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Perio - Gingiva
n/a
82
Dentistry
01/10/2014

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Term
Clinical practice is the application of the basic sciences in alleviating the needs of patients by means of ___, ___, ___, and___. (4 steps)
Definition
Evaluation, Diagnosis, Treatment planning, Treatment
Term
(Definition): The tissues surrounding and supporting the tooth
Definition
Periodontium
Term
The Periodontium is made up of the ____ and the _____
Definition
Gingival unit, Attachment apparatus
Term
The gingival unit includes the ____ and the ____
Definition
gingiva, alveolar mucosa
Term
Which 3 tissues make up the attachment apparatus?
Definition
Alveolar bone proper, periodontal ligament, cementum
Term
Which tissue of the attachment apparatus has "dual citizenship," in that it is also one of the tissues of the tooth?
Definition
cementum
Term
Gingiva v. Mucosa: Location
Definition
Gingiva - Keratinized gingiva, Hard palate, Dorsum tongue
Mucosa - Alveolar mucosa, Buccal labial mucosa, Sublingual, Soft palate
Term
Gingiva v. Mucosa: Color
Definition
Gingiva - Coral pink; melanotic in some
Mucosa - Bright red; melanotic in some
Term
Gingiva v. Mucosa: Thickness
Definition
Gingiva - thick
Mucosa - thin
Term
Gingiva v. Mucosa: Rigidity
Definition
Gingiva - Tightly bound down
Mucosa - Very movable and elastic
Term
Gingiva v. Mucosa: Types of fibers
Definition
Gingiva - Mostly collagenous; elastic fibers only around BV
Mucosa - Many elastic, some collagenous
Term
Gingiva v. Mucosa: Keratinized?
Definition
Gingiva - Keratinized
Mucosa - Non-keratinized
Term
Gingiva v. Mucosa: Rete Pegs?
Definition
Gingiva - Present
Mucosa - Not present
Term
Gingiva v. Mucosa: Surface texture
Definition
Gingiva - May be stippled
Mucosa - Smooth
Term
(Definition): Extensions of epithelial tissue DOWN into connective tissue. Contribute to stippled surface of gingiva
Definition
Rete Pegs
Term
(Definition): Extensions of epithelial tissue UP into connective tissue. Contribute to stippled surface of gingiva
Definition
Rete ridges
Term
(Definition): The space between the lips/cheeks and the teeth
Definition
Vestibule
Term
Term for the area in which the alveolar mucosa turns to form the buccal and labial mucosa lining the cheeks and lips.
Definition
Vestibular fornix (arch or fold) aka mucobuccal fold
Term
junction that separates attached gingiva from alveolar mucosa
Definition
mucogingival junction
Term
type of gingiva that lines periodontal sulcus
Definition
free gingiva
Term
coronal edge of the (marginal) gingiva
Definition
gingival margin
Term
Describe a healthy gingival margin (shape, adhesion to tooth, etc.)
Definition
Thin or knife shaped, snugly adapted to the cervix of the tooth, scalloped in a mesiodistal profile
Term
Portion of the gingiva at the neck of the tooth that is not directly attached to the tooth - retractable by air blast or instrument pull
Definition
free gingiva
Term
Free gingiva is separated from the tooth by the ______
Definition
gingival sulcus
Term
pathological term for enlarged/diseased gingival sulcus
Definition
periodontal pocket
Term
Outer surface of free gingiva is __________(keratinized/non-keratinized) while the inner surface (lining the sulcus) is ________ (keratinized/non-keratinized)
Definition
outer surface - keratinized
inner surface - non-keratinized
Term
The gingival sulcus is bounded by ____ and ____ on the sides and _____ at the base.
Definition
Tooth surface on one side and free or marginal gingiva on the other. Junctional epithelium lines the base (bottom) and aids gingival fibers in attaching the gingiva to the tooth
Term
The gingival sulcus is unique/important clinically because…?
Definition
It is a sheltered niche for the colonization and growth of bacteria.
The non-keratinized epithelium is more vulnerable to penetration of bacterial toxins
It is the first point of attack and first line of defense in the battle between bacteria and the periodontium's defense.
Term
What is the defense mechanism in the sulcus?
Definition
Vessels and cells in the sulcus wall and a counter flow of gingival crevicular fluid from the sulcus to try to push bacteria out.
Term
A shallow linear depression or groove on the surface that divides free gingiva from the more apical attached gingiva. Roughly corresponds to the bottom of the gingival sulcus
Definition
free gingival groove
Term
Free gingival groove is present in about ___% of people
Definition
50%
Term
Keratinized epithelium from the gingival margin to the mucogingival junction
Definition
keratinized gingiva
Term
(Definition): All of the keratinized gingiva apical to the bottom of the sulcus
Definition
attached gingiva
Term
Attached gingiva is anchored to the enamel &/or cementum by ___________ and more apically to cementum and bone by ___________ of the gingiva connective tissue
Definition
junctional epithelium; tough collagen fibers
Term
Formula for the width of the attached gingiva
Definition
Width of Keratinized Gingiva minus Depth of sulcus
KG - SD
Term
Increased amounts of keratinized gingiva and attached gingiva are associated with a decreased likelihood of ____?
Definition
recession
Term
Wavy region that separates the attached gingiva from the more apical alveolar mucosa
Definition
mucogingival junction
Term
The mucogingival junction is present only on the facial aspects of the (maxilla/mandible)? Why?
Definition
maxilla; The palate has no alveolar mucosa and lining mucosa and thus no mucogingival junction
Term
Part of the lining mucosa that extends apically from the mucogingival junction to cover or line the part of the alveolar process apically to the gingiva
Definition
Alveolar mucosa
Term
from apical aspects of the alveolar process, alveolar mucosal-type tissue extends on and reflects as lining mucosa to line which 5 oral structures?
Definition
lips, cheeks, floor of mouth, soft palate, and ventral surface of tongue
Term
Portion of gingiva filling the space between the proximal surfaces of adjacent teeth
Definition
Interdental papilla
Term
What determines shape of interdental papilla? Will interdental papilla be present in the area of a diastema?
Definition
- configuration of the proximal surfaces and the location and sizes of the tooth-to-tooth contact areas determine sizes and shapes of papillae.
- Where there is a space between adjacent teeth (diastema), the papilla may be absent
Term
Papilla of anterior teeth is _____ shaped
Definition
pyramidal
Term
Papilla of posterior teeth (due to wider and more apical contacts) have a ____, or valley-like depression between its buccal and lingual aspects
Definition
col
Term
vertical groove found in some interdental areas
Definition
interdental groove
Term
interdental groove may extend from the gingival papilla area into the ______
Definition
alveolar mucosa
Term
interdental grooves are more likely found in the ____ teeth (anterior/posterior)
Definition
anterior
Term
On facial aspects, the alveolar mucosa at the vestibular fornix reflects as the buccal and labial ____ _____
Definition
lining mucosa
Term
On lingual aspects the alveolar mucosa continues as the ____ ____ of the floor of the mouth and the sublingual surface
Definition
lining mucosa
Term
The hard palate has no ____ (tissue type) or _____ (junction) because the palatal keratinized attached gingiva merges imperceptibly with the keratinized masticatory mucosa of the hard palate
Definition
alveolar mucosa; mucogingival junction
Term
rolls of thickened palatal masticatory mucosa on. Mostly found of anterior portion of palate.
Definition
rugae
Term
"width" of attached gingiva is measured in which dimension?
Definition
apico-coronal
Term
"thickness" of attached gingiva is measured in which dimension?
Definition
buccolingual
Term
determination of gingival thickness clinically is done by the "_____" technique (Insertion of a small measuring probe perpendicular to the gingiva measuring cross-sectionally
Definition
sounding
Term
describe healthy gingiva by color, contour, consistency, size, texture, and bleeding
Definition
Color - coral, salmon, or light pink. Can be variable with dark skinned persons having some pigmentation
Size - gingiva fits into interdental space and is not overly thick. Increase in size means abnormality until proven otherwise
Contour - knife edged margins and wavy (scalloped) profiles
Consistency - Firm, resilient
Texture - May or may not be stippled
Bleeding - obviously bad
Term
Tissue of gingiva that covers surfaces and lines cavities. Protects underlying structures
Definition
epithelium
Term
Tissue underneath epithelium. Connects and supports. contains vessels and nerves
Definition
Connective tissues (lamina propria)
Term
2 layers of lamina propria
Definition
Papillary layer; reticular layer
Term
epithelium and CT meet at the
Definition
basal lamina
Term
layer of lamina propria that is closest to the basal lamina and has "instructive signals" for forming the overlying epithelium
Definition
papillary layer
Term
lamina propria cells and fibers are basically those of ______ ____
Definition
unmineralized connective tissue
Term
90% of cells in gingival epithelium are _____
Definition
keratinocytes
Term
Cells that function for tactile sensations
Definition
Merkel Cells
Term
T Cell antigen cells
Definition
Langerhan's cells
Term
Melanin producing cells
Definition
melanocytes
Term
outer surface of attached gingiva and free gingiva are unkeratinized or keratinized?
Definition
keratinized
Term
junctional epithelium keratinized or unkeratinized?
Definition
nonkeratinized
Term
sulcular epithelium - keratinized or nonkeratinized?
Definition
nonkeratinized
Term
lining mucosa, including Alveolar mucosa - keratinized or nonkeratinized?
Definition
nonkeratinized
Term
tough, water resistant protein that is a cytoskeletal protein and component of callus
Definition
keratin
Term
Keratin layer provides a protective covering by…?
Definition
1. desquamating and dislodging associated bacteria
2. by being impervious to many substances
Term
is keratinized or nonkeratinized epithelium more resistant to bacteria?
Definition
keratinized
Term
collagen fibers of the lamina propria arranged in well defined groups or bundles of fibers. These bundles are collectively called the ___ ___ ___
Definition
gingival fiber apparatus
Term
3 types of gingival fibers?
Definition
Dento-gingival - extend from root surface into gingival tissue
Transseptal- from tooth surface to tooth surface
circular- surround teeth
Term
what attaches junctional epithelium to enamel and/or cementum?
Definition
hemidesmosomes
Term
how long is the junctional epithelium?
Definition
1/4- 1/2 mm
Term
the junctional epithelium is unique in that it functions near the only place where the covering of the body's epithelium is penetrated by a part of the skeleton (tooth)
(No answer)
Definition
Term
which epithelium is the permeable portion of the gingival sulcus?
Definition
junctional epithelium
Term
which MAIN 3 arteries supply blood to gingiva and the attachment apparatus?
Definition
Supraperiosteal artery
Artery of PDL
Interdental artery
- also possibly a bit from Pulpal artery
Term
Connective tissue covering the external surface of bone
Definition
periosteum
Term
Which artery is the Main blood supply of the gingiva?
Definition
supraperiosteal artery
Term
Gingival nerves, arteries, and veins are all in the
Definition
lamina propria