Shared Flashcard Set

Details

Physical Geography Exam 3
EXAM 3
151
Geography
04/17/2010

Additional Geography Flashcards

 


 

Cards

Term
_______ is when water vapor changes directly from the gaseous phase to the solid phase without a transitional liquid phase
Definition
Deposition
Term
______ is when ice changes directly from the solid phase to the gaseous phase without a transitional liquid phase
Definition
Sublimation
Term
Water vapor changing directly to the liquid phase is known as ________
Definition
condensation
Term
Water changing to the gaseous phase is known as ________
Definition
evaporation
Term
Oceans, lakes, and rivers return water to the atmosphere through:
Definition
evaporation
Term
What makes up only about 2% of the world's water supply?
Definition
fresh water
Term
The largest portion of fresh water today is located in
Definition
glaciers
Term
The smallest portion of fresh water today is located in
Definition
streams
Term
The transfer of water from land and ocean to the atmosphere and back again to land and oceans in a never ending cycle is
Definition
the hydrologic cycle
Term
Atmospheric moisture deposited at the Earth's surface as rain, hail, sleet, snow etc.
Definition
precipitation
Term
After precipitation falls to the land surface, surface water can flow off the land, concentrating in streams and rivers. This flow is known as:
Definition
runoff
Term
Subsurface water found under the surface in soil and rock
Definition
groundwater
Term
_________ occurs when plants intercept water and release it back into the atmosphere
Definition
Transpiration
Term
Precipitation that does not evapotranspirate or infiltrate once it hits the ground surface contributes to:
Definition
surface run-off
Term
Subsurface water contained in pore spaces in regolith and bedrock is known as _______
Definition
ground water
Term
A(n) ______ occurs in an area where the ground water is heated by hot rock near the surface which can force the ground water to flow out under pressure
Definition
geyser
Term
Late summertime baseflow in a stream is typically maintained by:
Definition
the seepage of groundwater into the channel
Term
The _______ is another name for a stream's point of origin
Definition
headwaters
Term
The point at which a stream discharges into the ocean is typically referred to as its ______
Definition
mouth
Term
The amount of open pore space in a rock is known as _______
Definition
porosity
Term
What conditions would be most consistent with the characteristics of a good aquifer?
Definition
clean, well-sorted sand
Term
A body of rock or regolith that is water-saturated, porous, and permeable is known as a(n)
Definition
aquifer
Term
A subsurface rock layer that is composed of clay and represents a barrier to flow would be described as a(n):
Definition
aquiclude
Term
The process in which water has condensed in the atmosphere and falls back to Earth is known as _______
Definition
precipitation
Term
In which part of a straight stream channel is the water moving fastest?
Definition
midstream
Term
The replenishment of groundwater is known as ______
Definition
recharge
Term
The water table is at the top of the _________
Definition
saturated zone
Term
A ___________ will typically develop around a well when the rate of pumping exceeds the rate of recharge
Definition
cone of depression
Term
A __________ is a topographic high that separates adjacent drainage basins
Definition
drainage divide
Term
The _________ represents the point at which water no longer infiltrates into the ground due to the saturation of all available pore spaces
Definition
water table
Term
The flat areas adjacent to the edges of a stream channel where agricultural crops are often developed are referred to as:
Definition
flood plains
Term
In arid landscapes, lakes are often internally drained, and as a result of _______, leave behind accumulations of salts
Definition
evaporation
Term
What variables most heavily influence the discharge of a stream?
Definition
slope, depth, and width
Term
The term ______ refers to the amount of water passing a point on the stream's bank during a given unit of time.
Definition
discharge
Term
In today's society, 12 countries are classified as having less than 50% of their total population using ______, which is a problem that must be addressed in the future
Definition
drinkable water
Term
The _______ is below the water table in which all the pore spaces are filled with water
Definition
saturated zone
Term
________ topography is characterized by many sinkholes and disrupted drainage patterns
Definition
Karst
Term
A ______ is a manmade lake resulting from the construction of a dam
Definition
reservoir
Term
A stream's discharge recorded as a function of time is known as a ________
Definition
hydrograph
Term
Landforms generated by water flowing across the surface of the Earth are described as:
Definition
fluvial landforms
Term
Any recently deposited sediment is known as _______
Definition
debris
Term
The steepness of a stream channel can also be called the ______
Definition
gradient
Term
Sediment that is moved along the bottom of a stream is known as ________
Definition
bed load
Term
A _________ stream has a low gradient and a variable range of sediment loads
Definition
braided channel
Term
A _____ is the flat, low-lying area adjacent to a stream channel that receives overbank flow
Definition
flood plain
Term
What mechanism is responsible for generating fluvial landforms?
Definition
stream flow
Term
Characteristic features of _______ include cut banks and point bars.
Definition
meandering streams
Term
A _______ is an excellent example of an erosional landform.
Definition
canyon
Term
In parts of the Great Plains region of North America, badlands form as a result of ____________
Definition
high rates of erosion by overland flow from slops sweeps clay particles into stream channels
Term
When streams are just able to move the amount of sediment that they receive, they are said to be
Definition
graded
Term
What type of sediment loads do streams have the most difficulty moving?
Definition
Bed load
Term
Flood hydrograph curves can be used to calculate _________, which is used to place a flood in a historical context.
Definition
rainfall
Term
___________ are places you would expect to find depositional landforms.
Definition
Floodplains
Term
The formation of ____________ is an important step in the development of badlands.
Definition
stream channels
Term
When sediment is deposited on a hillslope by overland flow processes, it is described as _______
Definition
collovium
Term
When sediment is deposited in a stream bed by the process of flowing water, it is described as _______
Definition
bed load
Term
Potholes form in a stream bed as a result of this process:
Definition
abrasion
Term
A stream will likely begin agrading sediment along its bed when:
Definition
the stream experiences an increase in sediment
Term
A stream's capacity may decrease as a result of these factors?
Definition
less water, less velocity, less sediment
Term
________ is/are the most difficult sediment loads for a stream to move.
Definition
Bed load
Term
Alluvial terraces are ______ that form along the edges of the stream valley bottom and above the modern stream bank.
Definition
steppes
Term
Rapid tectonic uplift along a low-gradient, winding stream can lead to the formation of _________
Definition
entrenched meanders
Term
________ often form along the edges of steep mountain ranges in arid climates that experience infrequent, but intense, rainfall events.
Definition
Alluvial fans
Term
Where are sizeable groundwater reserves typically found in arid landscapes?
Definition
in springs and seeps
Term
William Morris Davis is noted for describing landscape evolution through a well-defined process called:
Definition
geographic cycle
Term
Barrier islands typically feature ________
Definition
lagoons, tidal inlets, coastal plains
Term
An enclosed bay inshore from a barrier island is a(n) _______
Definition
lagoon
Term
Wave activity that occurs between the line of breakers and the shore is called ________
Definition
longshore drift
Term
A shoreline with lots of bedrock in the water and coastal cliffs with terraces is probably ______
Definition
fault coast
Term
Which of the following processes form spits?
Definition
Littoral drift
Term
Beaches are best described as
Definition
thick, wedge shaped deposits of sand, gravel, or cobbles in the zone of breaking waves
Term
Where would you find the most extensive chain of barrier islands?
Definition
Southeastern United States
Term
The Atlantic and Gulf coasts of the United States are mostly ______ coast
Definition
barrier island
Term
Particles of sand, gravel, and sea shells move along the shore as a result _________
Definition
littoral drift
Term
Sand on the beach moves in a zig-zag pattern because swash waves strike the beach:
Definition
at an oblique angle
Term
What types of coastal landforms do not form as aresult of erosion?
Definition
beaches, spits, and bays
Term
What is an erosional remnant of a wave-cut platform?
Definition
chimney
Term
People often swim in the ocean and find themselves far downshore from where they first entered the water. They moved downshore because of:
Definition
long shore currents
Term
A _______ is a ridge or wall of wood and rock installed along retrograding beaches which can help encourage progradation by trapping sand.
Definition
groin
Term
There may be ________ tide(s) per day in a given area due to the effects of the Sun and Moon's gravitational pull.
Definition
two (high and low)
Term
At the base of a wave-cut cliff, one will usually find a _______
Definition
notch
Term
When sedimentary particles move in series of short bounces, the process is termed _______
Definition
saltation
Term
Corals have a symbiotic relationship with _______
Definition
algae
Term
A current within the surf zone that parallels the shoreline is a ______ current
Definition
longshore
Term
A long, narrow, sandy island lying offshore and parallel to a lowland coast is a _______
Definition
barrier island
Term
Tall, offshore spires rising up from the water in front of marine cliffs are typically referred to as _______
Definition
stacks
Term
Wave-washed sediment along a coast forms a _______
Definition
beach
Term
The process by which wave energy pulls material back down the shoreface after the swash is referred to as ________
Definition
backwash
Term
An ocean flooded glacial trough is a(n):
Definition
fjord coast
Term
The color of a glacier often appears to be:
Definition
white with a blue-ish tint
Term
A continental glacier is found in:
Definition
Antarctica and Greenland
Term
Any large and moving natural accumulation of land ice is a(n):
Definition
glacier
Term
Alpine glaciers form by:
Definition
snow piling up and becoming granular ice, or neve; the snow turns to ice and pressure increases, causing the ice to move downhill by the pull of gravity
Term
Alpine glaciers are generally:
Definition
long, narrow mountain glacier occupying the floor of a trough-like valley
Term
A glacier that forms in a mountainous area is called a(n):
Definition
alpine glacier
Term
The grinding and scratching of rock fragments carried by a glacier against rocks or other fragments is called:
Definition
glacial abrasion
Term
The lifting of blocks of rock from the bedrock as the glacier moves over it is glacial:
Definition
plucking
Term
Glaciers move because:
Definition
ice at the bottom is under massive pressure, causing it to lose its rigidity and, under gravity, it slowly spreads out or moves downhill
Term
Glaciers erode by:
Definition
bulldozing
Term
The melting of a glacier results in:
Definition
the construction of various landforms
Term
The outer most or lowest end of a glacier is called its:
Definition
glacial terminus
Term
An appropriate speed for glacial movement generally is:
Definition
a few centimeters per day
Term
A large, thick plate of glacial ice moving outwards in all directions is a(n):
Definition
ice sheet
Term
Glaciers usually result at areas of:
Definition
high elevations and latitudes
Term
Conditions that permit glacial formation include:
Definition
more snow accumulation than snow melt
Term
A deep, steep-sided rock trench formed by erosion from alpine glaciers is a(n):
Definition
glacial trough
Term
The steep, bowl-shaped depression at the head of an alpine glacier is a(n):
Definition
cirque
Term
When two glaciers erode through a ridge making a pass, the landform created is a(n):
Definition
col
Term
A debris ridge along the side wall of an alpine glacier is a(n):
Definition
lateral moraine
Term
A lake that forms in the depression at the head of an alpine glacier is a(n):
Definition
tarn
Term
Narrow, jagged, knife-like ridges formed by glaciers eroding into the ridge from both sides are
Definition
arete
Term
The process of two alpine glaciers joining often produces a(n):
Definition
medial moraine
Term
When an alpine glacier erodes to the sea then melts, the ocean flooded valley is a(n):
Definition
fjord
Term
Long tongues of ice extending off of ice sheets are called
Definition
outlet glaciers
Term
A steep, pyramid shaped mountain formed by glacial erosion on all sides is a(n):
Definition
horn
Term
Landforms often found where tributary glaciers join a main glacier include:
Definition
medial, horns, aretes, and cirques
Term
For several months, a glacier surge may cause a glacier to move:
Definition
at speeds of more than 100m per day
Term
Pieces of ice that break off of a glacier and drift out to open sea are:
Definition
icebergs
Term
Floating ice on the ocean formed by direct freezing of ocean water is called:
Definition
sea ice
Term
When pack ice breaks up, it becomes a(n):
Definition
ice floe
Term
Between ice floes, narrow strips of open water are called:
Definition
leads
Term
In the way glaciers transport materials, they resemble:
Definition
conveyor belts
Term
All varieties and forms of rock debris deposited by glaciers are best called:
Definition
glacial drift
Term
The two types of drift are BEST called:
Definition
stratified drift and till
Term
Sorted and layered materials deposited by a glacier are BEST called:
Definition
stratified drift
Term
A mixture of different sized rock fragments deposited by a glacier is BEST called:
Definition
till
Term
A thin layer of till that blankets the landscape after a glacier melts is called:
Definition
ground moraine
Term
When the amount of melting equals the amount of accumulation, the glacier is said to be:
Definition
stationary
Term
Lakes impounded by glaciers are BEST called:
Definition
marginal lakes
Term
A broad, smooth gently sloping surface formed beyond the front of a glacier is a(n):
Definition
outwash plain
Term
Sea ice that completely covers the sea surface is
Definition
pack ice
Term
Great plates of floating ice on a continental glacier are:
Definition
ice shelf
Term
A snakelike ridge of sand and gravel marking a streambed within a glacier is a(n):
Definition
esker
Term
The ridge of material that collects at the furthest advance of the glacier is the:
Definition
terminal moraine
Term
A conical mound of poorly layered material formed by accumulation of debris in a hole int he glacier and dropped down on to the landscape when the ice melted is a(n):
Definition
glacier terminus
Term
The depression resulting from a piece of trapped ice occupying area during till deposition and then melting is a(n)
Definition
kettle
Term
Lakes that are formed during the Pleistocene in areas that are now drier climates are called:
Definition
pluvial lakes
Term
Wind deposits from glaciated and desert areas are called:
Definition
loess
Term
A single episode or time period in which ice sheets formed, spread, and disappeared is BEST called a(n):
Definition
glaciation
Term
The melting of an ice sheet during a period of warming climate is a(n):
Definition
deglaction
Term
The period with mild climate between glacial advances is called a(n):
Definition
interglaciation
Term
The most recent glaciation in North America is called the:
Definition
Wisconsin glaciaion
Term
The Driftless Area is in:
Definition
Southern Wisconsin
Term
A conical fan-shaped mound of layered material added to landscape adjacent to a glacier and a lake is a(n):
Definition
kame
Term
The Laurentide Ice Sheet is associated with:
Definition
Canada
Term
The rising of land areas in response to the disappearance of the weight of glacial ice is called:
Definition
Post-glacial rebound
Term
Plate tectonics might have caused the most recent ice age by:
Definition
the continents moving to positions which block or reduce the flow of warm water from the equator to the poles, thus allowing ice sheets to form
Term
Volcanism could induce ice ages by:
Definition
creating plumes of dust that go into the stratosphere and block solar radiation, lowering the temperature
Term
The current geologic epoch is the:
Definition
Holocene Epoch
Term
The man BEST noted for graphing insolation changes on Earth through time in an attempt to understand Pleistocene climactic patterns is:
Definition
Milutin Milankovitch
Term
The cross-section of glaciated valleys is:
Definition
U-shaped