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Old Exam--Final Part 1
EXSS113
55
Anatomy
05/03/2010

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Term
Which receptors adapt most slowly?
Definition
Nociceptors
Term
About 90% of all parasympathetic preganglionic fibers are carried in the _____ nerve
Definition
Vagus
Term
All of the following events occur when a nerve signal reaches a synaptic know. The one that occurs first is______.
Definition
Calcium ions enter the synaptic knob
Term
Unlike local potentials, action potentials are____.
Definition
Self-propogating
Term
In an autopsy, a pathologist found an area of brain tissue with very high concentrations of microglia. That part of the brain most likely
Definition
Had been damaged been damaged by infection, trauma, or stroke
Term
Nerve fibers that stimulate the skeletal muscles of your foot have their somas in
Definition
The ventral horn of the spinal cord
Term
Reflex arc
Definition
Know it
Term
The ___ helps to coordinate and smooth skeletal movements
Definition
Cerebellum
Term
The oligodendrocyte is found in the _____ and functions to ______
Definition
Central nervous system; forms the myelin sheath
Term
Almost all sensory signals pass through the ____ on the way to the cerebrum
Definition
Thalamus
Term
White rami carry_____ neurons, while gray rami carry____ neurons
Definition
myelinated preganglionic; unmyelinated postganglionic
Term
Ganglia consist of ______
Definition
cell bodies of neurons in the PNS
Term
Which one of the below is not controlled by the autonomic nervous system?
Definition
Skeletal muscle
Term
Potentially damaging stimuli that result in pain are selectively detected by
Definition
Nociceptors
Term
_______nerve fibers are those that innervate the skin and skeletal muscles
Definition
somatic
Term
The part of the cerebral cortex concerned with hearing is in
Definition
the temporal lobe
Term
Propranolol, on inderol, blocks b-1 receptors. This popular drug s used
Definition
to lower blood pressure by decreasing the heart rate
Term
Nerve signals
Definition
travel faster in large myelinated fibers
Term
Spastic paralysis suggest involvement of
Definition
upper motor neurons
Term
A neuron that synapses on the adrenal medulla is a _____neuron which releases the neurotransmitter _______.
Definition
Preganglionic; ACh
Term
Sensory info about discriminative touch in the lower limbs is carried in ______tracts, then decusssate, or cross over in the _______
Definition
Gracile fassiculus; medulla oblongata
Term
The _____ system is characterized by long preganglionic and short postganglionic fibers.
Definition
Craniosacral
Term
The falling phase of an action potential results from
Definition
the efflux of potassium
Term
The right and left cerebral hemispheres are joined mainly by the
Definition
corpus callosum
Term
_____connect one gyrus to another within the same hemisphere
Definition
Association tracts
Term
During its ________, a neuron responds only to stimuli stronger than a threshold stimulus.
Definition
relative refractory period
Term
transected the spinal cord between T1 and L1. This would result in _______
Definition
paraplegia
Term
In _________, several EPSPs occurring in quick succession depolarize a neuron to threshold
Definition
Temporal summation
Term
In a chemical synapse, the synaptic knobs of the presynaptic neurons contain _____, while the membrane of the postsynaptic neuron contains
Definition
synaptic vesicles, ligand regulated gates
Term
In a myelinated neuron carrying an action potential, the node of ranvier will be stimulated by
Definition
sodium ions flowing down the fiber under the axolemma to the next adjacent node of ranvier
Term
One of the functions associated with the limbic system is
Definition
feelings of fear, peace, anger
Term
The signals that control your handwriting travel down the spinal cord in
Definition
corticospinal tract
Term
Loss of ability to perfom skilled motor activities such as piano with no paralysis in specific muscles suggest damage in the
Definition
premotor cortex
Term
Spinocerebellar tracts ______
Definition
carry proprioceptive inputs to the cerebellum
Term
Second-order neurons synapse with neurons in the
Definition
thalamus
Term
Which lobe of the cerebrum is most concerned with vision
Definition
occipital
Term
Your ______ division will stimulate an increase in heart rate & blood pressure. Being able to circle the right answer is ____
Definition
sympathetic; somatic
Term
This parasympathetic nerve adjusts the heart rate
Definition
vagus
Term
summation occurs in the _____ of a neuron
Definition
axon hillock
Term
Nicotinic receptors bind
Definition
acetylcholine
Term
The blood brain barrier is most permeable to which of the following chemical groups
Definition
glucose, water, oxygen, alcohol, caffeine
Term
If a nerve fiber fires 300 times/sec at time A and 500 times/sec at B it means at time B
Definition
the stimulus was stronger
Term
The ventral root carries ______ neurons, while the dorsal root carries _______ neurons
Definition
motor; sensory
Term
The charge difference across the plasma membrane in muscles and nerve cells is called the _____ measures about _____ mV
Definition
resting membrane potential; -70
Term
In a neuronal circuit, input to one neuron leads to output from multiple neurons
Definition
diverging
Term
Once a sympathetic preganglionic axon reaches a trunk ganglion it can do all but which one of the following
Definition
synapse with a parasympathetic neuron in the same trunk ganglion
Term
In a motor neuron i the body were stimulated by an electrode placed about mid point along the length of the axon
Definition
the impulse would spread bidirectionally
Term
In the ANS, the preganglionic neuron release___, while the post ganglionic neuron release
Definition
Ach; ACH or NE
Term
The spinal cord ends at about which vertebra
Definition
L1
Term
The cutaneous regions innervated by specific spinal nerves are each called a
Definition
dermatome
Term
When a neuron is depolarized to threshold
Definition
voltage regulated Na gates open
Term
The brain and spinal cord constitute the _______ nervous system
Definition
central
Term
The blood brain barrier consists of tight junctions in the
Definition
endothelium
Term
If you can trace a bicycle but not know what it is, you have damage to
Definition
calcarine cortex
Term
Which of the following motor tracts is involved in reflex movement of the head in response to auditory stimuli
Definition
tectospinal tract