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Party Politics in America Test 2: Ch 10
Chapter 10: Choosing the Presidential Nominees
70
Political Studies
04/03/2011

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Term
Formally, each of the two major parties nominates its candidate for president at the _______________
Definition
Party’s national convention. It is held every 4 years
Term
In reality, the convention delegates simply ratify the choices that have been made months before the convention,
Definition
by voters in their states’ delegate-selection events
Term
___________ passed the first presidential primary law in 1901
Definition
Florida
Term
The use of primaries soon faded...
Definition
Advocates may have lost faith in the effectiveness of primaries; opponents probably worked hard to get rid of them and restore party leaders’ control over nominations
Term
Steps to how a Presidential Candidate is chosen
Definition
Step 1: Assess their chances
Step 2: Entering the Race
Step 3: Primaries and Caucuses
Step 4: National Nominating Conventions
Step 5: General Election
Term
Even in many states that held primaries, voters could take party in only a “beauty pageant” to express their preferences about presidential candidates;
Definition
the delegates who went to the national convention and actually chose the candidates were selected elsewhere.
Term
1968
Definition
The Democratic Party took control of the delegate selection process away from the state parties and gave new life to the movement toward presidential primaries
Term
1969 Democratic Convention
Definition
The convention nominated the party leaders’ choice, VP Hubert Humphrey, as the Democratic Presidential Candidate, even though he hadn’t run in a single state primary.
Term
McGovern-Fraser Commission
Definition
recommended major changes to increase the influence of insurgent Democrats in the 1972 nominating process.
Term
In trying to comply with the complicated new rules recommended by McGovern-Fraser,
Definition
many states stopped using caucus-convention system and re-instituted primaries
Term
the principle was established that the national party, not the states or the state parties,
Definition
makes the rules for nominating presidential candidates
Term
20 years after 1968... First they used national party leverage to make the process more open and more representative of women, blacks, and young people.
Definition
Then, the Democrats “fine-tuned” the rules by requiring proportional representation (PR), so that the voter support for candidates was more faithfully represented in delegate counts.
Term
Many state legislatures responded to the new Democratic requirements by changing state election laws to....
Definition
require primary elections in both parties
Term
Although primaries are more common,
Definition
states can change their method of selection from one presidential election to the next
Term
precinct caucuses
Definition
In these meetings, party identifiers are invited to gather in local schools or other public areas, often for an hour or more, to debate which candidates for president will best represent their party and the issues they believe in.
Term
The selection of delegates in the caucus states attracted little media coverage until 1976,
Definition
when Jimmy Carter made himself a serious presidential candidate by campaigning intensively in Iowa and winning an unexpectedly large number of delegates.
Term
_________ caucuses joined the _____________________ primary as the first and most significant delegate-selection events
Definition
Iowa, New Hampshire
Term
Because the turnout at caucuses is much smaller and consists mainly of party activists,
Definition
winning caucuses requires early and extensive organizing to appeal to these likely caucus-goers.
Term
Media ads are better suited to reach the larger turnout of voters in a ___________
Definition
primary
Term
Invisible primary, or money primary
Definition
The proces of early fund-raising and jockeying for media attention and public support has become so important to the eventual result that it has come to be called the invisible primary.
Term
Those regarded as serious candidates near the end of the “invisible primary” must decide how much effort and money to...
Definition
put into each of the early primary and caucus states and which of their issue positions and personal qualities to emphasize.
Term
A candidate who expects to do especially well among independents will need to...
Definition
concentrate resources in states with open primaries, in which independents and other partisans can vote
Term
Democratic party since 1988
Definition
candidates who win at least 15% of the vote in primaries and caucuses get approximately the same share of the delegates as their received of the popular vote.
Term
The Republicans use some form of a winner-take-all system in most states:
Definition
the candidate who gets the most votes in a state primary or caucus wins all or most of the state’s delegates
Term
Victories early in the nominating process create momentum...
Definition
They attract more media coverage for the candidate and, in turn, more name recognition among voters
Term
front-loading
Definition
many states have moved their primaries forward in the election calendar to benefit from the attention attracted by these early contests, as well as the campaign spending that comes with it.
Term
Super Tuesday
Definition
refers to the Tuesday in February or March of a presidential election year when the greatest number of states hold primary elections to select delegates to national conventions at which each party's presidential candidates are officially nominated.
Term
Hillary Clinton ran a relatively traditional race as the “establishment” candidate for the nomination in 2008...
Definition
Her strategy was based on the assumption that if she started early and established the belief that she was the presumptive nominee, then the contest would be over within a month of the Iowa caucuses
Term
Because caucuses attract much smaller turnouts than primaries do,
Definition
mobilizing a few thousand people in a caucus state can have as much impact as getting several hundred thousand voters to the polls in a primary state.
Term
Iowa is a largely white state. By winning Iowa, Obama showed that he could do well in a state with...
Definition
only a tiny black population and few major cities
Term
In the more traditional Democratic states, with their larger trove of delegates,
Definition
the Obama campaign’s aim was to hold down the size of Clinton’s victories. Proportional Representation in the Democratic Party!
Term
The close primary race between Clinton and Obama brought out big Democratic turnouts,
Definition
which gave the Democrats expanded voter lists to use in the general election campaign.
Term
State and local parties want a nominee who will..
Definition
bring voters to the polls to support the party’s candidates for state and local ofices
Term
Party leaders also generally prefer early agreement on a presidential candidate
Definition
A hotly contested race carries the risk of increasing conflict within local and state parties, which might weaken them in the general election.
Term
Party leaders have a harder time protecting the party’s interests in a nominating process that is dominated by...
Definition
the candidates and their supporters
Term
Superdelegates
Definition
all Democratic governors and members of Congress, current and former presidents and vice presidents, and all members of the DNC
Term
Superdelegates were meant...
Definition
to be a large, uncommitted bloc now totaling almost 20% of all delegates, with the party’s interests in mind
Term
The presidential candidates in 2008, as in past nominations, owed their selection largely to their own core supporters,
Definition
rather than to the party organization
Term
The move to primaries has greatly increased...
Definition
citizen participation in the process of nominating a president
Term
Primary/caucus turnout tends to be higher in states with a better-educated citizenry and a tradition of two-party competition-
Definition
the same states where there is higher turnout in the general election
Term
Compared with voters in the general election,
Definition
primary voters seem to pay less attention to the campaign and to have less knowledge about the candidates
Term
Primary voters often find only minor issue differences among their party’s candidates and just want to pick the candidates with the best chance...
Definition
of winning the presidency
Term
Earlier caucus-convention system tended to...
Definition
favor mainstream politicians, those who were more acceptable to the party’s leaders, including some candidates who had earned their nomination through party loyalty rather than though their personal appeal or their skills at governing.
Term
Primaries are more likely to give an advantage to candidates who...
Definition
names are well known to the public and those who have the support of issue activists and people with intensely held views.
Term
Compared with the earlier, party-dominated nominating process,
Definition
the current system gives presidential candidates a better chance to demonstrate their public support, raise more campaign money, and test their stamina and ability to cope with pressure.
Term
Main purpose of the convention-
Definition
to select the party’s presidential nominee- has already been accomplished in those primaries and caucuses
Term
Roots of the Convention:
Definition
In 1832, state political leaders wanted to keep Henry Clay from being nominated as VP; they preferred Martin Van Buren. So these leaders pushed for a national convention to make the nominations. Ever since 1856, the 2 major parties have held national conventions every 4 years
Term
In addition to nominating candidates, the convention’s main job is to approve the party’s ________
Definition
platform
Term
platform
Definition
the party’s statement of party positions on a wide range of issues. The finished platform is then presented to the convention for its approval.
Term
Platforms usually reflect...
Definition
the candidate’s views, or the bargains that the candidate has been willing to make to win support or preserve party harmony.
Term
Many years ago, when a party’s nominee was actually chosen at the national convention,
Definition
several rounds of balloting were usually needed to agree on a nominee.
Term
In recent years, one candidate has won a majority of delegate voters well before the convention starts,
Definition
so only a single round of balloting has been necessary
Term
The day after the Presidential nominee is chosen,
Definition
delegates vote again to select the VP candidate. This is ceremonial because presidential nominees choose their own running mates and conventions ratify their choice.
Term
Presidential nominees announced the VP choice before the convention begins,
Definition
often as a means to gain more voter support
Term
Convention bounce
Definition
a boost in public support after the convention and before the General Election
Term
The ____________ __________ determine how many delegates each state can send to the convention
Definition
National parties
Term
The Republicans allocate delegates more equally among the states, whereas
Definition
the Democrats weigh more heavily the size of the state’s population and its record of support for Democratic candidates.
Term
Since the 1930s,
Definition
Democratic delegations have had more labor union members and black Americans, and Republican conventions have drawn more Protestants and business entrepreneurs
Term
The Democrats used affirmative action plans after 1968 to...
Definition
increase the presence of women, blacks, and for a brief time, young people. Since 1980, the DNC has required that half of the delegates be women
Term
The great majority of delegates are...
Definition
long-time party activists
Term
Convention delegates are more __________ in their views are more aware of issues than most other voters are
Definition
extreme
Term
The real effect of the reforms has been to...
Definition
link the selection of delegates more closely to candidate preference
Term
Amateur vs. Professional Delegates
Definition
Amateurs are more attracted by issues, more insistent on internal party democracy, and less willing to compromise.
Professionals are more likely to have a long-term commitment to the party and to be more willing to compromise on issues in order to win the general election.
Term
Unit-rule (Democrats eliminated this in 1968)
Definition
which a majority of a state delegation could throw all the delegation’s votes to one candidate. Delegates in both parties now come to the conventions already committed to a candidate
Term
For party leaders, _______________ offered a priceless opportunity to reach voters and to launch the presidential campaign with maximum impact.
Definition
television coverage
Term
Once the nomination reforms took effect, and the choice of the parties’ presidential candidates was settled before the convention started,
Definition
conventions lost most of their suspense and deliberative character and independence.
Term
Because candidates must mobilize groups of activists and voters in order to win primaries and caucuses and because many of these groups are concerned with particular policies,
Definition
the nomination reforms have made issues all the more important in convention politics.
Term
National conventions
Definition
provide an occasion for rediscovering common interests and for celebrating the party’s heros. They motivate state and local party candidates, energize party workers, and launch presidential campaigns. They give new party candidates a few moments in the media spotlight.
Term
The low turnouts in many primaries and caucuses may increase the influence of well-organized groups on the ideological extreme: the right win of the Republican Party and the left wing of the Democrats
Definition
Term
Among Democratic delegates in 2008, only 21% claimed to be “very satisfied” with the party’s nominating system as a whole.
Definition