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Physio Psych 2008 Midterm
Physio Psych 2008 Midterm
41
Psychology
04/28/2009

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Term
gyrus
Definition
A _______ is the bulge located between the adjacent grooves in the surface of the human cortex
Term
C. Drug A has a therapeutic index of 4.0
Definition
The effective dose 50 (ED50) value for Drug A is 2.0 mg/kg while its lethal dose 50 (LD50) value is 8 mg/kg. Which of the following is true of Drug A?
A. Drug A is ineffective for its intended purpose
B. The therapeutic index of Drug A is 0.25
C. Drug A has a therapeutic index of 4.0
D. Drug A is safe for use in humans
E. A and D are correct
Term
Contralateral
Definition
Electrical stimulation of the right motor cortex elicits limb movements on the left side of the body and vice versa. Which term below best describes this organization of the motor cortex and the muscles of the body?
Term
Norepinephrine
Definition
Which neurotransmitter (monoamine) acts to promote vigilance?
Term
3 Opening a sodium channel
Definition
Which of the following will produce an EPSP?
1. Closing a calcium channel
2. Closing a sodium channel
3. Opening a sodium channel
4. Opening a potassium channel
5. Opening a manganese channel
Term
Depolarization
Definition
Movement of the axon membrane potential from -90mV to -80mV would be termed a(n)?
Term
Dopamine
Definition
Which neurotransmitter (monoamine) activates voluntary movements and reinforces behavior?
Term
arachnoid
Definition
The middle layer of the brain meninges is the _______ membrane.
Term
90 minutes
Definition
A single cycle of non-REM/REM sleep lasts about:
Term
Astrocytes
Definition
Which type of glial cells are important for the supply of energy for neurons?
Term
4. Sleep walking
Definition
Narcolepsy is characterized by all of the following EXCEPT
1. Sleep paralysis
2. Awakening refreshed from a sleep attack
3. Sleep attacks
4. Sleep walking
5. Hypnagogic hallucinations
Term
Afferent
Definition
Efferent/Afferent (circle one) neurons gather information from the environment related to light, odors, and bodily contact with objects.
Term
choroid plexus
Definition
CSF is produced from the ________ of the brain
Term
action potential
Definition
An electrical charge applied to an axon that moves the membrane potential from -70mV to -40mV will result in a(n) ___________ _____________.
Term
anterior
Definition
Another term for rostral is
Term
cations
Definition
___________ are positively charged particles.
Term
1. Motor
Definition
___________ neurons function to contract muscles
1. Motor
2. Local inter-
3. Inter-
4. Afferent
5. Sensory
Term
horizontal
Definition
A_________ section is made through a human brain parallel to the ground
Term
intravenous (IV)
Definition
The fastest way for a drug to reach a site of action is via the _______ administration route.
Term
3. Strong emotions or physical exertion
Definition
Cataplexy may be brought on by
1. Overuse of caffeine
2. High blood levels of CO2 in the blood
3. Strong emotions or physical exertion
4. Staying awake for long periods of time
5. Damage to neurons that initial REM sleep
Term
Nodes of Ranvier
Definition
Ions enter and leave the membrane of a myelinated axon at the ______________
Term
5. Performance of coordinated motor movements
Definition
A key function of the cerebellum is the
1. Expression of emotion
2. Coordination of grammar
3. Ability to read and write
4. Capacity to reason
5. Performance of coordinated motor movements
Term
Lipid solubility
Definition
The rate at which a druge reaches active sites in the brain is determined mostly by its degree of
Term
diffusion
Definition
The process by which molecules are evenly distributed throughout a medium is called diffusion/ electrostatic pressure (circle one)
Term
Superior
Definition
Which term means “above” when referring to the brain?
Term
beta
Definition
The _________ pattern of EEG activity is characterized by the most irregular, high-frequency (13-30 Hz) low-amplitude waves
Term
lipid
Definition
he membrane of a nerve cell is comprised of a double layer of __________ molecules
Term
2. An attack of sleep during the day
Definition
The key symptom of narcolepsy is
1. Dreaming in color
2. An attack of sleep during the day
3. Anxiety and fear during the waking period
4. The inability to fall asleep
5. Rapid movements of the eyes
Term
Oligodendricytes
Definition
__________ are the myelin of nerve axon membranes in the CNS
Term
1. Motor movements
Definition
Damage to the basal ganglia would be expected to produce difficulties in
1. Motor movements
2. Understanding social rules
3. Emotional experience
4. Emotional memories
5. Speech perception
Term
2. Changes in the electrical activity of the brain
Definition
31. Stages of sleep are easily distinguished by
1. The quality and quantity of dreams
2. Changes in the electrical activity of the brain
3. Changes in consciousness
4. Changes in motor movements
5. Changes in respiration
Term
Multipolar
Definition
The __________ neuron is the most common nerve cell type in the CNS
Term
2. Glutamate; GABA
Definition
Which pair of transmitter substances are most involved in synaptic neurotransmission in the brain
1. Glutamate; Acetylcholine
2. Glutamate; GABA
3. Glycine, acetylcholine
4. GABA; glycine
5. Acetylcholine; dopamine
Term
Occiptal
Definition
The primary visual cortex is located within the _________ lobe
Term
In Stage 3 or 4 deep sleep
Definition
A person whose brain waves contain high-amplitude delta waves is most likely …
Term
5. All of the above are correct
Definition
Enzymes
1. Can break other molecules apart
2. Cane promote the formation of new molecules
3. Are molecules that control chemical reactions
4. Are proteins
5. All of the above are correct
Term
5. All of the above are correct
Definition
A key function of the autonomic nervous system involves control of
1. Smooth muscle
2. Glands
3. Cardiac muscle
4. “vegetative” bodily processes
5. All of the above are correct
Term
antagonist
Definition
Caffeine promotes wakefulness because it is an adenosine agonist/antagonist (circle one)
Term
Medulla oblongata
Definition
The ______ is the most caudal portion of the brain stem
Term
5. B and C are correct
Definition
A general mechanism by which postsynaptic potentials are terminated involves
1. Increased synthesis of the neurotransmitter (NT) molecule
2. Enzymatic degradation of the NT molecule
3. Reuptake of the NT molecule into the axon through a membrane transporter
4. Increased number of postsynaptic receptors
5. B and C are correct
Term
antagonists
Definition
Drugs that block or inhibit postsynaptic receptor effects are termed agonists/antagosits (circle one)