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Personality - Horney
definitions relating to Horney's theory of personality
36
Psychology
10/06/2010

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Term
Anatomy is destiny
Definition
Freud believed that one's gender determines, to a large extent, one's personality characteristics
Term
arbitrary rightness
Definition
when issues arise with no clear solution, and a person arbitrarily chooses one solution to end a debate
Term
basic anxiety
Definition
psychological state that exists when basic hostility is repressed. It is the general feeling that everything and everyone in the world is potentially dangerous and that one is helpless relative to those dangers
Term
basic evil
Definition
anything parents do that undermines a child's security/safety
Term
basic hostility
Definition
feeling generated in a child if needs for safety and satisfaction are not consistently and lovingly attended to by the parents
Term
blind spots
Definition
denying or ignoring certain aspects of experiences because they are not in accordance with one's idealized self-image
Term
compartmentalization
Definition
dividing one's life into various components with different rules applying to the different components
Term
compliant type person
Definition
person who uses moving toward people as the major means of reducing basic anxiety
Term
cynicism
Definition
strategy in which a person believes in nothing and is therefore immune to the disappointment that comes from being committed to something that is shown to be false.
Term
detached type person
Definition
person who uses moving away from people as the major means of reducing basic anxiety
Term
elusiveness
Definition
opposite to arbitrary rightness. This person is highly indecisive. without commitments to anything this person is seldom, if ever, wrong
Term
excessive self-control
Definition
guarding against anxiety by denying oneself emotional involvement in anything
Term
externalization
Definition
belief that the causes of one's major experiences are external to oneself
Term
hostile type person
Definition
person who uses moving against people as the major means of reducing basic anxiety
Term
idealized self
Definition
fictitious view of oneself, with its lists of "shoulds" that displaces the real self in the neurotic personality
Term
moving against people
Definition
adjustment to basic anxiety that uses the tendency to exploit other people and to gain power over them. Horney referred to these people as the hostile type
Term
moving away from people
Definition
adjustment to basic anxiety that uses the need to be self-sufficient. Horney referred to these people as the detached type
Term
moving toward people
Definition
adjustment to basic anxiety that uses the need to be wanted, loved, and protected by other people. Horney referred to these people as the compliant type.
Term
neurotic trends (needs)
Definition
ten strategies for minimizing basic anxiety
Term
rationalization
Definition
giving "good" but erroneous reasons to excuse conduct that would otherwise be anxiety provoking (used the same way Freud did)
Term
real self
Definition
self that is healthy and conducive to positive growth. view of this self can be distorted by basic evil and cause neurotics to view it as negative, but it remains a source of potential health and positive growth
Term
safety
Definition
child's need for security and freedom from fear that Horney believed must be satisfied before normal psychological development could occur
Term
satisfaction
Definition
meeting such physiological needs as those for water, food, and sleep required for a child's biological survival
Term
self-analysis
Definition
process of self-help that Horney believed people could apply to themselves to solve life's problems and to minimize conflict
Term
tyranny of the should
Definition
when one's idealized self is substituted for the real self, one's behavior is governed by several unrealistic "shoulds"
Term
List the 10 neurotic trends
Definition
1. need for affection and approval, 2. need for a dominant partner, 3. need to live one's life within narrow limits, 4. need for power, 5. need to exploit others, 6. need for social recognition and prestige, 7. need for personal admiration, 8. need for ambition and personal achievement, 9. need for self-sufficiency and independence, and 10. need for perfection and unassailability
Term
need for affection and approval
Definition
Neurotic Trend: a person emphasizing this need lives to be loved and admired by others. "center of gravity in others and not in self, with their wishes and opinions the only thing that counts; dread of self-assertion; dread of hostility on the part of others or of hostile feelings within self"
Term
need for a dominant partner
Definition
Neurotic Trend: a person emphasizing this need must be affiliated with someone who will protect him or her from all danger and fulfill all of his or her needs. "Over-evaluation of 'love' because 'love' is supposed to solve all problems; dread of desertion; dread of being alone"
Term
need to live one's life within narrow limits
Definition
Neurotic Trend: a person emphasizing this need is very conservative, avoiding defeat by attempting very little. "Necessity to be undemanding and contented with little, and to restrict ambitions and wishes for material things; necessity to remain inconspicuous and to take second place; belittling of existing faculties and potentialities, with modesty the supreme value."
Term
need for power
Definition
Neurotic Trend: a person emphasizing this need glorifies strength and despises weakness. "Domination over others craved for its own sake; essential disrespect for others, their individuality, their dignity, their feelings, and only concern being their subordination; indiscriminate adoration of strength and contempt for weakness; dread of uncontrollable situations; dread of helplessness"
Term
need to exploit others
Definition
Neurotic Trend: a person emphasizing this need dreads being taken advantage of by others but thinks nothing of taking advantage of them. "Others evaluated primarily according to whether or not they can be exploited or made use of; pride in exploitative skill; dread of being exploited and thus being 'stupid'"
Term
need for social recognition and prestige
Definition
Neurotic Trend: a person emphasizing this need lives to be recognized - for example, to have their name in the newspaper. The highest goal is to gain prestige. "All things - inanimate objects, money, persons, one's own qualities, activities, and feelings - evaluated only according to their prestige value"
Term
need for personal admiration
Definition
Neurotic Need: a person emphasizing this need lives to be flattered and complimented. This person wants others to see him or her in accordance with the idealized image that he or she has of themselves. "Need to be admired not for what one possesses or presents in the public eye but for the imagined self; self-evaluation dependent on living up to this image and on admiration of it by others"
Term
need for ambition and personal achievement
Definition
Neurotic Trend: a person emphasizing this need has an intense interest in becoming famous, rich, or important, regardless of the costs. "Need to surpass others not through what one presents or is but through one's activities; self-evaluation dependent on being the very best - lover, sportsman, writer, worker - particularly in one's own mind, recognition by others being vital too, however, and its absence resented"
Term
need for self-sufficiency and independence
Definition
Neurotic Trend: a person emphasizing this need goes to great extremes to avoid being obligated to anyone and does not want to be tied down to anything or anyone. Enslavement is to be avoided at all costs. "Necessity never to need anybody, or to yield to any influence, or to be tied down to anything, any closeness involving danger of enslavement; distance and separateness the only source of security; dread of needing others, of ties, of closeness, of love"
Term
need for perfection and unassailability
Definition
Neurotic Trend: a person emphasizing this need attempts to be flawless because of hypersensitivity to criticism. "Relentless driving for perfection; feelings of superiority over others because of being perfect; dread of finding flaws within self or of making mistakes; dread of criticism or reproaches"