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Pathogenicity Test 4
Pathogenicity
82
Microbiology
03/18/2010

Additional Microbiology Flashcards

 


 

Cards

Term
For genetic capability were are three places there are genes?
Definition

1. on chromosomes

2. on plasmids

3. on prophage

Term
With genes on the plasmids what adds virluence genes to plasmids?
Definition
Transposons
Term
What are transponsans?
Definition
Term
What are some nutrient based factors?
Definition
Term
What are some environmental factors?
Definition
Term
What is infection?
Definition
Growth and multiplication of parasite on or within host
Term
What is infection dependent upon?
Definition
Complementary contact
Term
What is a pathogen?
Definition
Causes infectious disease
Term
What are the two types of pathogen?
Definition

1. Primary (frank) pathogen

2. opportunistic pathogen

Term
What is pathogenicity?
Definition
The ability to cause disease
Term
What is virulence?
Definition
Degree of intensity of pathogenicity
Term
What are the three characteristics of the pathogen that determin virulence?
Definition

1. Infectivity

2. Invasiveness

3. Pathogenic potential

Term
What is infectivity?
Definition
The ability to establish point of infection
Term
What is invasiveness?
Definition
The ability to spread
Term
What is the pathogen potential?
Definition
The degree to which the pathogen can cause damage to the host.
Term
What are the two types of pathogenic potential?
Definition

1. Toxigenicity

2. Immunopathology

Term
What is toxigenicity?
Definition
The abiltiy to produce toxins
Term

What are two toxins produced in toxigenicity?

 

Definition

1. Clostridium tetani

2. Corneybacteria diptheria

Term
What is immunopathology?
Definition
The ability to trigger exaggerated immune responses
Term
What would be an example of immunopathology?
Definition
Influenza
Term
What are primary (frank) pathogens?
Definition
Term
What is opporunistic pathogens?
Definition
Term
What are the two ways to measure virulence?
Definition

1. Leathal dose 50 (LD50)

2. Infectious dose 50 (ID 50)

Term
What is Leathal dose (LD50)?
Definition
The number of pathogens (mivrobes) that will kill 50% of an experimental group of hosts.
Term
What is an Infectious dose 50 (ID50)?
Definition
The number of pathogens that will infect 50 % of an experimental group of hosts
Term
What are the two ways pathogens transfer in the environment?
Definition

1. Direct contact

2. Indirect contact

Term
What are 3 examples of direct contact?
Definition
coughing, sneezing, and body contact
Term
What are five examples of indirect contact?
Definition

1. soil

2. water

3. food

4. vectors

5. fomites

Term
What are vectors?
Definition
Transmission by living organisms
Term
What are fomites?
Definition
Transmission by inanimate objects
Term
What are the three portals of entry?
Definition

1. body surfaces

2. parenteral

3. vectors

Term
Where is the body surface a portal of entry?
Definition
Cracks in skin, hair follicles, sweat glands, mucous membranes (major portal)
Term
What are parenteral portals of entry?
Definition
Needle sticks, blood transfusions, and organ transplants
Term
What is a vector for a portal of entry?
Definition
It is a organism that transmits pathogens from one host to another
Term
Name three Adherence Factors?
Definition

1. Capsule/Slime Layer

2. Adherence Proteins

3. Fimbriae (Pili)

Term
What are two examples of the capsule/slime layer?
Definition

1. Pathogenic E. coli attaches to brush border

2. Strep. mutans binds to tooth surface

Term
What are adherence proteins?
Definition
They bind to specific cell surface protein
Term
How is Strep. pyogene and example of adherence protein?
Definition
The M protein binds to epithelial cells.
Term
What are two examples of Fimbriae (pilli) as adherence factors?
Definition

1. They are used in Salmonella: epithelia intestinal cells

2. They are used in Pathogenic E. Coli: Epithelial cells in intestines

Term
What are the two types of colonization and growth
Definition

Availability of nutrients and Availability of trace elements

 


Term
What gives optimal growth conditions?
Definition
Availability of nutrients
Term
An example of a growth factor that has rapid growth on the placta is the ______?
Definition
Brucella abortus (uses erythritol)
Term
Fe is an example of what type of colonization and growth?
Definition
Availabiltity of trace elements
Term
What are the two "ferrins" that scavage Fe.
Definition
Transferrin and lactoferrin
Term
What does transferrin use to remove Fe from the transferrin?
Definition
Specific Siderophores
Term

What are the three types of infection of growth and multiplication of bacterial pathogen?

 

Definition

1. Localized

2. Systematic

3. Toxemia

Term
Which infection begins as a local infection in the Kidneys, Lungs, and intestines.  Also has septicemia.
Definition
Systematic
Term
What is septicemia?
Definition
Presence of bacteria or their toxins in the blood
Term
What type of infection has presence of toxins in the blood?
Definition
Toxemia
Term
What is the ability of the pathogen to grow in host in vast numbers that inhibits host cell f(x)?
Definition
Invasiveness
Term
An example of invasiveness would be _________ _________ which has a capsule that allows adherence and prevents phagocytosis. (overgrowth impairs cell f(x))
Definition
Strep. pneumoniae
Term
What is the ability to cause disease by means of preformed toxin that inhibits host cell f(x) or kills host cells.
Definition
Toxicity
Term
What would be an example of Toxicity: ____________ ___________: has slow growth at wound site (toxin is the killer)
Definition
Clostridium tetani
Term
What are two types of virulence factors?
Definition

1. Enzymes that destroy host cell components or manipulate the immun response

2. Pathogencitiy Islands

Term
What are the 6 enzymes that destroy host cell components or manipulate the immune response?
Definition

1. Collagenase

2. Coagulase

3. Streptokinase

4. Lipases

5. Proteases

6. Nucleases

 

Term
What are Collagenase:
Definition

 destroys intercellular cement

(Breakdown collagen that forms the framework of connective tissues; allows the pathogen to spread)

Term
What are Coagulases?
Definition

Generates fibrin clots

(Coagulaes (clots) the fibrinogen in plasma. The clot protects the pathogen from phagocytosis and isolates it from other host defense.)

Term
What is Streptokinase?
Definition

Breaks down fibrin clots

(A protein that binds to plasminogen and activates the production of plasmin, thus digesting fibrin clots, this allows the pathogen to move from the clotted area)

Term
What are Lipases?
Definition

 Breakdown membranes

 

Term
What are proteases?
Definition
Break down antibodies
Term
What are Nucleases?
Definition
DNase
Term
What are large segments of DNA that carry a number of virulence genes.
Definition
Pathogenicity Islands
Term
For the regulation of Bacterial virulence factors what can control the expression of virulence genes?
Definition
Environmental factors
Term
What is the pathogen whose gene for diptheria toxin is regulated by iron?
Definition
Corynebacterium diptheriae
Term
What is the pathogen that expression of virulence genes increases at elevated body temperatures (takes advantage of fever)?
Definition
Bordetella pertussis
Term
What is the pathogen whose gene for cholera toxin is regulated by pH and temperature?
Definition
Vibrio cholerae
Term
What is the definition of toxin?
Definition
A specific substance that damages a host
Term
What are dieases that result from entry of a specific preformed toxin into a host.
Definition
Intoxications
Term
What are two examples of Intoxications?
Definition

1. Staph aureus enterotoxin

2. Aflatoxins from aspergillus in pet food

Term
What is the condition caused by tozins in the blood of the host?
Definition
Toxemia
Term
What are the toxins that interfere with protein syntesis?
Definition
AB toxin
Term
What is an example of Ab toxin?
Definition
Corynebacterium diptheria
Term
What are the toxins that target nerve tissues?
Definition
Neurotoxins
Term
What are two examples of Neurotoxins?
Definition

1. Botulinum toxin

2. Tetani toxin

Term
What is the toxin that blocks the release of acetylcholine?
Definition
Botulinum toxin
Term
What is the toxin that binds inhibitory interneruons?
Definition
Tetani toxin
Term
What are the toxins that target the intestinal mucosa?
Definition
Enterotoxins
Term
What is an example is enterotoxin?
Definition
E. coli O157.H7
Term
What are the toxins who target gerneal tissues?
Definition
Cytotoxins
Term
What are the two examples of the cytotoxins that are hemolysins?
Definition

1. Staph. aureus

2. Strep. Pyogenes called streptolysin O

Term
The endotoxin, LPS. are usually capable of producing what general systematic effects?
Definition

1. Fever

2. Shock

3. Blood coagulation

4. Weakness

5. Diarrhea

6. Inflammation

7. Intestinal hemorrhage

8. Fibrinolysis

Term
What are the two factors of the endotoxin LPS?
Definition

1. Massive release of chemokinese

2. Massive non-specific B cell response