Shared Flashcard Set

Details

NY State Board
review
103
Cosmetology
09/11/2013

Additional Cosmetology Flashcards

 


 

Cards

Term

00001) The process of making your tool clean

   A) Sanitation 

B) Fumigation 

C) Disinfection

D) Sterilization

Definition
?
Term

00002)_____________________________________________implements requiring for at solution at LEAST

    A) 10 min.

    B)

    C) 

    D)

Definition

10 Min.

Quaternary ammonium compounds (KWAT-ur-nayr-ree uh-MOH-neeum KAHM-powndz), also known as quats (KWATZ), aredisinfectants that are very effective when used properly in the salon. The most advanced type of these formulations is called multiple quats. Multiple quats contain sophisticated blends of quats that work together to dramatically increase the effectiveness of these disinfectants. Quat solutions usually disinfect implements in ten minutes. These formulas may contain anti-rust ingredients, so leaving tools in the solution for prolonged periods can cause dulling or damage. They should be removed from the solution after the specified period, rinsed (if required), dried, and stored in a clean, covered container.

Term

00003) ___________Requires the Material Data Sheet be prepared and made_____ to salon workers by the:

     A) IRS

     B) FDA

     C) Building owner

     D) Product manufacture

Definition

?

Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS)

Both federal and state laws require that manufacturers supply a Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS) for all products sold. The MSDS contains information compiled by the manufacturer about product safety, including the names of hazardous ingredients, safe handling and use procedures, precautions to reduce the risk of accidental harm or overexposure, and flammability warnings. The MSDS also provides useful disposal guidelines and medical and first aid information. When

necessary, the MSDS can be sent to a medical facility, so that a doctor can better assess and treat the patient. OSHA and state regulatory agencies require that MSDSs be kept available in the salon for all products. Both OSHA and state board inspectors can issue fines for salons not having MSDSs available during regular business hours.

 

Federal and state laws require salons to obtain MSDSs from the product manufacturers and/or distributors for each professional product that is used. MSDSs often can be downloaded from the product manufacturer’s or the distributor’s Web site. Not having MSDSs available poses a health risk to anyone exposed to hazardous materials and violates federal and state regulations. All employees must read the information included on each MSDS and verify that they have read it by adding their signatures to a sign-off sheet for the product. These sign-off sheets must be available to state and federal inspectors upon request.

Term

00004) _____infection control process with the highest level of decontamination 

A) Sanitation 

B) Fumigation 

C) Disinfection

D) Sterilization

Definition

Sterilization

Term

00005) __ cetyl, ethyl and isopropyl are types of:

    A) Phenols

    B) Alcohols

    C) Sodium Hydrochlorides 

    D) QAC: Quaternary ammonium compounds

Definition

Alcohols

Volatile alcohols (VAHL-uh-tul AL-kuh-hawlz) are those that evaporate easily, such as isopropyl alcohol (rubbing alcohol) and ethyl alcohol (hairspray and alcoholic beverages). These chemicals are familiar to most people, but there are many other types of alcohols, from free-flowing liquids to hard, waxy solids. Fatty alcohols, such as cetyl alcohol and cetearyl alcohol, are nonvolatile alcohol waxes that are used as skin conditioners.

 

 

Term

00006) Common name for house hold Bleach:

A) Formatin

B) Isopropyl alchol

C) Hydrgen Peroxide 

D) Sodium Hypochlorides

Definition
Sodium Hypochlorides
Term

00007) Which of the following type Disinfectant is generally considered the safest and fast acting?

        A) Phenol

        B) Formatin

        C) Sodium Hypocloride 

  D) Quaternary ammonium compounds

Definition

Quaternary ammonium compounds

Quaternary ammonium compounds (KWAT-ur-nayr-ree uh-MOH-

neeum KAHM-powndz), also known as quats (KWATZ), are

disinfectants that are very effective when used properly in the salon.

The most advanced type of these formulations is called multiple

quats. Multiple quats contain sophisticated blends of quats that work together to dramatically increase the effectiveness of these disinfectants. Quat solutions usually disinfect implements in ten minutes. These formulas may contain anti-rust ingredients, so

 

leaving tools in the solution for prolonged periods can cause dulling or damage. They should be removed from the solution after the specified period, rinsed (if required), dried, and stored in a clean, covered container.

Term

00008) Another word or contagious is:

       A) Chronic

       B) Healthful

 C) Inflammatory

       D) Communicable

 

 

Definition

    Communicable

Contagious

When a disease spreads from one person to another person, it is said

 

to be a contagious disease (kon-TAY-jus dih-ZEEZ), also known as

Term

00009) The ability of the body to resist disease and destroy micro organisms when they have entered the body is known as:

A)

) Immunity

C) Sanitation

D) Inoculation

 

 

Definition

Immunity

Immunity is the ability of the body to destroy and resist infection. Immunity against disease can be either natural or acquired and is a sign of good health. Natural immunity is partly inherited and partly developed through healthy living. Acquired immunity is immunity that the body develops after overcoming a disease, through inoculation (such as flu vaccinations), or through exposure to natural allergens, such as pollen, cat dander, and ragweed.

Term

00010) An abscess is an example of what type of infection

   A) Local

      B) Acute

      C) Chronic

     D) General

Definition

local

Bacterial Infections

There can be no bacterial infection without the presence of pathogenic bacteria. Therefore, if pathogenic bacteria are eliminated, clients cannot become infected. You may have a client who has tissue inflammation (in-fluh-MAY-shun), a condition in which the body reacts to injury, irritation, or infection. An inflammation is characterized by redness, heat, pain, and swelling. Pus is a fluid created by infection. It contains white blood cells, bacteria, and dead cells. The presence of pus is a sign of a bacterial infection. local infection, such as a pimple or abscess, is confined to a particular part of the body and appears as a lesion containing pus. Staphylococci are among the most common bacteria that affect humans and are normally carried by about a third of the population.

 

 

Term

00011) The most plentiful Type Organisms on the Earth are?

A)   Fungi

      B) Viruses

      C) Bacteria

 

       D) Parasites

Definition

Bacteria

Infection Control

Infection controls are the methods used to eliminate or reduce the transmission of infectious organisms. Cosmetologists must understand and remember the following four types of potentially harmful organisms:

• Bacteria • Fungi

• Viruses • Parasites

 

 

Bacteria are the smallest and most numerous organisms. The prevalence of Bacteria. The simplest of organisms, bacteria are thought to be the most ancient. They are the most abundant living organisms. Bacteria lack the high degree of internal compartmentalization characteristic of eukaryotes

Term

00012) HIV infection causes which one of the following infectious disease

A) AIDS

B) Herpes

C) Hepatitis

D) Influenza 

 

 

Definition
AIDS
Term

00013) Fungus types of vegetable parasite is

A) tinea

B)

C)

D)

Definition

TINEA

Microscopic plant parasites, which include molds, mildews, and yeasts; can produce contagious diseases such as ringworm. The most frequently encountered fungal infection resulting from hair services is tinea barbae (TIN-ee-uh BAR-bee), also known as barber’s itch. Tinea barbae is a superficial fungal infection that commonly affects the skin. It is primarily limited to the bearded areas of the face and neck or around the scalp. This infection occurs almost exclusively in older adolescent and adult males. A person with tinea barbae may have deep, inflamed or noninflamed patches of skin on the face or the nape of  the neck. Tinea barbae is similar to tinea capitis (TIN-ee-uh KAP-ih-tis), a fungal infection of the scalp characterized by red papules, or spots, at the opening of hair follicles. For more information on tinea capitis,  see Chapter 11, Properties  of the Hair and Scalp.

The most frequently encountered infection on the foot resulting from nail services is tinea pedis (TIN-ee-uh PED-us), a ringworm fungus of the foot. Both bacterial and fungal infections can be spread to an infected client’s other nails or to other salon clients unless everything that touches clients is either properly cleaned and disinfected before reuse or is thrown away after use

pg. 80 & 81….105

Term

00014) Are pus-forming bacteria that grow in clusters like bunches of grapes. They cause abscesses, pustules, and boils

    A) Staphylococci (staf-uh-loh-KOK-sy)

    B) 

    C) 

Definition

Staphylococci

Staphylococci (staf-uh-loh-KOK-sy) are pus-forming bacteria that grow in clusters like bunches of grapes. They cause abscesses, pustules, and boils. Some types of staphylococci (or staph as many call it) may not cause infections in healthy humans.

 

Pg. 74   

Term

00015) Types of organisms

A)

B)

C) 

D) 

Definition

Infectious organisms. Cosmetologists must understand and remember the following four types of potentially harmful organisms:

• Bacteria • Fungi

• Viruses • Parasites

Pg. 72

Types of Bacteria

There are thousands of different kinds of bacteria that fall into two primary types: pathogenic and nonpathogenic. Most bacteria are nonpathogenic (non-path-uh-JEN-ik); in other words, they are harmless organisms that may perform useful functions. They are safe to come in contact with since they do not cause disease or harm. For example, Nonpathogenic bacteria are used to make yogurt, cheese, and some medicines. In the human body, nonpathogenic bacteria help the body break down food and protect against infection. They also stimulate the immune system.

Pathogenic (path-uh-JEN-ik) bacteria are harmful microorganisms that can cause disease or infection in humans when they invade the body. Classifications of Pathogenic Bacteria Bacteria have three distinct shapes that help to identify them.

Pathogenic bacteria are classified as described below.

       •  Cocci (KOK-sy) are round-shaped bacteria that appear singly (alone) or in groups:

      •  Staphylococci (staf-uh-loh-KOK-sy) are pus-forming bacteria that grow in clusters like bunches of grapes. They cause abscesses, pustules, and boils. Some types of staphylococci (or staph as many call it) may not cause infections in healthy humans.

      •  Streptococci (strep-toh-KOK-sy) are pus-forming bacteria arranged in curved lines resembling a string of beads. They cause infections such as strep throat and blood poisoning

      •  Diplococci (dip-lo-KOK-sy) are spherical bacteria that grow in pairs and cause diseases such as pneumonia

      •  Bacilli (bah-SIL-ee) are short rod-shaped bacteria. They are the most common bacteria and produce diseases such as tetanus (lockjaw),

Viruses

A virus (VY-rus) (plural: viruses) is a parasitic submicroscopic particle that infects and resides in the cells of a biological organism. A virus is capable of replication only through taking over the host cell’s reproductive function. Viruses are so small that they can only be seen under the most sophisticated and powerful microscopes. They cause common colds and other respiratory and gastrointestinal (digestive tract) infections. Other viruses that plague humans are measles, mumps, chicken pox, smallpox, rabies, yellow fever, hepatitis, polio, influenza, and HIV, which causes AIDS. One difference between viruses and bacteria is that a virus can live and reproduce only by taking over other cells and becoming part of them, while bacteria can live and reproduce on their own. Also, bacterial infections can usually be treated with specific antibiotics, but viruses are not affected by antibiotics. In fact, viruses are hard to kill without harming the body’s own cells in the process. Vaccinations prevent viruses from growing in the body. There are many vaccines available for viruses, but not all viruses have vaccines. There is a vaccine available for hepatitis B, however, and you should strongly consider receiving this vaccine.

     Bloodborne Pathogens

Disease-causing microorganisms that are carried in the body by blood or body fluids, such as hepatitis and HIV, are called bloodborne pathogens. In the salon, the spread of bloodborne pathogens is possible through haircutting, chemical burns, shaving, nipping, clipping, facial treatments, waxing, tweezing, or whenever the skin is broken

Fungi

Fungi (FUN-jy) (singular: fungus, FUN-gus) are microscopic plant parasites that include molds, mildews, and yeasts. They can produce contagious diseases, such as ringworm. Mildew (MIL-doo), another fungus, affects plants or grows on inanimate objects but does not cause human infections in the salon.

Parasites

Parasites are organisms that grow, feed, and shelter on or in another organism (referred to as a host), while contributing nothing to the survival of that organism. They must have a host to survive. Parasites can live on or inside of humans and animals. They also can be found in food, on plants and trees, and in water. Humans can acquire internal parasites by eating fish or meat that has not been properly cooked.

External parasites that affect humans on or in the skin include ticks, fleas, and mites. Head lice are a type of parasite responsible for contagious diseases and conditions one condition caused by an infestation of head lice is called pediculosis capitis (puh-dik-yuh-LOH-sis KAP-ih-tus). Scabies (SKAY-beez) is also a contagious skin disease and is caused by the itch mite, which burrows under the skin. Contagious diseases and conditions caused by parasites should only be treated by a doctor.

 pg. 72-81

Immunity

Immunity is the ability of the body to destroy and resist infection. Immunity against disease can be either natural or acquired and is a sign of good health. Natural immunity is partly inherited and partly developed through healthy living. Acquired immunity is immunity that the body develops after overcoming a disease, through inoculation (such as flu vaccinations), or through exposure to natural allergens, such as pollen, cat dander, and ragweed.

Pg 82

 

 

Term

00017) Contains the blood and nerve supply that provides the nutrients needed for the hair grow is called the

A) Dermal papilla

B)

C) erector pilla 

D) bic

Definition

Dermal papilla

The dermal papilla (plural: dermal papillae) is a small, cone-shaped elevation located at the base of the hair follicle that fits into the hair bulb. The dermal papilla contains the blood and nerve supply that provides the nutrients needed for hair growth. Some people refer to the dermal papilla as the mother of the hair because it contains the blood and nerve supply that provides the nutrients needed for hair growth.

 

pg. 221

Term

00017)________ attached to the underside of the hair follicle is called the

A) arrector pili (in the base of the hair follicle)

B) Sebaceous glands (connected to the hair follicles)

C) Hair Shaft 

D) Dermal papilla

Definition

Dermal papilla

The dermal papilla (plural: dermal papillae) is a small, cone-shaped elevation located at the base of the hair follicle that fits into the hair bulb. The dermal papilla contains the blood and nerve supply that provides the nutrients needed for hair growth. Some people refer to the dermal papilla as the mother of the hair because it contains the blood and nerve supply that provides the nutrients needed for hair growth.

 

pg. 221

Term

00018) Portion of the hair that extends above the skins surface is called the hair

A) Bulb

B) Hair Shaft

C)

D) Papilla

Definition

                              hair shaft

A mature strand of human hair is divided into two parts: the hair root and the hair shaft. The hair root is the part of the hair located below the surface of the epidermis (outer layer of the skin). 

The hair shaft is the portion of the hair that projects above the epidermis

Structures of the Hair Root

The five main structures of the hair root include the hair follicle, hair bulb, dermal papilla, arrector pili muscle, and sebaceous (oil) glands.

The hair follicle (HAYR FAWL-ih-kul) is the tube-like depression or pocket in the skin or scalp that contains the hair root. Hair follicles are distributed all over the body, with the exception of the palms of the hands and the soles of the feet. The follicle extends downward from the epidermis into the dermis (the inner layer of skin), where it surrounds the dermal papilla. Sometimes more than one hair will grow from a single follicle.

•  The hair bulb (HAYR BULB) is the lowest part of a hair strand. It is the thickened, club-shaped structure that forms the lower part of the hair root. The lower part of the hair bulb fits over and covers the dermal papilla.

•  The dermal papilla (plural: dermal papillae) is a small, cone-shaped elevation located at the base of the hair follicle that fits into the hair bulb. The dermal papilla contains the blood and nerve supply that provides the nutrients needed for hair growth. Some people refer to the dermal papilla as the mother of the hair because it contains the blood and nerve supply that provides the nutrients needed for hair growth.

•  The arrector pili muscle is the small, involuntary muscle in the base of the hair follicle. Strong emotions or a cold sensation cause it to contract, which makes the hair stand up straight and results in what we call goose bumps. 

•  Sebaceous glands are the oil glands in the skin that are connected to the hair follicles. The sebaceous glands secrete a fatty or an oily substance called sebum. Sebum lubricates the skin.

pg. 220 & 221

 

 hair shaft

A mature strand of human hair is divided into two parts: the hair root and the hair shaft. The hair

 root is the part of the hair located below the surface of the epidermis (outer layer of the skin). 

The hair shaft is the portion of the hair that projects above the epidermis

Structures of the Hair Root

The five main structures of the hair root include the hair follicle, hair bulb, dermal papilla, arrector pili muscle, and sebaceous (oil) glands.

The hair follicle (HAYR FAWL-ih-kul) is the tube-like depression or pocket in the skin or scalp that contains the hair root. Hair follicles are distributed all over the body, with the exception of the palms of the hands and the soles of the feet. The follicle extends downward from the epidermis into the dermis (the inner layer of skin), where it surrounds the dermal papilla. Sometimes more than one hair will grow from a single follicle.

•  The hair bulb (HAYR BULB) is the lowest part of a hair strand. It is the thickened, club-shaped structure that forms the lower part of the hair root. The lower part of the hair bulb fits over and covers the dermal papilla.

•  The dermal papilla (plural: dermal papillae) is a small, cone-shaped elevation located at the base of the hair follicle that fits into the hair bulb. The dermal papilla contains the blood and nerve supply that provides the nutrients needed for hair growth. Some people refer to the dermal papilla as the mother of the hair because it contains the blood and nerve supply that provides the nutrients needed for hair growth.

•  The arrector pili muscle is the small, involuntary muscle in the base of the hair follicle. Strong emotions or a cold sensation cause it to contract, which makes the hair stand up straight and results in what we call goose bumps. 

•  Sebaceous glands are the oil glands in the skin that are connected to the hair follicles. The sebaceous glands secrete a fatty or an oily substance called sebum. Sebum lubricates the skin.

pg. 220 & 221

 

Term

00020) When the pigment is gone from the hair

A) Red

B) Gray

C) Brown 

D) Blonde

Definition

Gray Hair

Gray hair is hair that has lost its pigment and is normally associated with aging. Even though the loss of pigment increases as a person ages, few people ever become completely gray haired. Most retain a certain percentage of pigmented hair. The gray can be solid or blended throughout the head as in salt-and-pepper hair. Gray hair requires special attention in formulating haircolor. This will be discussed later in the chapter.

 

pg. 633

Term

00021) The hair and scalp are kelp in a soft

A) Sebum

B) Keratin

C) Melanin

D) Peracardium

Definition

SEBUM

Sebaceous glands (sih-BAY-shus GLANZ), also known as oil glands, are connected to the hair follicles. They consist of little sacs with ducts that open into the follicles. These glands secrete sebum (SEE-bum), a fatty or oily substance that lubricates the skin and preserves the softness of the hair.

Pg. 163

Secretion Sebum is secreted by the sebaceous glands. This oil lubricates the skin, keeping it soft and pliable. Oil also keeps hair soft. Emotional stress and hormone imbalances can increase the flow of sebum

 

pg. 164

Term

00022) The average life for hair can be

A) 3-6 months

B) 8-10 months

C) 2-6 years (3-5)

D) 6-10 years

Definition
Term

00023) Whether the hair is course or fine refers to the:

A) Color

B) Texture

C) Porosity 

D) Elasticity

Definition

Texture

The four most important factors to consider in hair Analysis are texture, density, porosity, and elasticity.

Hair texture is the thickness or diameter of the individual hair strand. Hair texture can be classified as coarse, medium, or fine and can vary from strand to strand on the same person’s head. It is not uncommon for hair from different areas of the head to have different textures. Hair on the nape (back of the neck), crown, temples, and front hairline of the same person may have different textures.

Coarse hair texture has the largest diameter. It is stronger than fine hair, for the same reason that a thick rope is stronger than a thin rope. It is often more resistant to processing than medium or fine hair, so it usually requires more processing when you are applying products such as hair lighteners, haircolors, permanent waving solutions, and chemical hair relaxers.

Medium hair texture is the most common texture and is the standard to which other hair is compared. Medium hair does not pose any special problems or concerns.

Fine hair has the smallest diameter and is more fragile, easier to process, and more susceptible to damage from chemical services than coarse or medium hair.

As with hair cuticle analysis, hair texture can be determined by feeling a single dry strand between the fingers. Take an individual strand from four different areas of the head—front hairline, temple, crown, and nape—and hold each strand securely with

Pg 237

 

 

Term

00024) When normal hair is wet can be stretched to what percent of its natural length

A) 10%

B) 40% (up to 50%)

C) 70% 

D) 100%

Definition

40%

Elasticity

Hair elasticity is the ability of the hair to stretch and return to its original length without breaking. Hair elasticity is an indication of the strength of the side bonds that hold the hair’s individual fibers in place. Wet hair with normal elasticity will stretch up to 50 percent of its original length and return to that same length without breaking. Dry hair stretches about 20 percent of its length. Hair with low elasticity is brittle and breaks easily. It may not be able to hold the curl from wet setting, thermal styling, or permanent waving. Hair with low elasticity is the result of weak side bonds that usually are a result of overprocessing. Chemical services performed on hair with low elasticity require a milder solution with a lower pH to minimize further damage and prevent additional overprocessing. Check elasticity on wet hair by taking an individual strand from four different areas of the head (front hairline, temple, crown, and nape). Hold a single strand of wet hair securely and try to puly it apart If the hair stretches and returns to its original length without breaking, it has normal elasticity. If the hair breaks easily or fails to return to its original length, it has low elasticity.

 

Pg. 240

Term

00029) Another name for a boil is

A) Mole

B) Macule

C) Scutula 

D) Furuncle

Definition
FURUNCLE
Term

00030) The medical term for dandruff

A) Cantines

B) Alopecia

C) Pityriasis

D) Luecoderma

 

 

Definition

Pityriasis
Dandruff

Pityriasis (pit-ih-RY-uh-sus) is the technical term for dandruff, which is characterized by the excessive production and accumulation of skin cells. Instead of the normal, one-at-a-time shedding of tiny individual skin cells, dandruff is the shedding of an accumulation of large visible clumps of skin cells. Although the cause of dandruff has been debated for over 150 years, current research confirms that dandruff is the result of a fungus called malassezia (mal-uh-SEEZ-ee-uh). Malassezia is a naturally occurring fungus that is present on all human skin but causes the symptoms of dandruff when it grows out of control. Some individuals are also more susceptible to malassezia’s irritating effects. Factors such as stress, age, hormones, and poor hygiene can cause the fungus to multiply and dandruff symptoms to worsen.

 

pg 234

Term

001) A finger wave set that has 2 parallel rows that go sideways and around the head.

A)   Ridge

B) Horizontal

C) 

      D) 

Definition

In vertical finger waving, the ridges and waves run up and down the head. Horizontal finger waves are sideways and parallel around the head.

 

Pg. 422

Term

002) What is the best length of the hair for a Ridge finger wave set 

A) 3-6 inches

B) 6-9 inches

C) 

D) 

Definition
Term

003) The best type of hair to do a finger wave set on

A) Straight

B) Curly

C) Wavy

 D) Very curly

Definition
Term

004) When cutting the hair on a 45 degree angle this is considered

A) Low elevation

B) Medium elevation

C) High elevation

D) Extra high elevation

E) Low-Medium

 


Definition

LOW - MEDIUM

blunt haircut - no-elevation

graduated haircut - low to medium elevation, or overdirection - The most common elevation is 45 degrees. - a 45-degree elevation, as well as a 90-degree elevation

layered haircut - higher elevations, usually 90

degrees and above

long-layered haircut - 180-degree angle

Term

005)  When thinning the hair with scissor this is called

A) Slithering

B) Layering

C) Slide cutting 

D) 

Definition

SLITHERING

Slithering, also known as effilating, is the process of thinning the hair to graduated lengths with shears. in this technique, the hair strand is cut by a sliding movement of the shears, with the blades

kept partially opened. Slithering reduces volume and creates movement

pg. 377

Slide Cutting

Slide cutting is a method of cutting or thinning the hair in which the fingers and shears glide along the edge of the hair to remove length. It is useful for removing length, blending shorter lengths to longer lengths, and texturizing. Slide cutting is a perfect way to layer very long hair and keep weight at the perimeter. Rather than opening and closing the shears, you keep them partially open as you slide along the edge of the section. This technique should only be performed on wet hair with very sharp shears. There are two methods of holding the subsection when slide cutting.  it is important to visualize the line you wish to cut before you begin. in one method, you hold the subsection with tension beyond the cutting line. in the other method, you place your shears on top of your knuckles, and then use both hands to move simultaneously out the length to the ends.

 

Pg. 375

Term

006)  Roller set, indentation recesses area of base

A) ½ in

B) 2 in

C) 6 in 

D) 

Definition

Indentation is the point where curls of opposite directions meet, forming a recessed area. This is often found in flip styles or in bangs (fringes) with a dip or wave movement. Indentation can be achieved using rollers, curling irons, or a round brush.

 

Pg. 428

Term

007) When holding the scissors in your palm and your thumb is not in it this is called  

A) Palming

B) Maniplulation

C) 

D) 

Definition

PALMING

Always palm the shears and the razor when combing or parting the hair. This keeps the points of the shears closed and pointed away from the client while combing and prevents you from cutting yourself or the

client. Palming the shears also reduces strain on the index finger and thumb whole combing the hair. 

Ph. 365

Term

008) The most common elevation is 45 degrees in a graduated haircut, there is a visual buildup of weight in a given area this is called.

A) Shingling

      B) Stacking

      C) 

      D) 

Definition

STACKING

Graduated (45-Degree) Haircut

A graduated haircut is a graduated shape or wedge. This is caused by cutting the hair with tension, low to medium elevation, or overdirection. The most common elevation is 45 degrees in a graduated haircut; there is a visual buildup of weight in a given area. The ends of the hair appear to be stacked. There are many variations and effects you can create with graduation simply by adjusting the degree of elevation, the amount of overdirection, or your cutting line 

Pg. 366

In this basic haircut, you will be working with a vertical cutting line and a 45-degree elevation, as well as a 90-degree elevation. Although you will use a center part, keep in mind that this haircut can also work with a side part or a bang. You will be using a stationary guideline and a traveling guideline. Remember, a stationary guideline is a guideline that does not move. All other sections are combed toward the guideline and are cut to match it. A traveling guideline moves with you as you work through the haircut

Term

009) When using a razor for a blunt cut hold the razor at this angle

A) 0

B) 45

C) 60

D) 90

Definition

?

Always work with the razor at an angle. Never force the razor through the hair. A razor cut gives a totally different result than other haircutting techniques. For instance, a razor cut gives a softer appearance than a shear cut. The razor is a great option when working with medium to fine hair textures. When you work with shears, the ends of the hair are cut blunt. When working with a razor, the ends are cut at an angle, and the line is not blunt. This produces softer shapes with more visible separation, or a feathered effect, on the ends. With the razor, there is only one blade cutting the hair, and it is a much finer blade than the shears. With shears, there are two blades that close on the hair, creating blunt ends any haircut you can create with shears can also be done with the razor. you can cut horizontal, vertical, and diagonal lines. The main difference is that the guide is above your fingers, whereas with shears the guide is usually below your fingers. Razor cutting is an entirely different technique from cutting with shears. The best way to become comfortable with the razor is to practice. Before cutting with a razor, review how to properly hold the razor in the “Haircutting Tools” section of this chapter.

There are two commonly used methods for cutting with a razor.

o      In the first method, the razor is kept parallel to the subsection . This technique is used to thin the ends of the hair, and the entire length of the blade is used.

o      The other approach is to come into the subsection with the blade at an angle (about 45 degrees). Here you are using about one-third of the blade to make small strokes as you work through the subsection. If the blade is not entering the hair at an angle and you attempt to push the razor through the hair, you place added stress on the hair and risk losing control of the hair. Always remember that the blade needs to be at an angle when entering the hair. When cutting a section, you move from top to bottom or side to side, depending on the section and finger angle.

 

pg. 374 & 375

Term

010) In a make-up application where you tweeze the eyebrow further apart and pencil the ends

A) For closed set eyes

B)

C) 

D) 

Definition

Close-set eyes.

The eyes are closer together than the length of one eye.

For eyes that are close together, lightly apply shadow up from the outer edge of the eyes

Pg. 779

Close-set eyes. To make the eyes appear farther apart, widen

the distance between the eyebrows and slightly extend

them outward.

 

Pg. 781

Term

010) When performing an eyebrow wax apply the wax in

A) The direction of the hair growth – Pull strip in the opposite direction

B)

C) 

D) 

Definition

The direction of the hair growth –

Pull strip in the opposite direction

Term

011) Using a clipper repeatedly to remove neck hair will

A) Make the hair grow in thicker

B) Do nothing to the hair growth

C) 

D) 

Definition

Do nothing to the hair growth

Contrary to popular belief, shaving does not cause the hair to grow thicker or stronger. It only seems that way because the razor blunts the hair ends and makes them feel stiff.

 

Pg. 693

Term

012) You can use this tool to cut the bottom of very curly hair and to remove hair from the neck

A)  Trimmers / Clippers 

B) Razor

C)

D) 

Definition

Trimmers / Clippers 

Using trimmers at the neckline. Clean up the hair on the neck that grows below the design line. Trimmers also help create more defined lines at the perimeter

 

pg 383

Term

013)  The part of the nail that if it is damage will affect the nail growth

A) Matrix

B) Lunula

C)

D) 

Definition

Matrix

Nail Malformation

The matrix (MAY-trikz) is the area where the nail plate cells are formed; this area is composed of matrix cells that produce the nail plate cells. The matrix contains nerves, lymph, and blood vessels to nourish the matrix cells. As long as it is nourished and healthy, the matrix will continue to create new nail plate cells.

The matrix extends from under the nail fold at the base of the nail plate. The visible part of the matrix that extends from underneath the living skin is called the lunula (LOO-nuh-luh). It is the whitish, half-moon shape at the base of the nail. The whitish color is caused by the reflection of light off the surface of the matrix. The lighter color of the lunula shows the true color of the matrix. Every nail has a lunula, but some lunulas are short and remain hidden under the eponychium.

Growth and appearance of the nails can be affected if an individual is in poor health, if a nail disorder or disease is present, or if there has been an injury to the matrix.

Pg. 199 & 200

If disease, injury, or infection occurs in the matrix, the shape or thickness of the nail plate can change. In fact, these conditions are generally the only reasons that a person will shed a nail. Healthy nails are not shed automatically or periodically in the way that healthy hair is shed. Often after a disease, injury, or infection that has affected the nail’s growth, the natural nail will return to its healthy growth as long as the matrix is healthy and undamaged. Ordinarily, replacement of a natural fingernail takes about four to six months. Toenails take about nine months to one year to be fully replaced

Pg. 202

 

Term

014) The whitish half moon shape on the nail

A) Lunula

B)

C) 

D)

Definition

LUNULA

Nail Malformation

The matrix (MAY-trikz) is the area where the nail plate cells are formed; this area is composed of matrix cells that produce the nail plate cells. The matrix contains nerves, lymph, and blood vessels to nourish the matrix cells. As long as it is nourished and healthy, the matrix will continue to create new nail plate cells.

The matrix extends from under the nail fold at the base of the nail plate. The visible part of the matrix that extends from underneath the living skin is called the lunula (LOO-nuh-luh). It is the whitish, half-moon shape at the base of the nail. The whitish color is caused by the reflection of light off the surface of the matrix. The lighter color of the lunula shows the true color of the matrix. Every nail has a lunula, but some lunulas are short and remain hidden under the eponychium.

Growth and appearance of the nails can be affected if an individual is in poor health, if a nail disorder or disease is present, or if there has been an injury to the matrix.

Pg. 199 & 200

If disease, injury, or infection occurs in the matrix, the shape or thickness of the nail plate can change. In fact, these conditions are generally the only reasons that a person will shed a nail. Healthy nails are not shed automatically or periodically in the way that healthy hair is shed. Often after a disease, injury, or infection that has affected the nail’s growth, the natural nail will return to its healthy growth as long as the matrix is healthy and undamaged. Ordinarily, replacement of a natural fingernail takes about four to six months. Toenails take about nine months to one year to be fully replaced

Pg. 202

 

 

Term

015) Involuntary muscle that makes the hair stand up (goose bumps)

A) Arrector pili muscle

B)

C)

D) 

Definition

arrector pili muscles

Arrector pili muscles (ah-REK-tohr PY-leh MUS-uls) are the small, involuntary muscles in the base of the hair that cause goose flesh—or goose bumps, as many people call them—and papillae. The found in the dermis

A mature strand of human hair is divided into two parts: the hair root and the hair shaft. The hair root is the part of the hair located below the surface of the epidermis (outer layer of the skin). The hair shaft is the portion of the hair that projects above the epidermis

Structures of the Hair Root

The five main structures of the hair root include the hair follicle, hair bulb, dermal papilla, arrector pili muscle, and sebaceous (oil) glands.

o      The hair follicle (HAYR FAWL-ih-kul) is the tube-like depression or pocket in the skin or scalp that contains the hair root. Hair follicles are distributed all over the body, with the exception of the palms of the hands and the soles of the feet. The follicle extends downward from the epidermis into the dermis (the inner layer of skin), where it surrounds the dermal papilla. Sometimes more than one hair will grow from a single follicle.

o      The hair bulb (HAYR BULB) is the lowest part of a hair strand. It is the thickened, club-shaped structure that forms the lower part of the hair root. The lower part of the hair bulb fits over and covers the dermal papilla.

o      The dermal papilla (plural: dermal papillae) is a small, cone-shaped elevation located at the base of the hair follicle that fits into the hair bulb. The dermal papilla contains the blood and nerve supply that provides the nutrients needed for hair growth. Some people refer to the dermal papilla as the mother of the hair because it contains the blood and nerve supply that provides the nutrients needed for hair growth.

o      The arrector pili muscle is the small, involuntary muscle in the base of the hair follicle. Strong emotions or a cold sensation cause it to contract, which makes the hair stand up straight and results in what we call goose bumps.

o       Sebaceous glands are the oil glands in the skin that are connected to the hair follicles. The sebaceous glands secrete a fatty or an oily substance called sebum. Sebum lubricates the skin.

 

pg 158

Term

016) The inner most layer of skin (fatty layer)

A) Subcutaneous tissue /adipose tissue / subcutis tissue 

B)

C) 

D) 

Definition

Subcutaneous tissue

Subcutaneous tissue (sub-kyoo-TAY-nee-us TISH-oo), also known as adipose tissue (AD-uh-pohs TISH-oo) or subcutis tissue (sub-KYOO-tis TISH-oo), is the fatty tissue found below the dermis. It gives smoothness and contour to the body, contains fats for use as energy, and also acts as a protective cushion for the skin. Subcutaneous tissue varies in thickness according to the age, gender, and general health of the Individual

 

pg. 159

Term

017) The outer layer of the skin

A) Dermis

B) Epidermis

C) 

D) 

Definition

EPIDERMIS

The epidermis (ep-uh-DUR-mis) is the outermost and thinnest layer of the skin. It contains no blood vessels, but has many small nerve endings. The epidermis is made up of five layers.

Term

018) An obvious line from one color to another

A) Demarcation

B)

C) 

D) 

Definition

Demarcation

Apply color to the new growth only, being careful not to overlay on previously colored hair. Overlapping can cause breakage and a line of demarcation, which is the visible line separating colored hair from new growth.

 

Pg. 649

Term

018) Portion of he hair that extends above the skins surface is called the

A) Bulb

B) Hair Shaft

C) 

D) 

Definition

[image]

                      hair shaft

A mature strand of human hair is divided into two

parts: the hair root and the hair shaft. The

hair root is the part of the hair located below the

surface of the epidermis (outer layer of the

skin). The hair shaft is the portion of the hair that projects above the epidermis Structures of the

Hair Root

The five main structures of the hair root include the hair follicle, hair bulb, dermal papilla, arrector pili muscle, and sebaceous (oil) glands.

The hair follicle (HAYR FAWL-ih-kul) is the tube-like depression or pocket in the skin or scalp that contains the hair root. Hair follicles are distributed all over the body, with the exception of the palms of the hands and the soles of the feet. The follicle extends

downward from the epidermis into the dermis (the inner layer of skin), where it surrounds the dermal papilla. Sometimes more than one hair will grow from a single follicle.

•  The hair bulb (HAYR BULB) is the lowest part of a hair strand. It is the thickened, club-shaped structure that forms the lower part of the hair root. The lower part of the hair bulb fits over and covers the dermal papilla.

•  The dermal papilla (plural: dermal papillae) is a small, cone-shaped elevation located at the base of the hair follicle that fits into the hair bulb. The dermal papilla contains the blood and nerve supply that provides the nutrients needed for hair growth. Some people refer to the dermal papilla as the mother of the hair because it contains the blood and nerve supply that provides the nutrients needed for hair growth.

•  The arrector pili muscle is the small, involuntary muscle in the base of the hair follicle. Strong emotions or a cold sensation cause it to contract, which makes the hair stand up straight and results in what we call goose bumps. 

•  Sebaceous glands are the oil glands in the skin that are connected to the hair follicles. The sebaceous glands secrete a fatty or an oily substance called sebum. Sebum lubricates the skin.

 #18 pg. 220 & 221

 

Term

019) Considered a cool color

A) Green

B) Black

C) 

D)

Definition

GREEN

Tone or Hue of Color

The tone, also known as hue, is the balance of color. The tone or hue answers the question of which color to use based on the client’s desired results. These tones can be described as warm, cool, or neutral.

Warm tones can look lighter than their actual level. These tones are golden, orange, red, and yellow. Some haircolors use words such as auburn, amber, copper, strawberry, and bronze, which may be a better way to discuss and describe haircolor with the client. Cool tones can look deeper than their actual level. These tones are blue, green, and violet. Some describe cool tones as smoky or ash to the client. Natural

tones are warm tones and are described as sandy or tan.

 

Pg 363-364

Term

020) Hair with no pigment

A) Gray

B) Blonde

C) 

D) 

Definition
Term

021) You should not lighten hair past this level 

A) Pale yellow

B) Blonde

C) 

D) 

Definition

PALE YELLOW

Hair cannot be safely lifted past the pale yellow

stage with lightener. The extreme diffusion of color

necessary to give hair a white appearance causes

excessive damage to the hair. The result is that

when wet, the hair feels mushy and will stretch

without returning to its original strength. When dry,

the hair is harsh and brittle. Such hair often suffers

breakage and will not accept a toner properly.

Term

022) When relaxing the hair this is the step that stops the processing

A) Stabilizer

B) Shampoo

C) Conditioner 

D) 

Definition

Thio relaxer

Step 11) rinse thoroughly with warm water to remove all traces of the relaxer.

Step 12) Shampoo at least three times with an acid-balanced shampoo. It is essential that all traces of the relaxer be removed from the hair. Optional: apply the pre-neutralizing conditioner, and comb it through to the ends of the hair. Leave it on for approximately five minutes and then rinse.

Step 14) Blot excess hair from scalp

Step 15) apply thio neutralizer in ¼- to ½-inch (0.6 to 1.25 centimeters) sections throughout the hair and smooth with your hands or the back of the comb.

Pg. 661

 

 

 

 

Hydroxide Relaxer

Step 10) rinse thoroughly with warm water to remove all traces of the relaxer.

Step 11) Optional: apply the pre-neutralizing conditioner, and comb it through to the ends of the hair. Leave it on for approximately five minutes and then rinse.

Step 11) Shampoo at least three times with an acid-balanced neutralizing shampoo. It is essential that all traces of the relaxer be removed from the hair. Option: If you are using a neutralizing shampoo with a color indicator, a change in color will indicate

 

when all traces of the relaxer are removed and the natural pH of the hair and scalp has been restored

Term

024)

A) toner

B)

C) 

D)

Definition
Term

025)

A) Filler

B)

C) 

D)  

Definition
Term

026) Pin-curl base with most movement

A) Full Stem

B)

C) 

D)

Definition
FULL STEM
Term

027) Part of the pin-curl that doe not move

A) Base

B)

C) 

D)

Definition
BASE
Term

028) The area around the nail that should be soft and pliable

A) Cuticle

B) eponychium

C) 

D) 

Definition
?
Term

029) When finished with a nail wrap you

A) Clean the nail

B) Push back the cuticle

C) Apply oil 

D) 

Definition

APPLY OIL

Step 14: use medium-fine abrasive (240 grit) to shape and refine the wrap nail.

 

Step 15: apply nail oil and buff to a high shine with a fine (350 grit or higher) buffer. Use the buffer to smooth out rough areas in the fabric. Do not buff excessively or for too long. Overbuffing can wear through the wrap and weaken it.

Term

030) Apply cutilce oil to each nail plate. Start with the little finger, left hand, and massage oil into the nail plate and surrounding skin using a circular motion.

A) Circular

B) X

Definition

CIRCULAR

Use a cotton-tipped wooden pusher, a cotton swab, or an eyedropper to apply nail oil to each nail plate. Start with the little finger, left hand, and massage oil into the nail plate and surrounding skin using a circular motion

Term
030) When applying cuticle remover use this movement
Definition

To apply cuticle remover use a cotton-tipped wooden or metal pusher or cotton swab to carefully apply cuticle remover to the cuticle on each nail plate

Term

031) When removing polish hold the cotton ball on the nail for a few second, then move

A) Towards the free edge

B)

C) 

D)

Definition

FREE EDGE

Hold the saturated cotton on each nail while you silently count to 10, the old polish will now come off easily from the nail plate with a stroking motion, moving toward the free edge.

 

Pg. 826

Term

032) If you file the nail after soaking it

A) The ends will split

B) making it softer and more easily damaged during filing

C)

 

D)

Definition

The ends will split

Making it softer and more easily damaged during filing


Always file the nails in a manicure before they are soaked, as water will absorb into the nail plate, making it softer and more easily damaged during filing.

Pg. 826

Term

033) This is the nail shape that will most easily break

A) Square

B) Oval

C) Round 

D) Pointed

Definition

POINTED

The pointed nail is suited to thin hands with long fingers and narrow nail beds. The nail is tapered and longer than usual to emphasize and enhance the slender appearance of the hand. Know, however, that this nail shape may be weaker, may break more easily, and is more difficult to maintain than other nail shapes. Rarely are natural nails successful with this nail shape, so they are usually enhancements. They are for fashion-conscious people who do not need the strongest, most durable shape of nail enhancements.

 

Pg. 809

Term

036) Which is the least alkaline pH

A) Shampoo

B) Conditioner

C) Color

D)

 

 

Definition
Term

037) Moisture

A)

B)

C)

D) Humectrin

Definition

Most conditioners contain silicone along with moisture-binding humectants (hew-MECK-tents), substances that absorb moisture or promote the retention of moisture. Silicone reflects light and makes the hair appear shiny. Other ingredients reduce frizz or bulk up the hair. Most treatments and leave-ins contain proteins, which penetrate the cortex and reinforce the hair shaft from within. Since the hair's cuticle is made up of overlapping scales, a healthy cuticle lies down smoothly and reflects light, giving the appearance of shiny hair. Conditioners, detangling rinses, and cream rinses, smooth the cuticle and coat the hair shaft to achieve healthier looking hair. The cortex makes up 90 percent of the hair strand. The cortex can be penetrated with protein conditioner, products designed to penetrate the cortex and reinforce the hair shaft from within, to temporarily reconstruct the hair. Moisturizing conditioners also contain humectants that attract moisture from the air and are absorbed into the cortex.

 

Pg. 319

Term

038) The layer of hair that absorbs moisture

A) Cuticle

B) Cortex

C) Medulla

D)

Definition

Cutlicle

The Structure of Hair

Because all chemical texture procedures involve chemically and physically changing the structure of the hair, this chapter begins by reviewing the structure and purpose of each layer of the hair, characteristics of hair that were first discussed in Chapter 11,  properties of the Hair and Scalp.

•  Cuticle. Tough exterior layer of the hair. it surrounds the inner

layers and protects the hair from damage. Although the cuticle is not directly involved in the texture or movement of the hair, texture chemicals must penetrate through the cuticle to their target in the cortex in order to be effective .

•  Cortex. Middle layer of the hair, located directly beneath the cuticle layer. The cortex is responsible for the incredible strength and elasticity of human hair. Breaking

the side bonds of the cortex makes it possible to change the natural wave pattern of the hair.

•  Medulla. innermost layer of the hair, often called the pith or core of the hair. The medulla does not play a role in chemical texture services and may be missing in fine hair. For more detailed information on the hair’s structure, see

Chapter 11, properties of the Hair and Scalp.

 

Pg. 565

Term

039) Layer of hair that is changed in a perm

A) Cortex

B) Cuticle

C) Medulla 

D)

Definition

Cortex

The Structure of Hair

Because all chemical texture procedures involve chemically and physically changing the structure of the hair, this chapter begins by reviewing the structure and purpose of each layer of the hair, characteristics of hair that were first discussed in Chapter 11,  properties of the Hair and Scalp.

•  Cuticle. Tough exterior layer of the hair. it surrounds the inner

layers and protects the hair from damage. Although the cuticle is not directly involved in the texture or movement of the hair, texture chemicals must penetrate through the cuticle to their target in the cortex in order to be effective .

•  Cortex. Middle layer of the hair, located directly beneath the cuticle layer. The cortex is responsible for the incredible strength and elasticity of human hair. Breaking

the side bonds of the cortex makes it possible to change the natural wave pattern of the hair.

•  Medulla. innermost layer of the hair, often called the pith or core of the hair. The medulla does not play a role in chemical texture services and may be missing in fine hair. For more detailed information on the hair’s structure, see

Chapter 11, properties of the Hair and Scalp.

 

Pg. 565

Term

040) Keeps skin from burning

A) Melanin

B)

C) 

D)

Definition

Melanin

Skin Color

The color of the skin—whether fair, medium, or dark—depends primarily on melanin (MEL-ah-nin), the tiny grains of pigment (coloring matter) that are produced by melanocltes and then deposited into cells in the stratum germinativum layer of the epidermis and the papillary layers of the dermis. The color of the skin is a hereditary trait and varies among races and nationalities. Genes determine the amount and type of pigment produced in an individual. The body produces two types of melanin:

 

pheomelanin (fee-oh-MEL-uh-nin), which is red to yellow in color, and eumelanin (loo-MEL-uh-nin), which is dark brown to black. People with light-colored skin mostly produce pheomelanin, while those with dark-colored skin mostly produce eumelanin. The size of melanin granules varies from one individual to another. Melanin helps protect sensitive cells from the sun’s UV light, but it does not provide enough protection to prevent skin damage. Daily use of a sunscreen with a sun protection factor (SPF) of 15 or higher can help the melanin protect the skin from burning, skin cancer, and premature aging

pg. 160 & 161

Term

041) Secondary color is

A)

B)

C) 

D)

Definition

Secondary Colors

A Secondary color is a color obtained by mixing equal parts of two primary colors. The Secondary colors are green, orange, and violet.

Green is an equal combination of blue and yellow.Orangeis an equal combination of red and yellow. Violet is an equal combination of blue and red Tertiary Colors

A tertiary color is an intermediate color achieved by mixing a Secondary color and its neighboring primary color on the color wheel in equal amounts. The tertiary colors include blue-green, blue-violet, red-violet, red-orange, yellow-orange, and yellow-green. Natural-looking haircolor is made up of a combination of primary colors, Secondary colors, and tertiary colors

pg. 634

 

 

Term

042) Considered a warm color eye

A) Brown with Gold

B) Blue with violet

C) 

D)

Definition

Brown with Gold

Secondary Colors

A Secondary color is a color obtained by mixing equal parts of two primary colors. The Secondary colors are green, orange, and violet.

Green is an equal combination of blue and yellow.Orangeis an equal combination of red and yellow. Violet is an equal combination of blue and red Tertiary Colors

A tertiary color is an intermediate color achieved by mixing a Secondary color and its neighboring primary color on the color wheel in equal amounts. The tertiary colors include blue-green, blue-violet, red-violet, red-orange, yellow-orange, and yellow-green. Natural-looking haircolor is made up of a combination of primary colors, Secondary colors, and tertiary colors

pg. 634

 

 

Term

043) What parasite causes Hepatitis?

A) Bloodborne

B)

C) 

D)

Definition

Hepatitis 

Hepatitis (hep-uh-TY-tus), is a virus that causes diseaseand can damage the liver. In general, it is difficult to contract hepatitis. However, hepatitis is easier to contract than HIV because hepatitis can be present in all body fluids of those who are infected. In addition, unlike HIV, hepatitis can live on a surface outside the body for long periods of time. For this reason, it is vital that all surfaces that contact a client are thoroughly cleaned and disinfected. There are three types of hepatitis that are of concern in the salon:

hepatitis A, hepatitis B, and hepatitis C. Hepatitis B is the most difficult to kill on a surface, so check the label of the disinfectant you use to be sure that the product is effective against hepatitis B. Hepatitis B and C are spread from person to person through blood and, less often, through other body fluids, such as semen and vaginal secretions.

 

pg. 79& 80

Term

044) Massage movement considered most relaxing

A) Effleurage

B)

C) 

D)

Definition

Effleurage

Effleurage (EF-loo-rahzh) is a light, continuous stroking movement applied in a slow, rhythmic manner with the fingers (digital effleurage) or the palms (palmar effleurage). No pressure is used. The palms work the large surfaces, and the cushions of the fingertips work the small surfaces, such as those around the eyes. Effleurage is frequently used on the forehead, face, scalp, back, shoulder, neck, chest, arms, and hands for its soothing and relaxing effects. Every massage should begin and end with effleurage. When performing effleurage, hold your whole hand loosely, and keep your wrist and fingers flexible. Curve your fingers slightly to conform to the shape of the area being massaged, with just the cushions of the fingertips touching the skin.

Do not use the ends of the fingertips. They are pointier than the cushions, and will cause the effleurage to be less smooth. Also, the free edges of your fingernails may scratch the client’s skin.

 

pg. 726

Term

045) Tappoment

A) Vibration

B) ?

C) Digital tapping 

D)  percussion

Definition

DIGITAL TAPPING

Tapotement (tah-POH-te-ment), also known as percussion (pur-KUSH-un), consists of short quick tapping, slapping, and hacking movements. This form of massage is the most stimulating and should be applied with care and discretion. Tapotement movements tone the muscles and impart a healthy glow to the area being massaged. In facial massage, use only light digital tapping. Bring the fingertips down against the skin in rapid succession. Your fingers must be flexible enough to create an even force over the area being massaged

 

In slapping movements, keeping your wrists flexible allows your palms to come in contact with the skin in light, firm, and rapid slapping movements. One hand follows the other. With each slapping stroke, lift the flesh slightly.

Hacking is a chopping movement performed with the edges of the hands. Both the wrists and hands move alternately in fast, light, firm, and flexible motions against the skin. Hacking and slapping  movements are used only to massage the back, shoulders, and arms.

Vibration (vy-BRAY-shun) is a rapid shaking of the body part while the balls of the fingertips are pressed firmly on the point of application. The movement is accomplished by rapid muscular contractions in your arms. It is a highly relaxing movement, and should be applied at the end of the massage. Deep vibration in combination with other classical massage movements can also be produced by the use of a mechanical vibrator to stimulate blood circulation and increase muscle tone.

Term

047) Massage movement that uses a kneading movement performed by lifting, squeezing, and pressing the tissue with a light, firm pressure. pinching

    A) Pétrissage

    B)

    C) 

    D)

Definition

 Pétrissage

Pétrissage (PEH-treh-sahj) is a kneading movement performed by lifting, squeezing, and pressing the tissue with a light, firm pressure.

 

Pétrissage offers deeper stimulation to the muscles, nerves, and skin glands, and improves circulation. These kneading movements are Usually limited to the back, shoulders, and arms. Although typically used on larger surface areas such as the arms and shoulders, digital kneading can also be used on the cheeks with light pinching movements. The pressure should be light but firm. When grasping and releasing the fleshy parts, the movements must be rhythmic and never jerky. Fulling is a form of pétrissage in which the tissue is grasped, gently lifted, and spread out; this technique is used mainly for massaging the arms. With the fingers of both hands grasping the arm, apply a kneading movement across the flesh, with light pressure on the underside of the client’s forearm and between the shoulder and elbow.

Term

048) Before you analyze a client’s skin you always want to

A) Remove the make-up 

B) Use an astringent

client completes the health screening form

After carefully reading the client’s health screening form and discussing  your questions with the client

 

 

Definition

Remove the make-up

Analysis Procedure

client completes the health screening form

After carefully reading the client’s health screening form and discussing your questions with the client, have the client change into a smock and sit in the facial chair. The client’s hair should be covered, and any jewelry should be removed by the client and put away in a safe place. Jewelry can get in the way or become soiled or damaged during treatment. Cosmetologists should avoid wearing jewelry on the hands or arms while administering facial treatments because rings and bracelets mal accidentally injure the client or be damaged. Recline the client in the chair and drape the client using a hair cap, headband, or towels. After washing your hands thoroughly, warm some cleansing milk in your hands and apply the cleanser to the face in upward circular movements. When cleansing the eye area, use a special cleanser made for eye makeup removal. Apply a small amount to the eye areas, being careful not to use so much that it gets in the eyes. Gently remove the cleanser with warm damp facial sponges or cotton pads. Remember to remove the cleanser using upward and outward movements. When working around the eyes, move outward

 

on the upper lid, and inward on the lower lid. After thoroughly cleansing the face, apply a cotton eye pad to the client’s eyes to avoid exposure to the extreme brightness of the magnifying lamp.

Term

049) How long should you soak your implements?

     A) 10 min

     B) 30 min

     C) 

     D)

Definition
Term

049) How long should you soak your implements?

     A) 10 min

     B) 30 min

     C) 

     D)

Definition
Term

050) Most efficient disinfectant

     A) 

     B) 

     C) 

     D)

Definition
Term

051) When perming this kind of hair is most resitant

    A) Gray  

    B) Course

    C) 

    D)

Definition

COURSE

Other than the lack of pigment, gray hair is exactly the same as pigmented hair. Although gray hair mal be resistant, it is not resistant simply because it is gray. Pigmented hair on the same person’s head is just as resistant as the gray hair. Gray hair is simply more noticeable than pigmented hair.

pg. 229

Coarse hair texture has the largest diameter. It is stronger than fine hair, for the same reason that a thick rope is stronger than a thin rope. It is often more resistant to processing than medium or fine hair, so it usually requires more processing when you are applying products such as hair lighteners, haircolors, permanent waving solutions, and chemical hair relaxers.

Pg. 237

. Coarse, resistant hair with a strong, compact cuticle layer requires a highly alkaline chemical solution. porous, damaged, or chemically treated hair requires a less alkaline solution.

Pg. 565

Coarse hair with a strong, resistant cuticle layer needs the additional swelling and penetration that is provided by a more alkaline waving solution.

 

Pg. 572

Term

053) Alopecia areata is cause by

   A) Stress

   B) Autoimmune disorder

   C) 

   D) 

Definition

Autoimmune disorder

Alopecia areata (al-oh-PEE-shah air-ee-AH-tah) is an autoimmune disorder that causes the affected hair follicles to be mistakenly attacked by a person’s own immune system. White blood cells stop the hair growth during the anagen phase. It is a highly unpredictable skin disease that affects an estimated 5 million people in theUnited States alone. This hair disorder usually begins with one or more small, round, smooth bald patches on the scalp and can progress to total scalp hair loss, known as alopecia totalis (al-oh-PEE-shah toh-TAHL-us), or complete body hair loss, called alopecia universalis (al-oh-PEE-shah loo-nih-vur-SAA-lis)

 

Pg 231

Term

054) What type of infection?

    A)

    B)

    C) 

    D) Pappilla

Definition
Term

064) When shampooing start manipulation here

    A)Temples

    B) Hairline

    C) Nape 

    D) Occipital bone

Definition

HAIRLINE

Begin at the front hairline and work in back and forth movements until the top of the head is reached

Pg. 336

Term

065) White heads are also know are

A) Milia

B) Acne

C) comedones 

D) 

Definition

Acne

comedones

An open comedo, also known as a blackhead, is a hair follicle filled with keratin and sebum. Comedones appear most frequently on the face, especially in the T-zone, the center of the face. When the sebum of the comedo is exposed to the environment, it oxidizes and turns black. When the follicle is closed and not exposed to the environment, the sebum remains a white or cream color and is a closed comedo, also known as whitehead, and appears as a small bump just under the skin surface

 

Pg. 180

Term

066) Applying a darker shake foundation to the neck will give it an affect of looking

   A) Wider

   B) Broader

     C) For a small face and a short, thick neck, use a darker foundation on theneck than the one used on the face. This will make the neck appear thinner

D)

 

Definition

For a small face and a short, thick neck, use a darker foundation on the

neck than the one used on the face. This will make the neck appear thinner.

 

Pg. 778

Term

068)  The sebaceous Gland Secrete

A) Sebum

B) Keratin

C) 

D) 

Definition
SEBUM
Term

069) This type of hair will get wet more easily

A) Porous

B) Course

C) Short

D) 

Definition
Term

070) Attachment used on blow dryer for Long, Curly, or

Extremely Curly Hair in  Its Natural Wave Pattern

A) Diffuser

Definition

DIFFUSER

The diffuser is an attachment that causes the air to flow more softly, and helps to accentuate or keep textural definition

pg. 431

Diffuser. Dries hair without disturbing the finished look and without dehydrating the hair.

 

pg. 511

Term

072) The facial shape is considered ideal and works well with any hairstyle.

 

 A) Oval

Definition

OVAL

Oval Facial Type

The contour and proportions of the oval face shape form the basis and ideals for evaluating and modifying all other facial types

•  Facial contour: The oval face is about one and a half times longer than its width across the brow. The forehead is slightly wider than the chin. A person with an oval face can wear any hairstyle unless there are other considerations, such as eyeglasses, length and shape of nose, or profile.

 

Pg 296

Term

073) Acid shampoo is used after a color service to

A) Avoid fading

 

 

Definition

AVOID FADING

pH-Balanced Shampoo

A pH-balanced shampoo is balanced to the pH of skin and hair(4.5 to 5.5). Many shampoos are pH balanced by the addition of citric, lactic, or phosphoric acid. Most experts believe that an acid pH of 4.5 to 5.5 is essential to preventing excessive dryness and hair damage during the cleansing process. Shampoos that are pH balanced help to close the hair cuticle and are recommended for hair that has been color treated or lightened.

 

Pg. 317

Term

074) This is the technical term for Splitends

A) Trichoptilosis

B)

C) 

D) 

Definition

•  Trichoptilosis (trih-kahp-tih-LOH-sus) is the technical term for split ends. Hair conditioning treatments will soften and lubricate dry ends but will not repair split ends. The only way to remove split ends is by cutting them.

•  Trichorrhexis nodosa (trik-uh-REK-sis nuh-DOH-

suh) is the technical term for knotted hair. It is characterized by brittleness and the formation of nodular swellings along the hair shaft.

The hair breaks easily, and the broken fibers spread out like a brush along the hair shaft. Treatments include softening the hair with conditioners and moisturizers.

•  Monilethrix (mah-NIL-ee-thriks) is the technical term for beaded hair. The hair breaks easily between the beads or nodes. Treatments include hair and scalp conditioning.

•  Fragilitas crinium (fruh-JIL-ih-tus KRI-nee-um) is the technical term for brittle hair. The hairs mal split at any part of their length. Treatments include hair and scalp conditioning and haircutting above the split to prevent further damage.

Pg. 233

 

Term

075) Main active ingredient in true acid and acid-balanced waving lotions.

 

A) glyceryl monothioglycolate (gMTg)

Definition

Glyceryl monothioglycolate

Glyceryl monothioglycolate (GMTG) (GLiS-ur-il mon-oh-thy-oh-GLy-koh-layt) is the main active ingredient in true acid and acid-balanced waving lotions. it has a low pH. Although it is the primary reducing agent in all acid waves, it may not be the only one. Most acid waves also contain ATG, just like a cold wave. Although the low pH of acid waves may seem ideal, repeated exposure to GMTG is known to cause allergic sensitivity in both hairstylists and clients. 

Term

076) Relaxing this step will stop processing/neutralizing

A) Shampoo

B) Conditioner

C) Stabilizer 

D)

Definition

Thio relaxer

Step 11) rinse thoroughly with warm water to remove all traces of the relaxer.

Step 12) Shampoo at least three times with an acid-balanced shampoo. It is essential that all traces of the relaxer be removed from the hair. Optional: apply the pre-neutralizing conditioner, and comb it through to the ends of the hair. Leave it on for approximately five minutes and then rinse.

Step 14) Blot excess hair from scalp

Step 15) apply thio neutralizer in ¼- to ½-inch (0.6 to 1.25 centimeters) sections throughout the hair and smooth with your hands or the back of the comb.

Pg. 661

 

 

 

 

Hydroxide Relaxer

Step 10) rinse thoroughly with warm water to remove all traces of the relaxer.

Step 11) Optional: apply the pre-neutralizing conditioner, and comb it through to the ends of the hair. Leave it on for approximately five minutes and then rinse.

Step 11) Shampoo at least three times with an acid-balanced neutralizing shampoo. It is essential that all traces of the relaxer be removed from the hair. Option: If you are using a neutralizing shampoo with a color indicator, a change in color will indicate

 

when all traces of the relaxer are removed and the natural pH of the hair and scalp has been restored

Term

076) hydroxide relaxes……Very strong alkalis with a pH over 13; the main active ingredient in all hydroxide relaxers.

A) hydroxide ion

 

 

Definition
Term

077) The active ingredient or reducing agent in alkaline permanents is        

A) Thioglycolic acid (thy-oh-GLY-kuh-lik) (ATG)

 

Definition

 ammonium thioglycolate (ATG)

Thioglycolic acid (thy-oh-GLY-kuh-lik), a colorless liquid with a strong, unpleasant odor, is the most common reducing agent in permanent wave solutions. The strength of the permanent waving solution is determined primarily by the concentration of thio. Stronger perms have a higher concentration of thio, which means that more disulfide bonds are broken compared to weaker perms. Because acids do not swell the hair nor penetrate into the cortex, it is necessary for manufacturers to add an alkalizing agent. The addition of ammonia to thioglycolic acid produces a new chemical called (uh-MOH-nee-um thy-oh-GLy-kuh-layt), which is alkaline and is the active ingredient or reducing agent in alkaline permanents. The degree of alkalinity (pH) is a second factor in the overall strength of the waving solution.

Coarse hair with a strong, resistant cuticle layer needs the additional swelling and penetration that is provided by a more alkaline waving solution. By contrast, porous hair, or hair with a damaged cuticle layer, is easily penetrated and could be damaged by a highly alkaline permanent waving solution. The alkalinity of the perm solution should correspond to the resistance, strength, and porosity of the cuticle layer

 

Pg. 572

Term

078) Cutlicle, cortex, medulla

Definition

Cutlicle, cortex, medulla

The Structure of Hair

Because all chemical texture procedures involve chemically and physically changing the structure of the hair, this chapter begins by reviewing the structure and purpose of each layer of the hair, characteristics of hair that were first discussed in Chapter 11,  properties of the Hair and Scalp.

•  Cuticle. Tough exterior layer of the hair. it surrounds the inner

layers and protects the hair from damage. Although the cuticle is not directly involved in the texture or movement of the hair, texture chemicals must penetrate through the cuticle to their target in the cortex in order to be effective .

•  Cortex. Middle layer of the hair, located directly beneath the cuticle layer. The cortex is responsible for the incredible strength and elasticity of human hair. Breaking

the side bonds of the cortex makes it possible to change the natural wave pattern of the hair.

•  Medulla. innermost layer of the hair, often called the pith or core of the hair. The medulla does not play a role in chemical texture services and may be missing in fine hair. For more detailed information on the hair’s structure, see

Chapter 11, properties of the Hair and Scalp.

 

Pg. 565

Term

079) The first true acid waves were introduced in the early 1970s have a pH between

 

A) 4.5 and 7.0

Definition
 4.5 and 7.0
Term

080) Most of the acid waves found in today’s salons have a pH between

 

A) 7.8 and 8.2.

Definition
7.8 and 8.2.
Term

081) Modern acid waves are actually acid-balanced waves, which are permanent waves that have a pH of 

A) 7.0 or neutral pH

 

Definition

7.0 or meutral

Acid-Balanced Waves

in order to permit processing at room temperature and produce a firmer curl, the strength and pH of acid waves have increased steadily over the years. Most of the acid waves found in today’s salons have a pH between 7.8 and 8.2. Modern acid waves are actually acid-balanced waves, which are permanent waves that have a 7.0 or neutral pH; because of their higher pH, they process at room temperature, do not require the added heat of a hair dryer, process more quickly, and produce firmer curls than true acid waves.

Pg. 754

Exothermic Waves

An exothermic chemical reaction produces heat. Exothermic waves (Eks-oh-THR-mik) create an exothermic chemical reaction that heats up the waving solution and speeds up the processing. All exothermic waves have three components: permanent waving solution, activator, and neutralizer. The permanent waving solution contains thio, just as in a cold wave. The activator contains an oxidizing agent (usually hydrogen peroxide) that must be added to the permanent waving solution immediately before use. Mixing an oxidizer with the permanent waving solution causes a rapid release of heat and an increase in the temperature of the solution. The increased temperature increases the rate of the chemical reaction, which shortens the processing time.

 

 

Term

082) The activator in an exothermic that must be added to the permanent waving solution immediately before use contains an oxidizing agent usually

A) hydrogen peroxide

Definition

HYDROGEN PEROXIDE


Exothermic Waves 

An exothermic chemical reaction produces heat. Exothermic waves (Eks-oh-THR-mik) create an exothermic chemical reaction that heats up the waving solution and speeds up the processing. All exothermic waves have three components: permanent waving solution, activator, and neutralizer. The permanent waving solution contains thio, just as in a cold wave. The activator contains an oxidizing agent (usually hydrogen peroxide) that must be added to the permanent waving solution immediately before use. Mixing an oxidizer with the permanent waving solution causes a rapid release of heat and an increase in the temperature of the solution. The increased temperature increases the rate of the chemical reaction, which shortens the processing time.

Term

083) The first function of permanent waving (thio) neutralization is to deactivation reducing agent and the next function is

A) Rebuilds the disulfide bonds by removing the hydrogen that was added by the permanent waving solution

Definition

Rebuilds the disulfide bonds by removing the hydrogen that was added by the permanent waving solution

Thio Neutralization: Stage One

The first function of permanent waving (thio) neutralization is the deactivation, or neutralization, of any waving lotion that remains in the hair after processing and rinsing. The chemical reaction involved is called oxidation. properly rinsing the hair after the permanent has processed removes any remaining perm solution, prior to applying the neutralizer. Oxidative reactions can also lighten hair color, especially at an alkaline pH. To avoid scalp irritation and unwanted lightening of hair color, always rinse perm solution from the hair for at least five minutes, and then blot the hair with towels to remove as much moisture as possible. Excess water left in the hair reduces the effectiveness of the neutralizer. As discussed previously, permanent waving solution breaks disulfide bonds by adding hydrogen. Thio neutralization rebuilds the disulfide bonds by removing the hydrogen that was added by the permanent waving solution.  The hydrogen atoms are strongly attracted to the oxygen in the neutralizer and release their bond with the sulfur atoms and join with the oxygen. Each oxygen atom joins with two hydrogen atoms to rebuild one disulfide bond, forming a water molecule. The water is removed in the final rinse. Side bonds are then re-formed into their new shape as different pairs

 

pg. 578 & 579

Term

084) Main active reducing agent in an alkaline perm

A) Ammonium Hydroxid

B) ammonium thioglycolate (ATG)

C) 

D)

Definition


Alkaline Waves or Cold Waves

Alkaline waves, also known as cold waves, were developed in 1941, have a pH between 9.0 and 9.6, use ammonium thioglycolate (ATG) as the reducing agent, and Process at room temperature without the addition of heat

pg. 573

Term

084) Main ingredient in an alkaline perm

A) Ammonium Hydroxid

B) ammonium thioglycolate (ATG) 

C) 

D)

Definition

?

 Alkaline Waves or Cold Waves

Alkaline waves, also known as cold waves, were developed in 1941, have a pH between 9.0 and 9.6, use ammonium thioglycolate (ATG) as the reducing agent, and Process at room temperature without the addition of heat

 

pg. 573

Term

085) Wig

A) turned hair

Definition
Term

086) Wigs cuticle removed

Definition
Term

46) Massage movement that uses a light, continuous stroking movement applied in a slow, rhythmic manner with the fingers (digital effleurage) or the palms (palmar effleurage). hands do not leave the skin

A) Effleurage

B)

C) 

D)

Definition

Effleurage

Effleurage (EF-loo-rahzh) is a light, continuous stroking movement applied in a slow, rhythmic manner with the fingers (digital effleurage) or the palms (palmar effleurage). No pressure is used. The palms work the large surfaces, and the cushions of the fingertips work the small surfaces, such as those around the eyes. Effleurage is frequently used on the forehead, face, scalp, back, shoulder, neck, chest, arms, and hands for its soothing and relaxing effects. Every massage should begin and end with effleurage. When performing effleurage, hold your whole hand loosely, and keep your wrist and fingers flexible. Curve your fingers slightly to conform to the shape of the area being massaged, with just the cushions of the fingertips touching the skin.

Do not use the ends of the fingertips. They are pointier than the cushions, and will cause the effleurage to be less smooth. Also, the free edges of your fingernails may scratch the client’s skin.

pg. 726

 

 

Term

O23) When putting on a nail tip it should not cover more than ______ of the nail plate

A) 1/4

B)  1/2

C) 

D) 

Definition