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Physical Geography Exam 3
physical geography flashcards
155
Geography
04/16/2010

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Term
deposition
Definition

1. ___________________ is when water vapor changes directly from the gaseous phase to the solid phase without a transitional liquid phase.

Term
sublimation
Definition

 2. ___________________ is when ice changes directly from the solid phase to the gaseous phase without a transitional liquid phase.

Term
condensation
Definition

 3. Water vapor changing directly to the liquid phase is known as __________.

Term
evaporation
Definition

 4. Water changing to the gaseous phase is known as __________.

Term
evaporation
Definition

 5. Oceans, lakes, and rivers return water to the atmosphere through:

Term
glaciers
Definition

 6. What makes up only about 2% of the world's water supply?

Term
glaciers
Definition

 7. The largest portion of fresh water today is located in

Term
streams
Definition

 8. The smallest portion of fresh water today is located in

Term
hydrologic cycle
Definition

 9. The transfer of water from land and ocean to the atmosphere and back again to land and oceans in a never ending cycle is:

Term
precipitation
Definition

 10. Atmospheric moisture deposited at the earth's surface as rain, hail sleet, snow etc.

Term
runoff
Definition

 11. After precipitation falls to the land surface, surface water can flow off the land, concentrating in streams and rivers. This flow is known as:

Term
groundwater
Definition

 12. Subsurface water found under the surface in soil and rock:

Term
transpiration
Definition

 13. ___________ occurs when plants intercept water and release it back into the atmosphere.

Term
surface runoff
Definition

 14. Precipitation that does not evapotranspirate or infiltrate once it hits the ground surface contributes to:

Term
groundwater
Definition

 15. Subsurface water contained in pore spaces in regolith and bedrock is known as __________.

Term
geyser
Definition

 16. A(n) __________ occurs in an area where the ground water is heated by hot rock near the surface which can force the ground water to flow out under pressure.

Term
permeability of rock or soil in the watershed
Definition

 17. Late summertime baseflow in a stream is typically maintained by:

 

Term
source
Definition

 18. The __________ is another name for a stream's point of origin.

Term
mouth
Definition

 19. The point at which a stream discharges into the ocean is typically referred to as its __________.

Term
porosity
Definition

 20. The amount of open pore space in a rock is known as __________.


Term
Hydraulic conductivity/transmissivity: the ability of an aquifer to transmit water (how permeable it is
Specific storage or storativity: a measure of the amount of water of a confined aquifer will give up for a certain change in head
Definition

 21. What conditions would be most consistent with the characteristics of a good aquifer?

Term
aquifer
Definition

 22. A body of rock or regolith that is water-saturated, porous, and permeable is known as a(n) __________.

Term
aquiclude 
Definition

 23. A subsurface rock layer that is composed of clay and represents a barrier to flow would be described as a(n):

Term
precipitation
Definition

 24. The process in which water has condensed in the atmosphere and falls back to Earth is known as __________.

Term
middle and top of stream
Definition

 25. In which part of a straight stream channel is the water moving fastest?

Term
recharge
Definition

 26. The replenishment of groundwater is known as __________.

Term
saturated zone
Definition

 27. The water table is at the top of the __________.

Term
cone of depression
Definition

 28. A ____________ will typically develop around a well when the rate of pumping exceeds the rate of recharge.

Term
drainage divide
Definition

 29. A __________ is a topographic high that separates adjacent drainage basins.

Term
water table
Definition

 30. The ____________ represents the point at which water no longer infiltrates into the ground due to the saturation of all available pore space.

Term
tributary streams
Definition

 31. A system of low discharge streams that join a larger discharge trunk stream as water travels down-gradient are typically referred to as:.

Term
flood plain
Definition

 32. The flat areas adjacent to the edges of a stream channel where agricultural crops are often developed are referred to as:

Term
evaporation
Definition

 33. In arid landscapes, lakes are often internally drained, and as a result of ____________, leave behind accumulations of salts.

Term
hydraulics of channel
velocity of flow
runoff
changes in flow stage
Definition

 34. What variables most heavily influence the discharge of a stream?

Term
discharge
Definition

 35. The term __________ refers to the amount of water passing a point on the stream's bank during a given unit of time.

Term
drinkable water
Definition

 36. In today's society, 12 countries are classified as having less than 50% of their total population using __________, which is a problem that must be addressed in the future.

Term
saturated zone
Definition

 37. The __________ is below the water table in which all the pore spaces are filled with water.

Term
karst
Definition

 38. __________ topography is characterized by many sinkholes and disrupted drainage patterns.

Term

peak flow of a flood depends on the size of the drainage basin feeding the stream. larger drainage basins show a longer delay

Definition

 39. According to the figure below, peak flow of a flood occurs approximately __________ hours after flooding begins.

Term
reservoir
Definition

 40. A __________ is a manmade lake resulting from the construction of a dam.

Term
hydrograph
Definition

 41. A stream's discharge recorded as a function of time is known as a __________.

Term
fluvial landforms
Definition

 42. Landforms generated by water flowing across the surface of the Earth are described as:

Term
debris
Definition

 43. Any recently deposited sediment is known as __________.

Term
gradient
Definition

 44. The steepness of a stream channel can also be called the __________.

Term
bed load
Definition

 45. Sediment that is moved along the bottom of a stream is known as __________.

Term
braided channel
Definition

 46. A __________ stream has a low gradient and a variable range of sediment loads.

Term
flood plain
Definition

 47. A __________ is the flat, low-lying area adjacent to a stream channel that receives overbank flow.

Term
overland flow of running water that lifts up sediment and carries them downstream/soil creep
Definition

 48. What mechanism is responsible for generating fluvial landforms?

Term
meandering streams
Definition

 49. Characteristic features of __________ include cut banks and point bars.

Term
canyon
Definition

 50. A __________ is an excellent example of an erosional landform.

Term

high rates of erosion by overland flow from slopes sweeps clay particles into the stream channels

Definition

 51. In parts of the Great Plains region of North America, badlands form as a result of __________.

Term
braided
Definition

 52. When streams are just able to move the amount of sediment that they receive, they are said to be __________.

Term
bed load
Definition

 53. What type of sediment loads do streams have the most difficulty moving?

Term
aggraded
Definition

 54. A stream is said to be __________ when its flow decreases while the sediment supply increases.

Term
stream flow/discharge over time
Definition

 55. Flood hydrograph curves can be used to calculate __________, which is used to place a flood in a historical context.

Term

-the bottom of the mouth of ravines in the form of fans

-floodplains


Definition

 56. __________ are places you would expect to find depositional landforms:

Term
clay/stream channels
Definition

 57. The formation of __________ is an important step in the development of badlands.

Term
colluvium
Definition

 58. When sediment is deposited on a hillslope by overland flow processes, it is described as __________.

Term
alluvium
Definition

 59. When sediment is deposited in a stream bed by the process of flowing water, it is described as __________.

Term
abrasion
Definition

 60. Potholes form in a stream bed as a result of this process:

Term
the stream experiences an increase in sediment
Definition

 61. A stream will likely begin aggrading sediment along its bed when:

Term
less water/less velocity/decrease in sediment load
Definition

 62. A stream's capacity may decrease as a result of these factors?

 

Term
bed load
Definition

 63. __________is/are the most difficult sediment loads for a stream to move?

Term
the treads of step-like alluvial surfaces
Definition

 64. Alluvial terraces are __________ that form along the edges of the stream valley bottom and above the modern stream bank:

Term
entrenched meanders
Definition

 65. Rapid tectonic uplift along a low-gradient, winding stream can lead to the formation of __________.

Term
alluvial fan
Definition

 66. __________ often form along the edges of steep mountain ranges in arid climates that experience infrequent, but intense, rainfall events:

Term
alluvial fans
Definition

 67. Where are sizeable groundwater reserves typically found in arid landscapes?

Term
geographic cycle
Definition

 68. William Morris Davis is noted for describing landscape evolution through a well-defined process called:

Term
lagoons, tidal inlets, coastal plains
Definition

 69. Barrier islands typically feature __________.

Term
lagoon
Definition

 70. An enclosed bay inshore from a barrier island is a(n) __________.

Term
longshore current
Definition

 71. Wave activity that occurs between the line of breakers and the shore is called __________.

Term
fault coast
Definition

 72. A shoreline with lots of bedrock in the water and coastal cliffs with terraces is probably __________.

Term
littoral drift
Definition

 73. Which of the following processes form spits?

Term
thick, wedge shaped deposit of sand, gravel, or cobbles in the zone of breaking waves
Definition

 74. Beaches are best described as..

Term
Southeastern United States
Definition

 75. Where would you find the most extensive chain of barrier islands?

Term
barrier island
Definition

 76. The Atlantic and Gulf coasts of the United States are mostly __________coast.

Term
littoral drift
Definition

 77. Particles of sand, gravel, and sea shells move along the shore as the result of __________.

Term
at an oblique angle
Definition

 78. Sand on the beach moves in a zig-zag pattern because swash waves strike the beach:

Term
barrier-island coast
Definition

 79. What types of coastal landforms do not form as a result of erosion?

Term
marine terrace
Definition

 80. What is an erosional remnant of a wave-cut platform?

Term
long shore currents
Definition

 81. People often swim in the ocean and find themselves far downshore from where they first entered the water. They moved downshore because of:

Term
groin
Definition

 82. A ___________ is a ridge or wall of wood and rock installed along retrograding beaches which can help encourage progradation by trapping sand.

Term
two tides (high and low)
Definition

 83. There may be __________ tide(s) per day in a given area due to the effects of the Sun and Moon's gravitational pull.

Term
notch/cave
Definition

 84. At the base of a wave-cut cliff, one will usually find a __________.

Term
saltation
Definition

 85. When sedimentary particles move in series of short bounces, the process is termed __________.

Term
algae
Definition

 86. Corals have a symbiotic relationship with ___________.

Term
long shore current
Definition

 87. A current within the surf zone that parallels the shoreline is a ___________ current.

Term
barrier island
Definition

 88. A long, narrow, sandy island lying offshore and parallel to a lowland coast is a___________.

Term
stacks
Definition

 89. Tall, offshore spires rising up from the water in front of marine cliffs are typically referred to as ___________.

Term
beach
Definition

 90. Wave-washed sediment along a coast forms a ____________.

Term
backwash
Definition

 91. The process by which wave energy pulls material back down the shoreface after the swash is referred to as ____________.

Term
fjord coast
Definition

 92. An ocean flooded glacial trough is a(n):

Term
blue
Definition

 93. The color of a glacier often appears to be:

Term
Antarctica and Greenland
Definition

 94. A continental glacier is found in:

Term
glacier
Definition

 95. Any large and moving natural accumulation of land ice is a(n):

Term
snow piles up and becomes granular ice material called firn or névé which starts small and becomes large and move down due to gravity
Definition

 96. Alpine glaciers form by:

Term
long, narrow mountain glaciers occupying the floor of a trough-like valley
Definition

 97. Alpine glaciers are generally:

Term
alpine glacier
Definition

 98. A glacier that forms in a mountainous area is called a(n):

Term
abrasion
Definition

 99. The grinding and scratching of rock fragments carried by a glacier against rocks or other fragments is called:

Term
plucking
Definition

 100. The lifting of blocks of rock from the bedrock as the glacier moves over it is glacial:

Term
ice at the bottom is under massive pressure which causes it to lose its rigidity. then, under gravity, it slowly spreads or moves down hill
Definition

 101. Glaciers move because:

Term
abrasion/plucking/bulldozing
Definition

 102. Glaciers erode by:

Term
landforms
Definition

 103. The melting of a glacier results in:

Term
glacier terminus
Definition

 104. The outer most or lowest end of a glacier is called its:

Term
60m/day
Definition

 105. An appropriate speed for glacial movement generally is:

Term
ice sheet
Definition

 106. A large, thick plate of glacial ice moving outwards in all directions is a(n):

Term
high elevations and high latitudes/more snow accumulation than snow melt
Definition

 107. Glaciers usually result at areas of:

Term
high snow fall and low temperatures/intense pressures form the layers of ice and snow above it/more snow accumulation than snow melt
Definition

 108. Conditions that permit glacial formation include:

Term
glacial trough
Definition

 109. A deep, steep-sided rock trench formed by erosion from alpine glaciers is a(n):

Term
cirque
Definition

 110. The steep, bowl-shaped depression at the head of an alpine glacier is a(n):

Term
...
Definition

 111. When two glaciers erode through a ridge making a pass, the landform created is a(n):

Term
lateral moraine
Definition

 112. A debris ridge along the side wall of an alpine glacier is a(n):

Term
tarn
Definition

 113. A lake that forms in the depression at the head of an alpine glacier is a(n):

Term
arete
Definition

 114. Narrow, jagged, knife-like ridges formed by glaciers eroding into the ridge from both sides are:

Term
medial moraine
Definition

 115. The process of two alpine glaciers joining often produces a(n):

Term
Definition

 116. Where a stream valley flows into a glaciated valley, the landform might be a(n):

Term
fjord
Definition

 117. When an alpine glacier erodes to the sea then melts, the ocean flooded valley is a(n):

Term
...
Definition

 118. Long tongues of ice extending off of ice sheets are called:

Term
horn
Definition

 119. A steep, pyramid shaped mountain formed by glacial erosion on all sides is a(n):

Term
...
Definition

 120. Landforms often found where tributary glaciers join a main glacier include:

Term
at speeds of more than 100m/day
Definition

 121. For several months, a glacier surge may cause a glacier to move:

Term
icebergs
Definition

 122. Pieces of ice that break off of a glacier and drift out to open sea are:

Term
sea ice
Definition

 123. Floating ice of the ocean formed by direct freezing of ocean water is called:

Term
ice floe
Definition

 124. When pack ice breaks up, it becomes a(n):

Term
leads
Definition

 125. Between ice floes, narrow strips of open water are called:

Term
conveyor belts
Definition

 126. In the way glaciers transport materials, they resemble:

Term
glacial drift
Definition

 127. All varieties and forms of rock debris deposited by glaciers are BEST called:

Term
stratified drift and till
Definition

 128. The two types of drift are BEST called:

Term
stratified drift
Definition

 129. Sorted and layered materials deposited by a glacier are BEST called:

Term
till
Definition

 130. A mixture of different sized rock fragments deposited by a glacier is BEST called:

Term
...
Definition

 131. A thin layer of till that blankets the landscape after a glacier melts is called:

Term
...
Definition

 132. When the amount of melting equals the amount of accumulation, the glacier is said to be:

Term
...
Definition

 133. Lakes impounded by glaciers are BEST called:

Term
...
Definition

 134. A broad, smooth gently sloping surface formed beyond the front of a glacier is a(n):

Term
pack ice
Definition

 135. Sea ice that completely covers the sea surface is:

Term
...
Definition

 136. Great plates of floating ice on a continental glacier are:

Term
...
Definition

 137. A snakelike ridge of sand and gravel marking a streambed within a glacier is a(n):

Term
terminal moraine
Definition

 138. The ridge of material that collects at the farthest advance of the glacier is the:

Term
...
Definition

 139. A conical mound of poorly layered material formed by accumulation of debris in a hole in the glacier and dropped down on to the landscape when the ice melted is a(n):

Term
...
Definition

 140. The depression resulting from a piece of trapped ice occupying area during till deposition and then melting is a(n):

Term
...
Definition

 141. Lakes that are formed during the Pleistocene in areas that are now drier climates are called:

Term
...
Definition

 142. Wind deposits from glaciated and desert areas are called:

Term
glaciation
Definition

 143. A single episode or time period in which ice sheets formed, spread, and disappeared is BEST called a(n):

Term
deglaciation
Definition

 144. The melting of an ice sheet during a period of warming climate is a(n):

Term
interglaciation
Definition

 145. The period with mild climate between glacial advances is called a(n):

Term
Wisconsin glaciation
Definition

 146. The most recent glaciation in North America is called the:

Term
Southern Wisconsin
Definition

 147. The Driftless Area is in:

Term
...
Definition

 148. A conical fan-shaped mound of layered material added to the landscape adjacent to a glacier and a lake is a(n):

Term
Canada
Definition

 149. The Laurentide Ice Sheet is associated with:

Term
post-glacial rebound
Definition

 150. The rising of land areas in response to the disappearance of the weight of glacial ice is called:

Term
continents being in positions which block or reduce the flow of warm water from the equator to the poles, thus allowing ice sheets to form
Definition

 151. Plate tectonics might have caused the most recent ice age by:

Term
creating plumes of dust that go into the stratosphere and block solar radiation, lowering the temperature
Definition

 152. Volcanism could induce ice ages by:

Term
Holocene Epoch
Definition

 153. The current geologic epoch is the:

Term
Milutin Milankovitch
Definition

 154. The man BEST noted for graphing insolation changes on Earth through time in an attempt to understand Pleistocene climatic patterns is:

Term
...
Definition

 155. The cross-section of glaciated valleys is: