroxisomes
Term
ribosomes are small ___ composed of ___.
Definition
small granules composed of protein and RNA
Term
ribosomes are the site of ___.
Definition
protein synthesis
Term
endoplasmic reticulum is composed of _ and _
Definition
rough ER and smooth ER
Term
rough endoplasmic reticulum is an ___ with _ on the surface.
Definition
extensive, enclosed network of membranes with ribosomes on the surface.
Term
the rough ER ____ to other organelles
Definition
packages proteins and distributes them to other organelles
Term
Smooth ER is a __ composed of ___
Definition
membrane system composed of tubules with no ribosomes attached.
Term
Smooth ER is the site of ___, also stores __ in some cell types
Definition
lipid and steroid synthesis; calcium
Term
golgi apparatus is a stack of ___
Definition
smooth membrane sacks with associated vesicles.
Term
golgi apparatus modifies ___ and ___
Definition
proteins received from the rough ER and packages them into vesicles
Term
mitochondria have a __ structure and are the ___
Definition
double membrane structure; powerhouse of the cell
Term
lysosomes are ___
Definition
membrane bound sacs that contain digestive enzymes
Term
peroxisomes are ___
Definition
membrane bound sacs which contain enzymes which break down toxic substances
Term
cell membrane seperates ___ from ___
Definition
extracellular fluid from cytoplasm
Term
___ are directed toward the interior of the membrane
Definition
lipophillic, hydrophobic molecules
Term
Membranes of ___,___,___ are recycled
Definition
lysosomes, peroxisomes, vesicles
Term
nucleus is surrounded by the ___
Definition
nuclear envelope
Term
nuclear envelope has ___
Definition
2 lipid bilayers
Term
___ join the 2 membranes of the nuclear envelope together
Definition
nuclear pores
Term
nuclear envelope has ___
Definition
2 lipid bilayers
Term
nucleoli are ___
Definition
dense structures which contain genes for forming the RNA associated with ribosomes.
Term
chromatin are ___
Definition
threadlike material composed of DNA and histone proteins
Term
4 main structures of the nucleus
Definition
nuclear envelope, nuclear pores, nucleoli, chromatin
Term
nucleus is the ___ of the cell
Definition
control center
Term
nucleus is responsible for ___
Definition
transmitting genetic info and providing instructions for protein synthesis.
Term
DNA -> DNA
Definition
replication
Term
DNA->mRNA
Definition
transcription
Term
mRNA -> protein
Definition
translation
Term
translation occurs in the ___
Definition
ribosomes
Term
___helps bring amino acids to the ribosome
Definition
tRNA
Term
Stem cells are ___
Definition
specialized cells that havent differentiated. aka undeclared cells
Term
stem cells can change into ___.
Definition
multiple kinds of tissue
Term
Stem cells can be derived from ___ and ___
Definition
embryonic stem cells,adult stem cells (especially from blood)
Term
according to the fluid mosaic model ___
Definition
proteins are free to move within a double layer of phospholipids
Term
the organelle that combines proteins with carbohydrates and packages them within vesicles for secretion is the ___
Definition
golgi complex
Term
the organelle that contains digestive enzymes is the ___
Definition
lysosome
Term
the step in protein synthesis during which tRNA, rRNA, and mRNA are all active is known as ___
Definition
translation
Term
the process of transcription occurs in the ___
Definition
nucleus
Term
the process of translation occurs in the ___
Definition
ribosomes
Term
the interior of the endoplasmic reticulum itself is ___
Definition
lipophilic
Term
explain the 20-40-60 rule
Definition
about 60% of body mass is water, about 20%(1/3 of water) of body mass is extracellular water, about 40& body mass(2/3 of water)is inside cells
Term
membrane transport contains _ fluid and _ fluid
Definition
intracellular fluid and extracellular fluid.
Term
Extracellular fluid contains __ and ___
Definition
interstitial fluid and plasma
Term
interstitial fluid is ___
Definition
tissue fluid, the fluid between cells (80% ECF volume)
Term
plasma is the ___
Definition
noncellular portion of blood (20% of ECF)
Term
the plasma membrane is ___
Definition
selectively permeable
Term
the plasma membrane allows __ into the cell and keeps ___ out.
Definition
nutrients; harmful substances
Term
plasma membrane keeps ______ needed for cell function in the cell and allows ___ to move out
Definition
proteins and other substances;waste products
Term
2 membrane transport processes
Definition
passive transport and active transport
Term
passive transport does not require
Definition
energy in the form of ATP (always requires some energy to move)
Term
passive transport is the movement of a substance ___
Definition
across a membrane from a higher concentration to a lower concentration
Term
passive transport moves ___ its concentration gradient
Definition
down
Term
active transport requires ___
Definition
energy in the form of ATP
Term
active transport is the movement of a substance ___
Definition
across a membrane from a lower concentration to a higher concentration
Term
active transport moves a substance ___ its concentration gradient
Definition
against
Term
Simple diffusion occurs when
Definition
there is a concentration difference between two regions.
Term
molecules in a solution or gas are in a ___
Definition
constant state of random motion
Term
a solution consists of the ___ and the ___
Definition
solvent (water);solute (molecules dissolved in water)
Term
for simple diffusion to occur, the membrane must be ___
Definition
permeable to molecules
Term
In simple diffusion, when the concentration of molecules is = on both sides, net diffusion is ___
Definition
zero
Term
substances that diffuse across the plasma membrane are ___ and ___
Definition
lipid soluble substances; very small polar molecules (hydrophilic)
Term
rate of diffusion depends on what 4 things
Definition
the concentration difference across the membrane, temperature of the solution, permeability of the membrane, surface area of the membrane.
Term
Facilitated diffusion is the movement of ___ by ___
Definition
large polar substances across the plasma membrane by carrier proteins
Term
3 key words for characteristics of carrier mediated transport
Definition
specificity, competition, saturation
Term
carrier proteins interact only with ___ molecules
Definition
specific
Term
two different molecules can be transported by the same carrier, but they ___
Definition
compete for the carrier protein
Term
when all the carrier proteins in a cell are being utilized to move molecules, they are said to be ___
Definition
saturated
Term
saturation leads to reaching the ___
Definition
transport maximum
Term
osmosis is ___
Definition
the diffusion of water across a membrane
Term
In order for osmosis to occur there must be a difference in ___
Definition
solute concentration across the membrane
Term
In order for osmosis to occur, the membrane must be ___, but not the ___
Definition
selectively permeable to water;solute
Term
In osmosis, water moves __ its concentration gradient
Definition
down
Term
in osmosis water moves from a __ concentration to a ___ concentration
Definition
high, low
Term
osmotic pressure
Definition
the pressure required to prevent osmosis
Term
osmotic pressure is an ___.
Definition
indirect measure of the solute concentration of a solution.
Term
osmolarity(osmolality) is the ___
Definition
the total solute concentration of a solution
Term
1 molar solution =
Definition
1 mole of solute dissolved in enough water to make 1 liter of a solution
Term
1 molal solution
Definition
1 mole of solute dissolved in 1 kg of water
Term
a kilogram of water with 1 mole of glucose and 1 mole of fructose has a total osmolality of ___
Definition
2 osmoles/L (Osm)
Term
isotonic
Definition
describes a solution with the same osmolality as the inside of a cell
Term
hypotonic
Definition
describes a solution with a lower osmolality than the inside of a cell.
Term
hypertonic
Definition
describes a solution with a higher osmolality than the inside of a cell.
Term
Active Transport requires ___ in the form of ___
Definition
energy; ATP
Term
Active Transport requires a ___ molecule
Definition
Carrier
Term
Active transport moves molecules ___ their concentration gradient
Definition
against
Term
Types of substances moved by active transport
Definition
bigger molecules, anytime molecule moves against CG, sometimes glucose or amino acids.
Term
primary active transport directly utilizes ___.
Definition
the energy released by the hydrolysis of ATP
Term
Primary active transport moves ___
Definition
calcium across the membrane
Term
the ___ pump is an example of primary active transport
Definition
sodium-potassium pump
Term
the sodium potassium pump, pumps sodium and potassium in ___
Definition
opposite directions
Term
the sodium potassium pump is ____. pump __Na+ out for every 2 K+ in.
Definition
electrogenic
Term
the Secondary active transport ____.
Definition
indirectly utilizes the energy released by the hydrolysis of ATP.
Term
the sodium potassium pump maintains the _____ across the membrane
Definition
sodium concentration gradient.
Term
as sodium moves back into the cell, other substances are ___
Definition
transported by the same carrier proteins
Term
2 main processes for bulk transport
Definition
endocytosis and exocytosis
Term
Bulk transport is the movement of ____
Definition
large molecules across the plasma membrane
Term
Bulk transport requires ___
Definition
energy
Term
exocytosis is the ___ from the ___
Definition
movement of substance within a vesicle from the cell interior to the extracellular space
Term
endocytosis is the movement of ____ from the ____
Definition
substances; extracellular fluid into the cell
Term
the movement of water across a plasma membrane occurs by___.
Definition
simple diffusion through membrane channels
Term
facilitated diffusion of glucose requires ___.
Definition
carrier proteins in the cell membrane
Term
if a poison such as cyanide stopped the production of ATP, the movement of ___ out of a cell would cease.
Definition
Na+
Term
Red blood cells crenate in a ___
Definition
hypertonic solution
Term
Plasma has an osmolality of about 300mOsm. The osmolality of isotonic saline is equal to ___
Definition
300 mOsm
Term
a .5 m NaCl solution and a 1.0m glucose solution have ___ osmolality, ___ osmotic pressure, and are ___ to each other if volume of NaCl is double glucose.
Definition
the same;the same; isotonic
Term
the sodium potassium pump is ___ in all cells.
Definition
constantly active
Term
the nervous system consists of the ___ system and the ___ system
Definition
Central nervous; peripheral nervous
Term
Central nervous system consists of the ___ and ___.
Definition
brain and spinal cord
Term
3 parts of Brain
Definition
cerebrum, cerebellum, and brain stem
Term
Peripheral nervous system consists primarily of ___ that project to and from the ___.
Definition
nerves; central nervous system
Term
2 main types of nerves in the peripheral nervous system
Definition
spinal nerves; cranial nerves
Term
2 divisions of the peripheral nervous system
Definition
afferent division (sensory) and efferent (motor) division
Term
afferent division transmits impulses from ___ to ___
Definition
sensory receptors to the Central nervous system
Term
efferent division transmits impulses from ___ to ___
Definition
Central nervous system to the effector organs
Term
two systems of the efferent division
Definition
somatic nervous system and autonomic nervous system
Term
somatic nervous system contains ___
Definition
motor neurons that stimulate contraction of skeletal muscles
Term
autonomic nervous system contains ___ that stimulate ____.
Definition
motor neurons; contraction of smooth and cardiac muscle and glandular tissue
Term
2 cells of the nervous system
Definition
neurons and glia
Term
neurons are the ____
Definition
basic and structural unit of the nervous system
Term
cell body of neurons are an ___
Definition
enlarged portion which contains the nucleus and other organelles.
Term
nuclei
Definition
a group of cell bodies in the central nervous system
Term
ganglia
Definition
a group of cell bodies within the peripheral nervous system
Term
dendrites
Definition
branched processes that extend from the neuron cell body
Term
axons
Definition
a single process that extend from the neuron cell body
Term
3 axon structures
Definition
axon hillock, axon terminals, and synapses
Term
tract
Definition
a group of axons in the CNS
Term
nerve
Definition
a group of axons in the PNS
Term
sensory or afferent neurons carry info from ___ to the ____
Definition
sensory receptors; Central nervous system
Term
motor or efferent neurons carry info from the ___ to the ___
Definition
Central nervous system; effector organs
Term
interneurons/association neurons are found within the ___
Definition
Central nervous system
Term
interneurons/association neurons connect ___ and ___
Definition
afferent neurons and efferent neurons
Term
2 types of supporting cells found in the peripheral nervous system
Definition
schwann cells and satellite cells
Term
schwann cells
Definition
wrap around the axons forming a myelin sheath
Term
satellite cells
Definition
surround neuron cell bodies within ganglia in peripheral nervous system
Term
supporting cells of the central nervous system are ___.
Definition
glia
Term
4 types of supporting cells found in the central nervous system
Definition
oligodendrocytes, microglia, astrocytes, and ependymal cells
Term
oligodendrocytes
Definition
functionally similar to schwann cells; form a myelin sheath around axons of the central nervous system
Term
microglia
Definition
phagocytes that help to get rid of foreing substances in the central nervous system
Term
astrocytes
Definition
helps to maintain a normal external environment around neurons;helps to maintain the blood brain barrier
Term
ependymal cells
Definition
line the cavities of the brain and spinal cord. make cerebrospinal fluid.
Term
nodes of ranvier
Definition
spaces between adjacent schwann cells; where action potentials are conducted
Term
resting membrane potential, electrical potentials
Definition
at rest, a neuron has an excess of positive charges on the outside of the membrane and an excess of negative charges on the inside
Term
the seperation of charge across the membrane creates an ____.
Definition
electrical potential/membrane potential
Term
resting membrane potential
Definition
the potential across a membrane in a resting neuron
Term
ion distribution between the ICF and ECF
Definition
ICF ECF
K+ 150mM 5mM
Na+ 12mM 145mM
Term
K+ and Na+ charges are balanced ____
Definition
Cl- in the ECF and large negatively charged proteins in the ICF.
Term
at Resting membrane potential, K+ is ____
Definition
75X more permeable than Na+
Term
enzyme that breaks down ATP
Definition
ATPase
Term
the sodium potassium pump pumps ___ out for every ___ in.
Definition
3 Na+, 2 K+
Term
The sodium potassium pump maintains____
Definition
the concentration gradient for Na+, K+, and ATPase
Term
The sodium potassium pump contributes to ____.
Definition
the generation of a more negative intracellular environment (electrogenic).
Term
depolarization results in a ___ in the membrane potential.
Definition
Term
what happens to RMP as a result of depolarization
Definition
inside of cell becomes more positive with respect to the RMP
Term
hyperpolarization results in an ___
Definition
increase in the membrane potential
Term
what happens as a result of hyperpolarization?
Definition
inside of cell becomes more negative with respect to the RMP
Term
repolarization causes ___
Definition
a return to the resting membrane potential
Term
changes in resting membrane potential are produced by a change in ____.
Definition
the membrane permeability to any of the ions, or a change in the ion concentrations on the two sides of the membrane
Term
3 types of Ion channels
Definition
passive-ion channels, chemically-gated channels, and voltage gated channels
Term
passive ion channels are ___
Definition
always open and allow ions to move down their concentration gradients
Term
chemically gated channels aka ligand gated channels ____
Definition
open when a substance binds to a receptor on the channel to allow ions to move down their concentration gradients
Term
voltage gated channels ____
Definition
open or close when they detect a change in the membrane potential
Term
the most important diffusible ion in the establishment of membrane potential is ___.
Definition
K+
Term
an increase in blood osmolality can be caused as a result of ___
Definition
dehydration
Term
the supporting cells that form myelin sheaths in the peripheral nervous system are ___
Definition
schwann cells
Term
a collection of neuron bodies located outside the CNS is called___
Definition
a ganglion
Term
what neurons are pseudounipolar
Definition
sensory neurons
Term
depolarization of an axon is produced by___
Definition
the inward diffusion of Na+
Term
Repolarization of an axon during an action potential is produced by ____.
Definition
the outward diffusion of K+.