Shared Flashcard Set

Details

Organizational Behavior
Test #2 - motivation/emotions/moods
85
Business
09/27/2007

Additional Business Flashcards

 


 

Cards

Term
Motivation is best defined as a process that _____.
a. results in a level of effort
b. intensifies an individual’s efforts
c. accounts for an individual’s efforts toward attaining a goal
d. meets an individual’s needs
e. stabilizes over time
Definition
c. accounts for an individual’s efforts toward attaining a goal
Term
What are the three key elements of motivation?
a. reactance, congruence and circumstance
b. interest, activity and reward
c. awareness, effort and outcome
d. stimulation, progress and achievement
e. intensity, direction and persistence
Definition
e. intensity, direction and persistence
Term
Danielle wants to become a surgeon, not only because achieving this goal will give her self-respect and autonomy, but also because she wants a job with high status and recognition from others. Which of Maslow’s needs is Danielle trying to fill?
a. self-a
Definition
c. esteem
Term
Maslow’s hierarchy of needs arranges those needs in which of the following orders?
a. physiological, esteem, safety, social, and self-actualization
b. physiological, safety, social, esteem, and self-actualization
c. safety, physiological, esteem, so
Definition
b. physiological, safety, social, esteem, and self-actualization
Term
According to Maslow, when does a need stop motivating?
a. when it is substantially satisfied
b. it never stops motivating
c. when one returns to a lower level need
d. when one chooses to move to a higher level need
e. only when it is completely
Definition
a. when it is substantially satisfied
Term
What is the major problem with Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs in organizational behavior?
a. it is difficult to apply to the workplace
b. it is vague as to how a workplace can satisfy higher-order needs
c. its terminology tends to alienate those to whom i
Definition
e. the research does not validate the theory
Term
Which of the following theories was proposed by Douglas McGregor?
a. Hierarchy of Needs Theory
b. Theories X and Y
c. Two-Factor Theory
d. ERG Theory
e. Expectancy Theory
Definition
b. Theories X and Y
Term
Which of the following is a behavior that would most likely be exhibited by a Theory X manager?
a. She lets her employees choose their own goals.
b. She trusts her employees to use discretion in most matters.
c. She strictly controls the details of
Definition
c. She strictly controls the details of any project she is managing.
Term
Two managers are talking about how they get the best out of their employees:
Jo: “I tell my employees that times are tough and there is no way of telling when the guys in head office might try to downsize. Let me tell you, a bit of fear keeps them focu
Definition
d. Jo holds Theory X assumptions, Chris holds Theory Y assumptions
Term
What other name is the two-factor theory known by?
a. Theories X and Y
b. Motivator-Hygiene Theory
c. Hierarchy of Needs Theory
d. Satisfaction/Dissatisfaction Theory
e. Minimal Justification Theory
Definition
b. Motivator-Hygiene Theory
Term
Which of the following is not true about the two-factor theory?
a. Working conditions are characterized as hygiene factors.
b. Intrinsic factors are motivators.
c. A job becomes satisfying when the dissatisfying characteristics are removed.
d. Res
Definition
c. A job becomes satisfying when the dissatisfying characteristics are removed.
Term
What continuum in the two-factor theory is influenced by the hygiene factors?
a. no dissatisfaction to dissatisfaction.
b. no dissatisfaction to satisfaction.
c. satisfaction to no satisfaction.
d. satisfaction to dissatisfaction.
e. dissatisfac
Definition
a. no dissatisfaction to dissatisfaction.
Term
McClelland’s theory of needs concentrates on which three needs?
a. achievement, realization and acceptance
b. achievement, power and affiliation
c. power, acceptance and confirmation
d. affiliation, control and realization
e. control, status and
Definition
b. achievement, power and affiliation
Term
Which of Maslow’s needs best approximates McClelland’s need for achievement?
a. esteem
b. self-actualization
c. social
d. physiological
e. gratification
Definition
b. self-actualization
Term
The issue of whether or not intrinsic and extrinsic motivators are independent is considered in which theory?
a. expectancy
b. reinforcement
c. equity
d. cognitive evaluation
e. two-factor
Definition
d. cognitive evaluation
Term
According to the goal-setting theory of motivation, highest performance is reached when goals are set to which level?
a. impossible but inspirational
b. difficult but attainable
c. slightly beyond a person’s actual potential
d. “do your best”
Definition
b. difficult but attainable
Term
MBO emphasizes translating overall organizational objectives into _____.
a. capital gains
b. specific objectives for organizational units and individual members
c. operational units
d. terms that the individual worker can understand and accept
e
Definition
b. specific objectives for organizational units and individual members
Term
What sort of goals does Management By Objectives (MBO) emphasize?
a. tangible, verifiable and measurable
b. achievable, controllable and profitable
c. inspirational, teachable and creative
d. challenging, emotional and constructive
e. hierarchical, a
Definition
a. tangible, verifiable and measurable
Term
What is the term used for an individual’s personal evaluation of their ability to perform?
a. expectancy
b. autonomy
c. self-efficacy
d. task identity
e. auto-discrimination
Definition
c. self-efficacy
Term
In equity theory, individuals assess the _____.
a. cost-benefit ratio
b. efficiency-effectiveness trade-off
c. quantity-quality trade-off
d. outcome-input ratio
e. pareto efficient outcome
Definition
d. outcome-input ratio
Term
When individuals compare their outcomes and inputs against those of others, the framework is
_____.
a. equity
b. expectancy
c. JCM
d. SIC
e. JAV
Definition
a. equity
Term
You graduated from college two years ago and began working at Hampstead Electronics. You have received good performance evaluations and a raise. You just found out that a recent college graduate with no experience has been hired at a higher salary than yo
Definition
a. equity
Term
You graduated from college two years ago and began working at Hampstead Electronics. You have received good performance evaluations and a raise. You just found out that a recent college graduate with no experience has been hired at a higher salary than yo
Definition
c. other-inside
Term
You graduated from college two years ago and began working at Hampstead Electronics. You have received good performance evaluations and a raise. You just found out that a recent college graduate with no experience has been hired at a higher salary than yo
Definition
d. you will not work so hard
Term
Procedural justice relates most strongly to
a. job satisfaction.
b. employee trust.
c. citizenship behaviors.
d. job performance.
e. all of the above.
Definition
e. all of the above.
Term
Which of the following is one of the relationships proposed in expectancy theory?
a. reward-satisfaction relationship
b. satisfaction-performance relationship
c. rewards-personal goals relationship
d. effort-satisfaction relationship
e. performa
Definition
c. rewards-personal goals relationship
Term
Which of the following concepts is inconsistent with the expectancy theory of motivation?
a. Self-interest is pursued.
b. Performance and rewards are related.
c. Attractive rewards will motivate.
d. One’s inputs and outputs are compared to another
Definition
d. One’s inputs and outputs are compared to another’s.
Term
Most current motivation theories have a strong emphasis on individualism and goal accomplishment. Why is this?
a. they were developed in the United States by Americans
b. these are the traits needed to successfully motivate people
c. researchers te
Definition
a. they were developed in the United States by Americans
Term
Which of the following desires would most likely be common to a worker in China, Australia, Kenya, Canada and Kuwait?
a. interesting work
b. higher pay
c. more flexibility
d. telecommuting options
e. advancement
Definition
a. interesting work
Term
According to the JCM, the owner-operator of a garage show performs electrical repairs, rebuilds engines, does body work, and interacts with customers would score
a. high on task identity
b. high on skill variety
c. low on autonomy
d. low on task signi
Definition
b. high on skill variety
Term
According to JCM theory, which of the following results in the maximum internal rewards for an individual?
a. when they are given tangible rewards
b. when they learn that they personally have performed well on a task that they care about
c. when th
Definition
b. when they learn that they personally have performed well on a task that they care about
Term
According to the JCM, which of the following statements is NOT true?
a. The evidence supports the general framework of the theory.
b. Managers can bypass the complex MPS formula and better derive motivating potential by simply adding the characteristics
Definition
e. Jobs that are high on motivating potential must be high on both autonomy and task variety.
Term
How is the motivational potential score (MPS) calculated?
a. skill variety × task identity × task significance × autonomy × feedback
b. 3(skill variety + task identity + task significance) + autonomy + feedback
c. (skill variety + task identity + ta
Definition
c. (skill variety + task identity + task significance)/3 × autonomy × feedback
Term
What is the main strength of job rotation?
a. It eliminates boredom on the job.
b. It increases motivation.
c. It increases productivity.
d. It decreases training costs
e. It decreases supervisor workload.
Definition
b. It increases motivation.
Term
A company redesigns the jobs of the workers in accounts receivables, so that instead of simply billing customers, they will also be responsible for following up on non-payment, liaising between customers and the departments billing them, and other related
Definition
b. job enlargement
Term
Which one of the following is not one of the guidelines for enriching jobs?
a. form job redesign units
b. establish client relationships
c. open feedback channels
d. combine tasks
e. expand jobs vertically
Definition
a. form job redesign units
Term
Beyond redesigning the nature of the work itself, and involving employees in decisions, another approach to making the work environment more motivating is to alter work arrangements. Which of the following is designed to give an employee greater control o
Definition
a. flextime
Term
The work arrangement that allows two or more individuals to split a traditional 40-hour-a week job is
a. flextime
b. core hours
c. telecommuting
d. job sharing
e. employee involvement
Definition
d. job sharing
Term
The Japanese are increasingly considering job sharing
a. to increase flexibility
b. to avoid layoffs
c. to add more part-time positions
d. to accommodate working mothers
e. none of the above
Definition
b. to avoid layoffs
Term
Potential benefits of telecommuting include which of the following?
a. a larger labor pool from which to select
b. reduced office-space costs
c. less turnover
d. improved morale
e. all of the above
Definition
e. all of the above
Term
The underlying logic of employee involvement is that by involving workers and increasing their autonomy and control over their work lives, employees will become all of the following except more _____.
a. motivated
b. competent
c. productive
d. satisfi
Definition
b. competent
Term
Participative management and representative participation are forms of
a. job rotation
b. job enrichment
c. employee involvement
d. employee recognition
e. employee incentives
Definition
c. employee involvement
Term
What is participative management?
a. A method of management where subordinates make corporate decisions and management helps carry out those decisions
b. A method of management where upper management participates in the organization’s strategic planni
Definition
c. A method of management where subordinates share a degree of decision-making power with their immediate superiors
Term
Research studies conducted on the participation-performance relationship show that the use of participation _____.
a. enhances job satisfaction
b. increases motivation
c. has only a modest influence on employee productivity
d. greatly influences e
Definition
c. has only a modest influence on employee productivity
Term
Initially setting pay levels requires balancing
a. the company’s budget
b. supply and demand of labor
c. internal and external equity
d. job worth and demand
e. job worth and internal equity
Definition
c. internal and external equity
Term
Merit-based pay plans are based on
a. union negotiations
b. performance appraisal ratings
c. company profits
d. company productivity improvements
e. company stock performance
Definition
b. performance appraisal ratings
Term
Which of the following is not one of the most widely used variable-pay programs?
a. piece-rate wages
b. merit-based pay
c. flat pay
d. employee stock ownership
e. profit sharing plans
Definition
c. flat pay
Term
How is gainsharing an improvement on profit sharing?
a. It focuses on productivity gains rather than profits.
b. It rewards specific behaviors
c. It does not distribute profits, only gains in profits.
d. It rewards behaviors that are less influenc
Definition
d. It rewards behaviors that are less influenced by external factors.
Term
What sort of plan is a company-established benefit plan where employees acquire stock as part of their benefits?
a. MBO program
b. job redesign
c. ESOP
d. quality circle
e. piece-rate
Definition
c. ESOP
Term
A certain corporation ties its compensation for front-line operations managers to developing their skills in leadership, workforce development, and functional excellence. What is this sort of compensation scheme called?
a. job-based pay.
b. training-bas
Definition
d. skill-based pay
Term
Amalgamated Industries manufactures parts for furniture. Management has decided to change the method of payment to a skill-based plan. You are interested in increasing your current compensation and see this as an opportunity. Which of the following may b
Definition
d. Your employer may pay for skills that they aren’t using.
Term
Your workforce is diverse in terms of their needs for benefits. Jim is married with two children and his wife is at home full time. Janet is single and supports her widowed mother. Bob is married and his wife has a high-paying job. You decide that you wan
Definition
d. modular
Term
Why are flexible benefit plans consistent with expectancy theory’s thesis?
a. they allow organizations to minimize costs associated with benefits
b. they provides a suite of tangible rewards that can be offered as motivation
c. organizational reward
Definition
c. organizational rewards should be linked to each individual employee’s goals
Term
Employee recognition programs are consistent with which of the following?
a. goal setting theory
b. cognitive evaluation theory
c. reinforcement theory
d. expectancy theory
e. Marxist theory
Definition
c. reinforcement theory
Term
Researchers report that which of the following was considered by employees to be the most powerful workplace motivator?
a. recognition
b. money
c. opportunity for advancement
d. autonomy
e. vacation time
Definition
a. recognition
Term
To motivate employees in organizations, managers should do all of the following EXCEPT
a. recognize individual differences
b. use goals and feedback
c. make decisions for employees including setting goals for them
d. link rewards to performance
e. ch
Definition
c. make decisions for employees including setting goals for them
Term
Which of the following statements is NOT true concerning emotions?
a. Until recently, the field of OB has given the topic of emotions little or no attention.
b. The prevailing thought in business until recently was to put a damper on emotions.
c. Manag
Definition
e. The myth of rationality can explain why emotions have been given little or no attention in the field of OB.
Term
What is the umbrella concept that encompasses both emotions and moods?
a. affect
b. emotions
c. moods
d. emotional labor
e. cognition
Definition
a. affect
Term
Erin works on a software help desk. After being yelled at by a customer about the state of her company’s software, she becomes angry, and has to take a short break to calm down. What makes her anger an emotion, rather than a mood?
a. it is a simple, unam
Definition
c. it has a contextual stimulus
Term
When the team he supports wins the World Cup, Detleb feels a surge of joy, which turns into a feeling of satisfaction that lasts for days. What is one of the reasons that the feeling of satisfaction might be categorized as a mood and not an emotion?
a.
Definition
c. it has a lengthy duration
Term
Which of the following are the categories into which emotions are usually grouped?
a. simple and complex
b. positive and complex
c. complex and negative
d. simple and negative
e. positive and negative
Definition
e. positive and negative
Term
Which of the following statements is generally accepted by experts?
a. moods cause emotions
b. emotions cause moods
c. moods and emotions are both caused by introspection
d. moods and emotions are the same phenomena
e. moods and emotions can mutually
Definition
e. moods and emotions can mutually influence one another
Term
In what part of the brain do all emotions originate?
a. neocortex
b. cortex
c. stem
d. hypothalamus
e. limbic system
Definition
e. limbic system
Term
Differences in which of the following may result in different people giving different responses to identical emotion-provoking stimuli?
a. intensity
b. consensus
c. consistency
d. pervasiveness
e. personality
Definition
e. personality
Term
Whether an employee can successfully meet the emotional demands of a given job depends on
a. what emotions need to be displayed
b. the intensity of the emotions
c. the frequency of the emotions
d. how long the employee needs to make the effort
e. all
Definition
e. all of the above
Term
What does the case of Phineas Gage serve to illustrate?
a. effective management
b. why women are ineffective managers
c. intelligent design
d. the effectiveness of the matrix structure
e. the importance of emotions to rational theory
Definition
e. the importance of emotions to rational theory
Term
Evolutionary psychology has which of the following views on negative emotions such as anger and jealousy?
a. they are a biological imperative that cannot be controlled
b. they are only negative in the way they make us feel, however they are a great he
Definition
e. they serve a useful adaptive purpose, even if it is not readily apparent
Term
Research suggests which of the following relationships exists between weather and mood?
a. a moderately positive
b. a moderately negative
c. a strong positive
d. a strong negative
e. weather tends to have little effect on mood
Definition
e. weather tends to have little effect on mood
Term
Gerardo believes that every time he picks up a penny he is blessed with good fortune, since the last time he picked up a penny he had a lottery win, and the time before that he got a big bonus at work. Gerardo’s perception is likely a product of a(n) ____
Definition
e. illusory correlation
Term
Research shows that for most people, the effect of social activities is which of the following?.
a. decreases positive mood
b. increases positive mood
c. increases negative mood
d. decreases negative mood
e. it will have little effect on mood
Definition
b. increases positive mood
Term
Jo has a job interview. Which of the following will probably not have an effect on the way she reacts emotionally to the interview?
a. How much sleep Jo had the night before.
b. How much exercise Jo regularly gets.
c. Jo’s age.
d. Jo’s gender.
e
Definition
e. The weather on the day of the interview
Term
Which of the following statements is not true about the difference between men and women when it comes to emotional reactions?
a. Women show greater emotional expression.
b. Men express emotions more intensely.
c. Women are better at reading nonverb
Definition
b. Men express emotions more intensely.
Term
Clare is an upper level manager at a large American company. When her personal assistant is not prompt in performing his duties, she shows her impatience in open displays of anger. Why is such a display unusual in the workplace?
a. reprimanding an under
Definition
b. displays of negative emotions are usually unacceptable in most American organizations
Term
_____ emotions are learned; they are not innate.
a. Felt
b. Displayed
c. Conditional
d. Exposed
e. Suppressed
Definition
b. Displayed
Term
Julie smiles and acts politely towards a customer at her checkout, even though she really deeply dislikes this customer. What is the disparity between the emotion Julie displays and the emotions she is actually experiencing?
a. felt emotions
b. emotio
Definition
b. emotional dissonance
Term
What do you call the practice of modifying one’s true inner feelings based on display rules?
a. surface acting
b. deep acting
c. emotional subterfuge
d. affective camouflage
e. repressed affection
Definition
b. deep acting
Term
Which of the following is not a key component of emotional intelligence?
a. self-awareness
b. self-management
c. commitment
d. empathy
e. social skills
Definition
c. commitment
Term
As the CEO of a corporation, you have learned to understand the role of emotional intelligence in the workplace. You have worked hard to develop emotional intelligence in your vice-presidents, but believe that some are still struggling. Emmet, the V.P. o
Definition
b. self-motivation
Term
Which of the following is not an argument that supports the existence of emotional intelligence?
a. EI is practically indistinguishable from the established concepts of intelligence and personality
b. People with high EI have a leg up in the business
Definition
a. EI is practically indistinguishable from the established concepts of intelligence and personality
Term
Which of the following is NOT true?
a. People with damage to the prefrontal cortex scored significantly lower on EI tests.
b. EI is neurologically based.
c. People who suffer neurological damage make poorer decisions,
d. People with damage to the pref
Definition
d. People with damage to the prefrontal cortex will score lower on standard measures of intelligence then people without the same brain damage.
Term
Studies show that people who are depressed tend to make poorer decisions than those with a more positive outlook. Why is this thought to be the case?
a. they tend to choose an outcome that will confirm their negative worldview
b. they search for the
Definition
b. they search for the perfect solution when rarely is any solution perfect
Term
People who are in good moods
a. are more creative.
b. produce more ideas.
c. produce ideas others think are original.
d. identify more creative options.
e. all of the above
Definition
e. all of the above
Term
Negotiators who do poorly
a. experience positive emotions.
b. develop positive perceptions of their counterparts.
c. are less willing to share information.
d. are more willing to be cooperative in future negotiations.
e. None of the above.
Definition
c. are less willing to share information.
Term
Which of the following statements is NOT true?
a. People emotionally take their work home with them.
b. A negative mood resulting from a bad day at work carries over to the next day.
c. People who have a good day at work tend to be in better mood at ho
Definition
b. A negative mood resulting from a bad day at work carries over to the next day.
Term
Which is NOT cited as a factor that influences emotions and moods?
a. time of day
b. stressful events
c. social activities
d. season of the year
e. sleep patterns
Definition
d. season of the year