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OB Midterm #3
BYU OB Midterm #3
119
Business
03/12/2012

Additional Business Flashcards

 


 

Cards

Term
The 6 Common Negotiating Mistakes
Definition
1) Neglecting the Other Side's Problem
2) Letting Price Bulldoze Other Interests
3) Letting Positions Drive Out Interests
4) Searching Too Hard for Common Ground
5) Neglecting BATNA (Best Alternative To a Negotiated Agreement)
6) Failing to Correct for Skewed Vision
Term
Negotiation
Definition
A give-and-take decision-making process involving interdependent parties with different preferences
Term
Distributive Negotiation
Definition
a. Involves a single issue, in which one person gains at the expense of another
Term
Integrative Negotiation
Definition
a. Involves multiple issues and an agreement can be found that is better for both parties than what they would have reached through distributive negotiation
Term
BATNA
Definition
Best Alternative to a Negotiated Agreement
Term
Reservation Price
Definition
Reservation point, the bottom line, the walk-away point
Term
Bargaining Zone
Definition
The difference between your reservation price and the other person's reservation price. A range of negotiated outcomes that are acceptable to all parties.
Term
Aspiration Price
Definition
Target or goal. What you really want to get out of the negotiation.
Term
Leadership
Definition
A social influence process in which the leader seeks the voluntary participation of subordinates in an effort to reach organizational goals
Term
Leader Trait
Definition
A physical or personality characteristic that can be used to differentiate leaders from followers.
Term
Implicit Leadership Theory
Definition
Based on the idea that people have beliefs about how leaders should behave and what they should do for their followers.
Term
Leadership Prototype
Definition
A mental representation of the traits and behaviors that people believe are possessed by leaders
Term
Traits of Bad Leaders
Definition
1) Incompetent
2) Rigid (unyielding)
3) Intemperate (self-control)
4) Callous (unkind)
5) Corrupt
6) Insular (minimize health and welfare of others)
7) Evil
Term
Key Positive Leadership Traits
Definition
1) Task Competence
2) Interpersonal Competence (communication, empathy)
3) Intuition
4) Traits of Character (discipline, integrity, honesty, etc.)
5) Biophysical Traits
6) Personal Traits (self-confidence, sociability, self-efficacy, etc.)
Term
Consideration
Definition
Involves leader behavior assoicated with creating mutual respect or trust and focuses on a concern for group members' needs and desires
Term
Ohio State Studies
Initiating Structure
Definition
Leader behavior that organizes and defines what group members should be doing to maximize output
Term
Ohio State Studies
Situational Theories
Definition
Propose that the effectiveness of a particular style of leader behavior depends on the situation
Term
Fiedler's Contingency Model
Definition
1) Situational Control
a) The amount of control and influence the leader has in her or his immediate work environment
Term
House...
Contingency Factors
Definition
Situational variables that cause one style of leadership to be more effective than another
Term
Path-Goal Clarifying Behaviors
Definition
Clarify goals, provide guidance, set standards
Term
Path-Goal
Achievement-oriented Behaviors
Definition
Setting challenging goals, emphasizing excellence, demonstrating confidence
Term
Path-Goal
Work-facilitation Behaviors
Definition
1) Planning,organizing, coordinating work

2) Mentoring/Coaching

3) Provide resources and remove roadblocks
Term
Path-Goal
Supportive Behaviors
Definition
Showing concern for the well-being of employees, being friendly and approachable
Term
Path-Goal
Interaction Facilitation Behaviors
Definition
Resolving disputes, encouraging strong communication and good team relationships
Term
Path-Goal
Group-oriented Decision-Making Behaviors
Definition
Posing problems rather than solutions, encouraging participation in decisions, providing information to the group to help make a decision
Term
Path-Goal
Representation and Networking Behaviors
Definition
Presenting the work group in a positive light to others, maintaining positive relationships, going to social events, doing favors for others
Term
Path-Goal
Value-based Behaviors
Definition
Establishing a vision, displaying a passion for it, and supporting its accomplishment; demonstrating self-confidence, giving positive feedback
Term
Applying Situational Theories
Definition
1) Identify Important Outcomes
2) Identify Relevant Leadership Types/Behaviors
3) Identify Situational Conditions
4) Match leadership to the conditions at hand
5) Determine how to make the match
Term
Transactional Leadership
Definition
Focuses on clarifying employees' role and task requirements and providing followers with positive and negative rewards contingent on performance
Term
Transformational Leadership
Definition
Engenders trust, seeks to develop leadership in others, exhibits self-sacrifice and serves as moral agents, focusing themselves and followers on objectives that transcend the more immediate needs of the work group.
Term
The Four Key Sets of Leader Behavior in Transformational Leaders
Definition
1) Inspirational Motivation (Vision & Optimism)

2) Idealized Influence (Sacrifice, Role model, Ethical Standards)

3) Individualized Consideration (Support, Encouragement, Empowerment)

4) Intellectual Stimulation (Question status quo, stimulate creativity)
Term
In-group Exchange
Definition
In this relationship, leaders and followers develop a partnership characterized by reciprocal influence, mutual trust, respect and liking, and a sense of common fates
Term
Out-group Exchange
Definition
Leaders are characterized as overseers who fail to create a sense of mutual trust, respect, or common fate
Term
Shared Leadership
Definition
Entails a simultaneous, ongoing, mutual influence process in which individuals share responsibility for leading regardless of formal roles and titles
Term
Servant Leadership
Definition
Focuses on increased service to others rather than to oneself
Term
Communication
Definition
The exchange of information between a sender and a receiver, and the inference (perception) of meaning between the individuals involved
Term
Noise
Definition
Represents anything that interferes with the transmission and understanding of a message
Term
Sender Barrier
Definition
When no message gets sent. Caused by fear or technology problems
Term
Encoding Barrier
Definition
The message is not expressed correctly. It's hard to say the right words, or use right tone.
Term
Medium Barrier
Definition
The communication channel is blocked. Busy phones, network down, etc.
Term
Decoding Barrier
Definition
The recipient doesn't understand the message
Term
Receiver Barrier
Definition
No message gets received. You are so busy you missed a comment your boss made
Term
Feedback Barrier
Definition
The recipient doesn't respond enough. You're not quite sure they got what you said, but you don't want to make them feel stupid.
Term
Personal Barriers to Communication
Definition
Individual attributes that hinder communication.
Include:
1) Communication Skill Level
2) How you interpret communication
3) Interpersonal trust
4) Stereotypes/Prejudice
5) Ego
6) Poor listening skills
7) Judgement
8) Listen w/o understanding
9) Nonverbal Communication
Term
Physical Barriers
Definition
Sound, time, space, and other distractions that hinder communication
Term
Semantic Barriers
Definition
Words can be interpreted in many ways, leading to communication problems
Term
Jargon
Definition
A key semantic barrier and represents language or terminology that is specific to a particular profession, group, or company
Term
Communication Competence
Definition
A performance-based index of an individual's abilities to effectively use communication behaviors in a given context
Term
Assertive Style
Definition
Expressive and self-enhancing and is based on the "ethical notion that it is not right or good to violate our own or others' basic human rights, such as the right to self-expression or the right to be treated with dignity and respect
Term
Aggressive Style
Definition
Expressive and self-enhancing and strives to take unfair advantage of others
Term
Nonassertive Style
Definition
Characterized by timid and self-denying behavior
Term
Nonverbal Communication
Definition
Any message, sent or received independent of the written or spoken word...It includes such factors as use of time and space, distance between persons when conversing, use of color, dress, walking behavior, standing, positioning, seating arrangement, office locations and furnishings
Term
Listening
Definition
The process of actively decoding and interpreting verbal messages
Term
Appreciative Listener
Definition
Listens in a relaxed manner, preferring to listen for pleasure, entertainment, or inspiration
Term
Empathetic Listener
Definition
Interpret messages by focusing on the emotions and body language being displayed by the speaker as well as the presentation media
Term
Comprehensive Listener
Definition
Makes sense of a message by first organizing specific thoughts and actions and then integrating this information by focusing on relationships among ideas.
Term
Discerning Listeners
Definition
Attempt to understand the main message and determine important points. They like to take notes and prefer logical presentations
Term
Evaluative Listeners
Definition
Listen analytically and continually formulate arguments and challenges to what is being said
Term
Linguistic Style
Definition
Refers to a person's characteristic speaker pattern, such as pacing and pausing, word choice, and elements such as jokes, figures of speech, etc.
Term
Teleworkers
Definition
Also known telecommuters and distributed workers, are people who fulfill some portion of typically office-based job responsibilities outside the office via ICT (Information Communication Technology).
Term
Social Media
Definition
Internet-based and mobile technologies to generate interactive dialogue with members of a network
Term
Organization
Definition
A system of consciously coordinated activities or forces of two or more persons
Term
Unity of Command Principle
Definition
Specifies that each employee should report to only one manager
Term
Organization Chart
Definition
A graphic representation of formal authority and division of labor relationships
Term
Span of Control
Definition
Refers to the number of people reporting directly to a given manager
Term
Staff Personnel
Definition
Do background research and provide technical advice and recommendations to their line managers
Term
Line Managers
Definition
Those who have the authority to make decisions (president, executive directors, etc.)
Term
Closed System
Definition
A self-sufficient entity. It is "closed" to the surrounding environment
Term
Open System
Definition
Depends on constant interaction with the environment for survival
Term
Organizational Design
Definition
The structures of accountability and responsibility used to develop and implement strategies, and the human resource practices and information and business processes that activate those structures.
Term
Functional Structure
Definition
Groups people according to the business functions they perform, for example, manufacturing, marketing, and finance.
Term
Divisional Structure
Definition
Groups together activities related to outputs, such as the type of product or type (or location) of customer.
Term
Matrix Structure
Definition
Combines functional and divisional chains of command to form a grid with two command structures, one shown vertically according to function, and the other shown horizontally, by product line, brand, customer group, or geographic location.
Term
Hollow Structure
Definition
Strategic application of the trend toward outsourcing.
Term
Modular Structure
Definition
Instead of outsourcing processes (such as manufacturing), it outsources parts of a product to later be assembled by the parent company.
Term
Virtual Structure
Definition
A company outside a company created specifically to respond to an exceptional market opportunity that is often temporary
Term
Contingency Approach to Organizational Design
Definition
Organizations tend to be more effective when they are structured to fit the demands of the situation
Term
Mechanistic Organizations
Definition
Rigid bureaucracies with strict rules, narrowly defined tasks, and top-down communication
Term
Organic Organizations
Definition
Flexible networks of multitalented individuals who perform a variety of tasks
Term
Centralized decision making
Definition
Occurs when key decisions are made by top management
Term
Decentralized Decision Making
Definition
Occurs when important decisions are made by middle- and lower-level managers
Term
The Four Dimensions of Organizational Effectiveness
Definition
1) Goal accomplishment
- The organization achieves its goals
2) Internal Processes
- The org runs smoothly with minimum internal problems
3) Resource Acquisition
- Org acquires the resources it needs
4) Strategic Constituencies Satisfaction
- Stakeholders are satisfied
Term
Goal Accomplishment, Four Dimensions of Organizational Effectiveness
Definition
Does the organization achieve its stated goals?

Best when = Goals are SMART.
Term
Internal Processes, Four Dimensions of Organizational Effectiveness
Definition
The organization functions smoothly with a minimum of internal strain

Best when = Performance is strongly influenced by specific processes
Term
Strategic Constituencies Satisfaction, Four Dimensions of Organizational Effectiveness
Definition
The demands and expectations of key interest groups are at least minimally satisfied

Best when = Powerful stakeholders can significantly benefit or harm the organization
Term
Resource Acquisition, Four Dimensions of Organizational Effectiveness
Definition
The organization acquires the resources it needs

Best when = Inputs have a traceable effect on results or output.
Term
Strategic Constituency
Definition
Any group of individuals who have some stake in the organization--for example, resource providers, users of the organization's products or services, producers of the org.'s output, groups whose cooperation is essential for the org's survival, or those whose lives are significantly affected by the org.
Term
Social Power
Definition
The ability to marshal the human, informational, and material resources to get something done
Term
Reward Power
Definition
Managers have _______ if they can obtain compliance by promising or granting rewards
Term
Coercive Power
Definition
Threats of punishment and actual punishment
Term
Legitimate Power
Definition
Gaining compliance through formal authority
Term
Expert Power
Definition
Valued knowledge or information
Term
Referent Power
Definition
When one's personal characteristics become the reason for compliance. I.e. Charisma, age, gender, etc.
Term
Empowerment
Definition
Recognizing and releasing into the organization the power that people already have in their wealth of useful knowledge, experience, and internal motivation
Term
Participative Management
Definition
The process whereby employees play a direct role in (1) setting goals, (2) making decisions, (3) solving problems, (4) making changes in the organization
Term
Empowering Leadership
Definition
Involves sharing power with employees by communicating the significance of employee jobs, providing decision-making autonomy, expressing confidence in employee performance capabilities, and removing barriers to performance.
Term
Organizational Politics
Definition
Intentional acts of influence to enhance or protect the self-interest of individuals or groups that are not endorsed by the organization
Term
Coalition
Definition
An informal group bound together by the active pursuit of a single issue
Term
Impression Management
Definition
Defined as any attempt to control or manipulate the images related to a person, organization, or ideas
Term
External Forces for Change
Definition
Demographic Characteristics, Technological Advancements, Customer and Market Changes, Social and Political Pressures
Term
Telepresence
Definition
Technology that enables organizations to change the way they deliver products, coordinate virtual workers, encourage employee collaboration, improve communication, and increase productivity
Term
Lewin's Change Model
Definition
Unfreezing, Changing, Refreezing
Term
Benchmarking
Definition
The overall process by which a company compares its performance with that of other companies, then learns how the strongest-performing companies achieve their results
Term
Mission Statement
Definition
The "reason" an organization exists
Term
Vision
Definition
The long-term goal that describes "what" an organization wants to become
Term
Strategic Plan
Definition
Outlines an organization's long-term direction and the actions necessary to achieve planned results
Term
Target elements of change
Definition
The components of an organization that may be changed
Term
Organization Development
Definition
Consists of planned efforts to help persons work and live together more effectively, over time, in their organizations
Term
Change Agent
Definition
Someone who is a catalyst in helping organizations to deal with old problems in new ways
Term
Resistance to change
Definition
An emotional/behavioral response to real or imagined threats to an established work routine
Term
Resilience to change
Definition
Represents a composite characteristic reflecting high self-esteem, optimism, and an internal locus of control, was positively associated with recipients' willingness to accommodate or accept a specific organizational change
Term
Commitment to change
Definition
A mind-set that binds an individual to a course of action deemed necessary for the successful implementation of a change initiative
Term
Learning Organization
Definition
An organization that proactively creates, acquires, and transfers knowledge and that changes its behavior on the basis of new knowledge and insights
Term
Team Mental Model
Definition
Represents team members' shared, organized understanding and mental representation of knowledge about key elements of the team's relevant environment
Term
Servant-Leadership Characteristics
Definition
1) Listening
2) Empathy
3) Healing
4) Awareness
5) Persuasion
6) Conceptualization
7) Foresight
8) Stewardship
9) Commitment to the growth of people
10) Building Community
Term
Goals and Values Subsystem - Open System Organization
Definition
This subsection includes:
* Culture
* Philosophy
* Overall goals
* Group goals
* Individual goals
Term
Technical Subsystem - Open System Organization
Definition
This subsystem includes:
* Knowledge
* Techniques
* Facilities
* Equipment
Term
Psychological Subsystem - Open System Organization
Definition
This subsystem includes:
* HR
* Attitudes
* Perceptions
* Motivations
* Group dynamics
* Leadership
* Communication
* Interpersonal Relations
Term
Structural Subsystem - Open System Organization
Definition
This subsystem includes:
* Tasks
* Work flow
* Work groups
* Authority
* Information flow
* Procedures
* Rules