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Phonology Dr. Ramos Test 2
Test 2
107
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10/31/2008

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Term
As a SLP, it is our responsibility to sort out the array of patterns that are typical of a child's speech community from ?
Definition

Those that are indicative of a speech sound disorder.

Term
What speech patterns of a child's community do we need to consider when evaluating and planning treatment?
Definition

(1) Bilingual (spanish/english)

 

(2) African American English (AAE) aka African American Vernacular English (AAVE)

Term
What are the reasons to consider the speech patterns of a child's community?
Definition

1 Going to have an influence on their English

2 May have chldren who are spanish speakers who are exposed to AAE and influenced by both

3 Must take into account the influence that AAE and spanish might have on the child's phonological patterns.

Term
What does AAE and AAVE stand for?
Definition

African American English

 

African American Vernacular English

Term

What things do we need to be sensitive to when planning intervention with someone with a dialect?

Definition
  1. No treatment to change dialect.  Treat disorders not differences.
  2. Okay to provide services if it's the client's choice.  Don't tell people to change their dialect.
  3. Children can only elect dialect therapy if parent decides.
Term
What are dialects?
Definition
Mutally intelligible forms of a language associated with a particular region, social class, or ethnicity.
Term
Is their a dialect hierarcy?
Definition
No dialects of any language are superior to any other because all thoughts can be expressed using any dialects of any language.
Term

True or False

 

Speakers of a particular dialect do not always use all the features present in their dialects.

Definition
True
Term
Several varieties of English are spoken in the US, some just depend on context and interlocutor (register), others are related to
Definition
Social,ethnic, and geographical characteristics of the speakers (dialect)
Term
Change of speech style (register) depends
Definition
on who you are talking to ex friend, parent, or teacher
Term
Dialects are determined by
Definition
geographical area
Term
A speaker's use of a particular feature depends on
Definition
the context and interlocutors (register)
Term
Registral varieties are dependent on
Definition

the participants, setting, and topic

 

Ex: One would typically use on register when talking to friends about an enjoyable weekend and use another variety when speaking to a police officer about a speeding violation.

Term
The extent to which particular individuals use the available features of their dialect (dialect density) may depend on factors such as
Definition
socioecnomic status and geography
Term
Dialect density
Definition
the extend to which particular individuals use the available features of their dialect
Term
What may also play a role in the likelihood of a specific dialect feature being expressed?
Definition
Geography
Term
Sometimes the differences in dialect density are associated with socioeconomic phenemenon referred to by        as         
Definition
Wofram as social diagnosticity
Term
What are the 5 common dialects of GAE
Definition
  1. African American English
  2. Eastern American English
  3. Southern American English
  4. Appalachian English
  5. Ozark English
Term
What is AAE
Definition
African American English is a variety of American English that is spoken by many, but not all, African Americans
Term
What are Pidgins
Definition
Used by groups of people who wish and need to communicate with each other but lack a common language
Term
Pidgins may develop into a
Definition
Creole
Term
What is Creole
Definition
A pidgin language that has become the mother tounge of a community
Term
Creoles spoken in the US
Definition
  1. Gullah
  2. Hawaiian Creole
  3. Louisiana French
  4. Haitian Creole
  5. Jamican Creole
Term
Origins of Gullah
Definition
spoken on islands off the coasts of South Carolina and Georgia.  Interaction of White British, Africans and Caribbean (similar to Jamican Creole)
Term
Origins of Hawaiian Creole
Definition
19th Cent., Polynesian, European, Asian, and pidgin languages
Term
Origins of Louisiana French Creole
Definition
Native language of West African Slaves brought to souther Louisiana by French colonists, also influenced by Cajun (from Canada)
Term
Origins of Haitian Creole
Definition

Almost 6 million speakers. 

 

3 dialects which include Northern, Central (Port-au-Prince) and Southern

Term
Dialectal variations of AAVE
Definition

Spokent by many but not all African Americans.  Is is systematic complete with rule-governed phonological, semantic, syntatic, and pragmatic systems.

 

Not really closely realated to geographical region

 

Stigmatized dialect

Term
Dialectral Variations of AAVE Cont
Definition
  • Wolfram believes that it evolved from plantation creole and suffered a process of decreolization pg 335 8.2 Table
  • Features are optional and not used by all speakers
Term
AAVE is difficult to diagnois because
Definition
a lot of features are not obligatory
Term
AAVE example of cluster reduction rule variation
Definition
Missed becomes Mis but Mist remains cluster
Term
According to Wolfram, progressive decrease in usage of particular features from
Definition

lower to higher class groups.  f/th is highly stratified but deletion of r is less so

 

Influenced by socioeconomic status

 

NOT a DISORDER

Term
Findings of Seymour & Seymour on development of AAVE Phonology
Definition
  • Seymour & Seymour performance of 4-5 yrs on standard artic tests (f/th in M/I; d/th in M/I, b/v in M/I) occur more frequently in kids.  Not a lot of difference btw SAE and AAVE
Term
Findings of Bleile and Wallach (1992) on AAVE Phonology
Definition

AA Children 3;6 - 5'5 years with speech delay showed more stop errors (particularly velars), fricative and affricate errors in all positions.

 

Studies have not been replicated much

Term
Pearson , Velleman, Bryant & Charcko (2008) study findings on AAVE phonology development
Definition
large study; similar development for AAE and MAE later developemnt of th and eariler development of I Clusters
Term
Diagnostics and Development of AAVE Phonology - What do you need to remember to diagnosis
Definition

1. A combination of characteristics, rather than a single indicatior is the best index of speech delay

 

2. In terms of diagnosing, you should try to eliminate those sounds wehn you are testing someone that speaks AAVE

Term
What does population have to do with Phonological development in ESOL speakers
Definition

Population of all minorities are increasing significantly.  Whenever there's contact between 2 languages, ther is a tendency for each to influence the other.

Term
If you know the phonemic inventory of the native language you can determine
Definition
how it affects/influence the other language
Term
How does being an ESOL speaker influence phonological development
Definition

Influence may be due to absence of phonemes or allophones in a language (aspirated, p,t,k,sh,v,z,and dz don't occur in Spanish.  Also the final Consonants in Spanish are /s,n,r,l,d/ and there are differences in place of articulation (Spanish and English d)

 

Many English sounds are not available in Spanish or exactly the same if available.  You go to the sound that is closest (ts) (dz) and (s) (z)

Term
Because English may be acquired in written form first and English lacks 1to1 correspondence
Definition
Some generalizations are incorrectly applied (ex: s in basin and measure)
Term
Spanish has how many speakers and what are the 6 dialects
Definition

27 million speakers in US (10.5% 2nd common language)

  1. Mexican and Southern US
  2. Central American
  3. Caribbean
  4. Highlandian
  5. Chilean
  6. Southern Paraguayan, Uruguayn and Argentinean
Term

Spanish Phonology

 

For more complete analysis see Goldstein, 1995

Definition

Five primary vowels: 2 frontal /e,i/ and 3 back /u,o,a/

  • 18 phonemes in standard spanish
  • voiceless unaspirated stops /p,t,k/ and voiced stops /b,d,g/
  • voiceless fricatives /f, x(velar fricative) jawla (classroom), s/
  • Affricate /ch/
  • glides /j,w/
  • lateral /l/, tap D and trill /r/ and single /r/fro the flap and double r for the trill
  • Nasals/m,n,n ya?/
Term
Spanish Phonology dialectal differences involve primarily      ,            show more variation, so must identify dialect spoken in doing          
Definition

Consonants not vowels

fricatives and liquids

evaluations

Term
Spanish dialectal differences - how do we differentiate
Definition

By hearing vowels

 

Hypercorrection, over applying a rule.  People are always trying to apply the sound of English and our brain is always trying to come up with rules.  Learn to say ch and over apply it.  share instead of chair.

Term
Describe phonological development in spanish speaking children.
Definition

- Tend to produce CV syllables with oral and nasal stops with front vowels, by age 3 will be using dialectal variety of community.

- At the end of preschool show some difficulty with clusters and some phones (voiced th,X,s, n-ya, ch, r, rr, and l.)

- Velar and palatal fronting, pre-vocalic singleton omission, stopping and assimilation should have disappeared.

- phonetic mastery wil continue into early elementary yrs

- Some vowel errors have been reported in chidren with phonological disorders, especially /o/.

- spirotinzation - dedo (finger), when a stop is in btw to vowels it becomes a fricative. g turns into a velar voiced fricative.

Term
What should we know about Asian Languages
Definition

- SLP should understand: tone, syllable structure, and stress; dialect differences, and phonological development.

- Tone: used to differntiate phonemes

- register tone (2 or 3, level tones: high, mid, low tones) and contour tone (combination of register tones over a syllable).

- Ex: MA

Term
What is the segmental inventory of Asian Languages
Definition

Only sylable final consonant is /n/, no labiodental, interdental, or palatal fricatives in korean, Hawaiian only had 5 vowels and 8 consonants.  However, Hmong (Indonisia) has 53 inital consonants, 14 vowels, and 7 tones.

- Some have small or large phonetic inventory

- Given the differences compared to English, we should expect significant interference

Term
Describe Syllable structure and stress of Asian languages
Definition
Varies greatly in Asian languages ranging from very complex to very simple (balance btw complexity and word length)  No tonic stress in Korean, so they sound monotone speaking English
Term
Describe Phonological Development in Asian Languages
Definition
Cantonese speaking with phonological disorders:  Assimilation, cluster reduction, stopping, fronting, deaspiration, deaffrication, and FCD.  Normal development very similar to English but faster.
Term
How many Native American languages
Definition
There are 200 of them including Eskimo (760,000 people total).  Some contain sounds that do not appear in English (ejectives, made with a glottalic egresive airstream, voiceless stops in combo with the velar fricative; implosives, stops made with ingressive glottalic airstream; and later release of stops and affricates.
Term
Assessment of native American languages
Definition
Because assessment requires a determination of whether the child's system is within the norm for the community, an understanding of the social, cultural, and linguistic characteristic of the community is necessary.  It is inappropriate to assume that all African Americans speak AAVe.  Important to differentiate disorder from difference, not taking dialect into consideration may cause misdiagnosis of phonological disorders.  ex Puerto rican (also Cuban) Spanish, syllable final /s/ is ommitted ex: dos to do
Term
What is ASHA's position on dialacts
Definition

1983 position paper provides guidelines; provide services for disorder but not differences (unless elective service: prepare the desired compentency in AE without jeopardizing the integrity of the indiv.'s first dialect.  (Positive attitude towards dialect; teach how to contrast features of both dialects; practice new dialect in controlled, structured and eventually spontaneous situations.

 

Adding not replacing

Term
What are the three types of impairments
Definition

Type I: atypical regardeless of dialect (ex: ICD)

Type II: cross-dialectal differences (ex: /bezin/ for bathing)

Type III: features are shared across dialects but applied with different frequencies (ex: syllable final cluster reduction, more frequent in AAVE.)

Type 2 & 3 require knowledge of quantitative and qualitative differences btw. dialects.

Term
For intervention in non-english speakers, the guidelines are the slp should:
Definition

- take the client's cultural values and learning styles into account

- Ask for help from colleagues, parents, teachers, or other agencies

- Poses knowledge of dialectal features

- Complete phonological analyses in both L1 and L2 if possible

- Compare client's performance against reliable references collected from both normally developing and phonologically disordered non-english spakeing children

- should internvene typically on the language spoken at home

Term
How to decide whether to treat L1 or L2 or both (little data available)
Definition
Consider length of residency, motivation, age, length of exposure to L1 and L2, families' goals, language of peers
Term
Roles of the Monolingual SLP
Definition

Alternatives include:

- Hiring a bilingual consultant/diagnostician

- Training bilingual aides

- Using interpreters/translatior who

1. must be trained, have good communication skills, understand responsibilities, act professionally, relate to members of cultural group

2. Avoid using family members

Term
What are the goals of assessment
Definition

- Describe phonoogical status - need for intervention

- Determine treatment direction

- Make predictive and prognostic statments

- Monitor change in phonological performance; constantly reassess during treatment

- Identify factors that may be related to presence or maintenance of disability; weaker version of what's causing it (often don't know but we can identify what may be causing in) ; ex: genetic disorder or history of otitis media

Term
What are the two types of evaluation?
Definition

Screening eval - quick way to tell if there is a problem; pass or referral(fail)

 

Full Evaluation

Term
Screening Evaluation for kids
Definition

Usually done at pre-k or k, then agian in grade 3

- may also want to screen clients referred for eval

- Usually takes 5 min or less

 

Informal screening measures:  State name and address, count to ten, name days of the week, Tell about a television show

Term
Informal screening measures for adults
Definition

- For adults may select sentences with frequently misarticulated sounds: "I saw Sally at her seaside house" "Rob ran around the car."

- Read a passage with a representative sample of english speechs sounds like the rainbow or grandfather passage.

- Criterion for referral determined by examiner, usualy refer when in doubt

Term
Formal Screening Measures include
Definition
normative data and cut-off scores
Term

Formal Screening Measures designed solely for screening phonology

Definition

Denver Articulation Screening Exam (DASE)

has 22 pictures produced after model

show picture child repeats them

Term
Formal Screening Measures part of comprehensive phonological assessment
Definition

Diagnostic Screen of the diagnostic evaluation of articulation and phonology (DEAP)

 

22 pictures produced after model

Term
Part of overall speech-language screening
Definition

Fluharty Preschool Speech and language screening; 15 pictures to elicit 30 target sounds; standardized test gives you standard score so easier to compare to other children.

Speach-Ease Screening Inventory (k-1)

Preschool Language Scale; no pictures to go with words; not widely used

Term
The Assessment Battery is
Definition

Collection of samples of varying lengths and contexts

- No procedure provides all information

- Criteria for selection should include indiv. needs, but usually selected by ease of administration and scoring

Term
Things to consider in the assessment battery
Definition

- sample obtained (specific sounds and units as well as mode); will you be able to sample specific sounds; single word, sentences, spontaneous speech is considered.

- Material presentation

- age appropriateness of phonological productions

Term
Things to consider in assessment battery with regards to scoring and analysis should include:
Definition

- phonetic/phonemic repertoire

- Sound productions in variety of contexts ; Goldman-fristoe only tests one sound at a time

- place manner and voicing analysis, phonological process analysis, and age-appropriateness of phonoligical productions; only worry about this when working with older kids or adults

 

Term
What are the methods for recording responses: type of recording influences type of analysis
Definition

1. Least sophisticated 0 or 1; not very informative

2. identify error production as substitiutions, distortions, or omissions

- in theory, when scoring the GF you don't necessarily have to write what the child said. You get a numerical score. You can mark that it was a substitution; you can score just the sounds that are in error.  It is better to use full transcription because there may be other sounds in error in that word.

Term
Why use IPA
Definition

- usually broad transcription, but man need diacritics for distortions.

- Perceptual judgements must be reliable (important to transcribe accurately), when in doubt use interjudge reliablity (usually not ver high.  Intrajudge (over time) reliability is also helpful

Term
What do you need to know about Connected speech sampling
Definition

-Ultimate goal is correct production in spontaneous conversation (important for judging intelligibility).

-Most valid or representative sample of phonological performance, but difficult with highly unitntelligible subjects who may also be reluctant to speak (even in elicited single words), and sample may not be representative of all speech sounds (children do selective avoidance of some sounds)

- Not all speech samples are spontaneous

- Alot of times kids do a lot better in single word production,but when you listen to them talking you do not understand what they say.

Term
What do you need for Elicitation procedures
Definition
Engage in spontaneous conversation.  Reading samples usually provide more correct sound production than spontaneous conversation, and many clients are too young to read.  Some tests provide opportunity for connected speach: sounds in sentences subtest of Goldman-Fristoe (delayed imitation), can also use sentence repetition, or just have client tell a story based on sequences of pictures.
Term
What are the single-word (citation) testing descriptors
Definition

-I,F,M positions (location in words)

- Also pre,post, & intervocalic, releasor or arrestor (location in syllables)

- No chance to evaluate co-articulatory effects, especially singltons vs clusters

- Usually elicited by naming single pictures, most in I and F, some also M.

- A few tests sample vowels (Fisher-Logemann Test of articulation competence, Templin-Darley tests of articulation, and photo articulation test).  To compensate for lack of vowels, just transcibe whole words.  Apraxia of speech children have the most trouble producing vowels

- Most used test: Goldman-Fristoe Test of Articulation

Term
What is Stimulability Testing
Definition

Sampling the clients ability to repeat the correct form of error sounds when provided with "stimulation"

- imitation in isolation, syllables, single words, or connected speech

- Start by using the sound in isolation

-Look at me, hear what I say, and repeat what I say

Term
What test has standardized procedures of stimulability testing
Definition
Goldman Fristoe Test of Articulation
Term
Why do we do stimulability testing
Definition

- Used to determine whether a sound is likely to be acquired without intervention

- Level of phonetic production at which instruction might begin (where you should start intervention)

1.No formal directions as to articulators placement, just look at mouth (or mirror) and listen

2. Targets for intervention. Alot of people start intervention for which the child is stimulabe because it guarantees success which is important at the beginning of therapy

Term
What is Contextual testing
Definition

-Sounds are often easier to produce in some contexts

- Assessing contextual influences is based

Deep test (McDonald 1964)

testing a sound in a variety of contexts (influence of adjacent sounds, mechanical restraints; may be more an effect of perception than production; The Deep test assesses individual sounds in approximately 50 phonetic contexts (2 words said together as a single bisyllable word.)

Term
What is the most comprehensive tool for contextual testing
Definition

- Clinical Probes of Articualtion Consistency (C-PAC) which includes 100 responses fore each sound (pre and post vocalic, clusters, sentences, and story telling)

- Facilitiating contexts can often be identified in spontaneous speech sample

- May also try morphophonemic alterations: final /g/, then check 'doggie' or final /z/ in rose, check roses

- Most current and not as lengthy is CTA (Contextual Test Of Articulation)

Term
What do you need to know about Phonological Processes Analysis
Definition

- Scoring is different from that in citation testing (naming pictures).

- Procedure based on assumption that kid's speech errors are not random, but reporesent systeatic variations from the adult standard.

- 1 phonological pattern describes several speech sound errors: entire sound classes, particualar sound sequeneces, or syllable structure

-

Term
What were the 3 phonological tests that all have computerized scoring mentioned in class?
Definition

1. Hodson Assessment of Phonological Patterns (HAPP-3)

2. Bernthal and Bankson

3. CAPES

Term
List things that you know about the HAPP-3?
Definition

- prevously named Assessment of phonological processes (APP-R)

- Uses objects instead of pictures

- Used on children with highly unintelligible speech

- gives an in depth analysis of the phonological processes and leads to specific phonological program

-very important test

-looks at consonant sequence

Term
How must we do a phonological assessment in young children?
Definition
Evaluation of infant and toddlers must be done in the context of overal communicative behavior: integraly related to cognition, language, and motor skills.  Is the infant progresing normally through the stages of vocalization? Usually start assessment by the time the child has 50 words.
Term
What are related assessment procedures and what is their purpose
Definition
-intended to provide a more comprehensive picture of client: Case history, oral cavity examination, hearing, language, fluency, and voice screenings (may need further referral.)
Term
What is a case history and what is its purpose
Definition

is to identify possible etiological factors; family's or client's perception of the problem; enviornment; medical, developmental, and social information about client.

-Possible questions: babble?first word? words together? describe probelm, intelligible speech to family, strangers, etc, and what sounds are produced.

Term
What is the purpose of the Oral-Mechanism exam
Definition

-administered to describe the structure and function of the oral mechanism for speech purposes

Dentition- bite and missing teeth

Hard/Soft Palate for clefts, submucous clefts, fistulas, and fissures

Size, Symmetry, movement of the lips

Size and movement of the tounge

Symmetry, movement, functional length of the soft palate

Term
What are 3 things you should know about Speech Sound Discrimination Testing
Definition

-started because clinicians thought production problems were a result of perception problems

- Now only done if there's a suspicion of a perceptual problem.  Most test only general ability. Some test whether correct adult production can be discriminated

- Test all the sounds not just the sounds they are having problems with

Term
What is phonological contrast testing
Definition

-Grunwell (1982) child with disordered phonology may lack perception of phonological contrasts, may be due to small phonetic repertoire

- Usually done informally by clinicians

- just ask child to select pictures when provided with minimal pairs (eg sea-tea; she-tea; some-thumb)

Term
What frequencies and decibal level is the Audiological Screening done at
Definition
Typically at 500, 1000, 2000, 4000, hertz at 20 dB.
Term
Data gathered during assessment must be analyzed and interpreted to determine
Definition

1. Is there a phonological problem

2. the nature of the problem

3. is treatment necessary

4. if treatment, then plan of action

Term
Although there is no standard procedure for quantifying intelligibility, it can be measured in
Definition

1. open-set word identification. Have someone read a list a word and have someone unfamiliar with those words and ask them to identify the words they understood

2. closed-set word identification. The person writing down the words know the set of words already, but not the order in which they are said

3. rating scales (number a long a continuum of 5-9 points). The poorer the rating more likely a problem.

Term
What is the typical inteligiblity of 2,3,and 4 year olds
Definition

2 yrs - 50% of time by strangers

3 yrs - 70%

4 yrs - 93%

 

-so a 3-year old who is difficult to understand is a probable candidate for intervention.

Term
How do you determine severity?
Definition

-usually necessary as a criterion for admission

-Developed the percent of consonant correct (PCC) method

-Classifies severity as

mild-moderate (65-85%)

moderate-severe (50-65%)

severe (<50%)

-Caculated by dividing how many consonants are attempted with how many are porduced correct and multiplying by 100

Term
What are the 2 points of stimulability to remember?
Definition

1. No definitive prognostic statement can be made, should be used as a general guide only

2. If there are lots of sounds in error and they are stimulable, some errors may need intervention

Term
What 3 items you need to know about Error patterns
Definition

1. distinctive feature analysis

2. phonological process analysis

3. Sound preferences

Term
What are the theoretical considerations regarding phonological processes
Definition

- description vs explanation: some thing they explain phonological errors as evidence of a cognitive-linguistic deficit

- We have no way of knowing what's happening in the child's mind, so phonological processes only describe (not explain) the patterns

Term
How do we determine and use developmental appropriateness?
Definition

- normative data from tests

- used to determine a need for intervention

Term
According to Stoel-Gammon & Dunn what processes are typically deleted by age 3
Definition

Unstressed syllable deletion

Final consonant deletion

Consonant assimilation

Reduplication

Velar Fronting

Prevocalic Voicing

Term
According to Stoel-Gammon and Dunn what processes persist after age 3
Definition

Cluster reduction

epenthesis

gliding

vocalization

stopping (stopping of interdentals)

depalatalization

final devoicing

Term
What process is not normal/natural at any age
Definition
Lateralization of /s/
Term
What 5 things effect Target Behavior Selection
Definition

1. Stimulability

2. Frequency of occurance

3. Developmental appropriateness

4. Contextual Analysis

5. Phonological Process Analysis

Term
Why does stimulability affect Target Behavior Selection
Definition

stimulable sounds more easily corrected in intervention, achieve sucess early.

 

-Intervention initiated at the most complex linguistic level the client can imitate

Term
Why does frequency of occurrence effect Target Behavior Selection
Definition

The greater the frequency of a sound the greater its effect on intelligibility, so treatment will have the greatest effect (table 5.5 p 239)

 

- More frequent a sound is in a language the more it will interfere with intelligibility.  These sounds are high priority

Term
How does developmental appropriateness effect target behavior selection
Definition
May be appropriate but other considerations may override it if the goal of intervention is 'funchtionality'
Term
How does contextual analysis effect target behavior selection?
Definition

May identify facilitating contexts.  Generalization may be difficult, but it's always worth a try

Term

How does Phonological Process Analysis effect Target Behavior Selection

Definition

Processes usually not present in normaly developing children should be targeted for intervention.

- There is no development order for disappearance of processes. Hodson suggests focusing on teaching appropriate phonological patterns (not eliminating inappropriate ones)

- Priority should be given to early developing patterns, posterior-anterior contrasts and s-clusters

- Not natural processes, do not occur in normally developing children

Term
What is working with the phonological least knowledge
Definition

Starting with the hardest or least knowledge first.

We tend to work with what children require first.  Assume it's the easiest to teach.  Instead of working what is easire they start with very complex sound.  Dr. Geirut researchers are saying start with more difficult.  If you can teach sk, they will have also learned s and k individually.

-Talks about phonological levels

Term
What are the general guidelines to target sounds
Definition

1. that are stimulable

2. produced corectly in particualar contextual enviornments

3. have a high frequency of occurence in language

4. sounds that are likley to diminish phonological error patterns

5. sounds in patterns that are inappropriate or unusual

6. sounds selected on the basis of a productive phonological knowledge continuum

Term
What do you need to consider in addition to general guidelines to target sounds
Definition

Dialectal differences, social-vocational expectations (public speaking)

- if a person feels handicapped in any way, then it warrents treatment

- Don't work on sounds that may be in error because of dialect (unless asked by client)

- work on what is most important to the client.