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Nutrition
Midterm 2
162
Biology
02/15/2011

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Cards

Term
What would be the approx. weight gain of a person who consumes an excess of 500 kCals daily for one month?
Definition
4 lbs
Term
Approx what percentage of weight loss during starvation is lean body mass?
Definition
50
Term
What instrument is used to measure the energy content of food?
Definition
Bomb calorimeter
Term
About how long does it take for a meal to be completely eliminated from the stomach?
Definition
4 hours
Term
After consuming a very large meal, the desire to eat of slice of chocolate cake is an ex. of behavior known as
Definition
appetite
Term
What is the most satiating macronutrient?
Definition
Protein
Term

Among the following, which has the greatest power to suppress hunger?

 

apples

peanuts

doughnuts

potato chips

Definition
apples
Term

Which of the following hormones is most responsible for signaling satiety as well as reducing food intake during a meal?

 

gastrin

adipokines

neuropeptide Y

cholecystokinin

Definition
cholecystokinin
Term

The day after Thanksgiving, you and your sisters are a little hungry and want to eat leftovers before going shopping. Which of the following foods would most readily satisfy the feeling of hunger?

 

Turkey, Pecan Pie,

Mashed Potatoes, Noodle Casserole

Definition
Turkey
Term

Which of the following may be used to calculate the amount of energy expended by the body?

 

oxygen consumed

total air exchanged

intestinal gas expelled

CO2 consumed

Definition
Oxygen consumed
Term

All of the fllwing are characteristics of neuropeptide-Y except

 

it stimulates appetite

it reduces fat storage

it is synthesized in the brain

it increases carbohydrate craving

Definition
it reduces fat storage
Term

Which of the fllwing describes the process of thermogenesis?

 

burning of fat

synthesis of fat

generation of heat

generation of water

Definition
generation of heat
Term
What fraction of the day's energy expenditure of the average person is represented by his/her basal metabolism?
Definition
about 2/3
Term

Which of the fllwing does not decrease the metabolic rate?

 

fever

fasting

sleeping

malnutrition

Definition
fever
Term
What is the approx. daily basal metabolism of a 110lb woman?
Definition
1000 kCal
Term

Which of the fllwing factors has the most influence on the body's metabolic rate?

 

age

gender

amount of fat tissue

amount of lean body tissue

Definition
amount of lean body tissue
Term

Which of the fllwing is a feature of the basal metabolic rate (BMR)?

 

fever decreases the BMR

fasting increases the BMR

pregnancy increases the BMR

females have a higher BMR than males on a body weight basis

Definition
pregnancy increases the BMR
Term

Among the fllwing groups, which has the highest metabolic rate?

 

females

older individuals

younger individuals

people with smaller surface areas

Definition
younger individuals
Term
If a dancer and a typist are the same height and have the exact same body build, the dancer will be heavier cuz she has
Definition
more muscle
Term
The weight of the body less the fat content is known as the
Definition
lean body mass
Term
What term describes the increase in energy expenditure that occurs in a person who fractures a leg?
Definition
adaptive thermogenesis
Term
For almost all people who use the equations for calculating Estimated Energy Requirements, the actual values fall within a range of plus or minus
Definition
320-400 kCal
Term

Which of the fllwing is a sig. factor associated w/ interpretation of body composition values?

 

The values include fat + protein but not water

It is rare the sedentary, normal wt. people are overfat

It is possible that muscular people may be classified as overwt.

Body comp. can be accurately assessed by the measuring of body wt.

Definition
It is possible that muscular people may be classified as overwt.
Term
What is the range of body fat content for normal-weight men?
Definition
13-21%
Term
What is the apprx. body mass index of a woman who is 5'5" and 125 lbs?
Definition
21
Term
Why does the use of the BMI overestimate the prevalence of obesity in the Afro-American pop.?
Definition
Blacks have denser vones and higher body protein concentrations than whites
Term
What is the range of body fat content for normal-weight women?
Definition
23-31%
Term
Jacki, who has a sedentary lifestyle, is 5'5" and weighs 165lb. She calculated her BMI to be 27.5. She recognizes that her body weight is unhealthy and vows to improve her eating habits and begin a regular program of physical fitness. Her goal is to achieve a BMI of 22. Approx how much weight (lbs) must she lose?
Definition
33
Term

Which of the fllwing defines central obesity?

 

Accumulation of fat during the mid-years of life

Storage of fat around the central part of the body

Overfatness due to a lg # of interacting behavioral probs

Overfatness due to reliance on high fat foods as a central part of the diet.

 

Definition
Storage of fat around the central part of the body
Term
In what region of the body is the storage of excess body fat associated with the highest risks for the cardiovascular disease and diabetes?
Definition
Abdomen
Term
There is a high risk of obesity-related health problems when a man's waist circumference begins to exceed
Definition
40 in.
Term

The known health risks for being underweight include all of the following except

 

diabetes

infertility in women

giving birth to unhealthy infants

increased cancer-induced wasting

Definition
diabetes
Term
Ben is worried that his family history of heart disease and his BMI of 28 are putting him at very high risk for developing cardiovascular disease. What would a clinician advise Ben to help lower his risk?
Definition
Lose weight as it can lower both blood cholesterol and blood pressure
Term
The risks for dying prematurely are doubled when the body mass index first rises above
Definition
35
Term

All of the fllwing are features of the health risks associated w/ excessive body fat except

 

obesity is classified as a disease

obese women have elevated levels of estrogen

the risks are higher in black women that in white women

people with a BMI higher than 35 have twice the risk of dying prematurely

Definition
the risks are higher in black women than in white women
Term
The major cause of insulin resistance is related to
Definition
excess body weight
Term

Which of the fllwing may best explain the relationship between excess body fat and higher risk for cancers of the female reproductive system?

 

 

Definition
Excess body fat produces more estrogen, which may promote tumor development.
Term
Anorexia nervosa is most common in
Definition
female adolescents
Term
What term is given to the condition of a female athlete who has an eating disorder and develops amenorrhea and osteoporosis?
Definition
female athlete triad
Term
Appox. how many people in the US are believed to have eating disorders?
Definition
5 million
Term
All of the fllwing are characteristics of anorexia nervosa except
Definition
in those who recover, energy intakes return to normal
Term
Which of the fllwing is a characteristic of people w/ anorexia nervosa?
Definition
In those who are treated, many relapse into abnormal eating patterns.
Term
Appox. what fraction of people treated for anorexia nervosa show reasonable maintenance of their weight gain?
Definition
1/2
Term

Typ. foods chosen by a person with bulimia nervosa during a binge include all of the fllwing except

 

bread

cookies

ice cream

vegetables

Definition
vegetables
Term
Which of the fllwing is a characteristic of the eating pattern of people with bulimia nervosa?
Definition
Binge eating typically occurs after a period of strict dieting
Term
What is the primary factor that differentiates bulimia nervosa from binge eating?
Definition
Purging is rarely practiced in binge eating disorder
Term
According to body mass index values, what fraction of the US adult production is considered overweight or obese?
Definition
2/3
Term
What is the classification of a person who is 6'4" tall and 202 lbs?
Definition
Healthy weight
Term

All of the fllwing describe the behavior of fat cells except

 

the # decreases when fat is lost from the body

the size is larger in obese people than in normal-weight people

the storage capacity for fat depends on both cell # and cell size

the # increases several-fold during the growth yrs + tapers off when adult status is reached

Definition
the number decreases when fat is lost from the body
Term

Which of the fllwing is known to promote fat storage in adipocytes?

 

Glucagon

Lipoprotein lipase

Cellulite synthetase

Lipoprotein synthetase

Definition
Lipoprotein lipase
Term

In quest for achieving desirable body weight, adults have control over all of the following except

 

diet

behavior

physical activity

adipocyte number

Definition
adipocyte number
Term

Which of the fllwing defines the body's set point?

 

min. wt. of a person

max. wt of a person

pt. at which a person's wt plateaus before dropping again quickly

pt. above which the body tends to lose wt and below which it tends to gain wt.

Definition
Point above which the body tends to lose weight and below which it tends to gain weight.
Term

Which of the fllwing is a feature of leptin?

It is ...

an enzyme

a satiety signal

usually deficient in obese people

secreated by the brain and acts on fat cells

Definition
It is a satiety signal
Term
Which of the fllwing is a feature of ghrelin?
Definition
It stimulates appetite and energy storage
Term

All of the fllwing are hormones that promote satiety except

 

PYY
CCK
leptin

ghrelin

Definition
ghrelin
Term
At any given time, what % of all US women are attempting to lose wt?
Definition
35-45
Term
Clinically severy obesity is also known as
Definition
morbid obesity
Term
What is the primary action of orlistat, a weight loss drug?
Definition
It inhibits pancreatic lipase
Term
The drug sibutramine reduces appetite by afecting
Definition
serotonin utilization in the brain
Term
The prescription drug sibutramine acts by regulating the utilization of
Definition
serotonin
Term
What is a safe rate of wt. loss on a long term basis for most overweight people?
Definition
0.5-2 lbs/week
Term
As a general rule, what min. # of kCal per day is necessary to ensure nutritional adequacy in an eating plan for reducing body weight?
Definition
500
Term

All of the fllwing are behavior modifications for losing weight except

 

shopping only when not hungry

eating only in one place and in one room

participating in activities such as television viewing only when not eating

taking smaller portions of food but always eating everything on the plate quickly.

Definition
taking smaller portions of food but always eating everything on the plate quickly
Term
Upon beginning a meal, the satiety signal in the body is sent after a lag time of about
Definition
20 minutes
Term
A person who weighs 150 lbs. and walks at a pace of 3 miles/hr expends about how many kCal in that hour?
Definition
270
Term
Which of the following is a feature of the body's response to engaging in physical activity?
Definition
Lower body fat is more readily lost from vigorous exercises that work primarily the hip and leg muscles
Term

Features of the adaptive response to regular physical exercise include all of the following except

 

it curbs appetite

it stimulates digestive function in the postexercise period

it increases energy expenditure in the postexercise period

it triggers release of lipids from adipocytes from all over the body

Definition
it stimulates digestive function in the postexercise period
Term
What is the principal reason that appetite is turned off immediately after a person finishes an intense workout?
Definition
Glucose and fatty acid are still abundant in the blood
Term
Approx. how many kCal per week should be burned in physical activity in order to maintain a weight loss?
Definition
2000
Term
Approx. what percentage of overweight people who intentionally lose weight are able to maintain the weight for at least one year?
Definition
50
Term
The classification of underweight is defined when the BMI first drops below
Definition
18.5
Term
Adverse side effects of typical low-carbohydrate diets include all of the following except
Definition
high blood pressure
Term

All of the fllwing are features of high-protein diets except

 

they have a high satiety index

they advise dieters to not count kCal

they provide for long-term weight maintenance

they typically recommend intakes of 1200 kCal per day

Definition
They provide for long-term weight maintenance
Term
Which of the fllwing is characteristic of dieting and ketosis?
Definition
Body fat losses on a ketogenic diet are initially high but then taper off after one week
Term

General characteristics of the water-soluble vitamins include all of the following except

 

they must be consumed daily

toxic levels in the body are rarely found

they are absorbed directly into the blood

excesses are eliminated from the kidneys

Definition
they must be consumed daily
Term
When thiamin is consumed in excess of needs, how does the body treat the excess?
Definition
Excreted primarily in the urine
Term
What is a chief function of the B vitamins?
Definition

Coenzyme participation

 

Term
Which of the following explains why B vitamin deficiencies lead to lack of energy?
Definition
Coenzymes needed for energy metabolism are produced in insufficient amounts
Term
What is the primary chemical reaction in which thiamin participates as a coenzyme?
Definition
Assists in removal of one-carbon units from compounds involved in energy metabolism
Term

Which of the following is a characteristic of thiamin nutrition?

 

The coenzyme contains pyrosulfate

It is required for regeneration of folate

It is required for regeneration of niacin

It is an integral part of the nerve cell membrane

Definition
It is an integral part of the nerve cell membrane
Term
Approx. what % of alcoholics exhibit thiamin deficiency?
Definition
80
Term
Of the fllwing, which is the richest food source of thiamin?
Definition
soy milk
Term
Riboflavin in its coenzyme form functions in the transfer of
Definition
hydrogen atoms
Term
A deficiency of what vitamin produces a characteristic cracking and redness at the corners of the mouth?
Definition
Riboflavin
Term
Riboflavin needs are more difficult to meet when diet is low in
Definition
dairy foods
Term
When the diet contains adequate protein, what amino acid can be used by the body to synthesize niacin?
Definition
Tryptophan
Term
A low-protein diet in which corn is a principal food has been found to cause a deficiency of what vitamin?
Definition
Niacin
Term

A niacin deficiency is known to be manifested in abnormalities of all of the following organs/systems except

 

skin

skeletal

nervous system

gastointestinal tract

Definition
skeletal
Term

Which of the following is a feature of niacin nutrition?

 

low doses may lead to kidney stones

high doses may lower LDL raise HDL blood cholesterol

low doses may lead to heartburn and low blood pressure

high doses may elevate red blood cell count in mildly anemic individuals

Definition
high doses may lower LDL raise HDL blood cholesterol
Term
Biotin can be synthesized by
Definition
intestinal bacteria
Term
What vitamin forms a part of coenzyme A?
Definition
Pantothenic acid
Term
Which of the following vitamins is known to sustain substantial losses during processing of food?
Definition
Pantothenic acid
Term

Forms of vitamin B6 include all of the following except

 

pyridoxal

pyridoxine

pyrimidine

pyridoxamine

 

Definition
pyrimidine
Term
Which of the following vitamins is stored primarily in muscle tissue?
Definition
Vitamin B6
Term
The chief symptoms of early vitamin B6 deficiency include
Definition
confusion and depression
Term
Which of the fllwing is not a characteristic of vitamin B6 in nutrition?
Definition
It is required in amts proportional to energy expenditure
Term
In what major way does alcohol intake affect vitamin B6 metabolism?
Definition
It dislodges the PLP coenzyme from its enzyme
Term

On a per-kCal basis, which of the fllwing foods is richest in vitamin B6?

 

Meats

Fruits

Legumes

Vegetables

Definition
Fruits
Term
Research has shown that the risk for neural tube defects is lowered by taking supplements of
Definition
folate
Term
What vitamin is involved mainly with the replacement of red blood cells and digestive tract cells?
Definition
Folate
Term

Which of the following substances is known to adversly affect folate utilization?

 

Insulin

Calcium supplements

Regular use of antacids

Vitamain B12 supplement

Definition
Regular use of antacids
Term

Which of the fllwing foods is highest in folate?

 

Meats

Starches

Dairy products

Green, leafy veges

Definition
Green, leafy vegetables
Term
Among all the vitamins, which is believed to be most vunerable to interactions with drugs?
Definition
Folate
Term
Pernicious amenia results from deficiency of
Definition
Vitamin B12
Term
The nasal spray route represents a safe and efficacious means for the supple of
Definition
vitmain B12
Term
What is the function of intrinsic in Vitamin B12 absorption?
Definition
It attaches to the vitamin, thereby allowing absorption from the intestines.
Term

The absorption of which of the fllwing vitamins is most affected by the disorder atrophic gastritis?

 

Choline

Vitamin C

Vitamin B12

Pantothenic acid

Definition
Vitamin B12
Term
What is the most likely reason for the development of a vitamin B12 deficieny?
Definition
Inadequate absorption
Term
A smaller type of anemia is produced when there is a deficience of either
Definition
Vitamin 12 or Folate
Term
If you lose the ability to absorb B12, about what period of time could elapse before deficiency signs develop?
Definition
Three years
Term

Of the fllwing foods, which would be the only source of Vitamin B12?

 

Pecans

Hot Dog

Cauliflower

Whole Grain bread

Definition
Hot Dog
Term

Which of the following is classified as a conditionally essential nutrient?

 

PABA

Choline

Inositol

Ubiquinone

Definition
Choline
Term

Which of the fllwing characteristics is shared by Vitamins B6, B12, C and folate?

 

Rqrd for glycolysis

Consumption prevents anemia

Rqrd in microgram qnts

Found in citrus products and legumes

Definition
Consumption prevents anemia
Term

Which of the fllwing is freq. affected by deficiencies of the B Vitamins?

 

Bones

Tongues

Eyesight

Hair and nails

Definition
Tongue
Term
What is a free radical?
Definition
A molecule with at least one unpaired electron
Term
Why might vitamin C supplements be beneficial in treating the common cold?
Definition
They deactivate histamine
Term

Which of the following is a general function of vitamin C?

 

Antiviral agent

Antifungal agent

Anticancer agent

Antioxidant agent

Definition
Antioxidant agent
Term

Which of the fllwing vitamins is known to deactivate histamine, a substance that causes nasal congestion?

 

Niacin

Vitamin E

Vitamin C

Vitamin B12

Definition
Vitamin C
Term

Which of the fllwing food groups is a rich source of vitamin C?

 

Milk group

Meat group

Fruit group

Bread-cereal group

Definition
Fruit group
Term

If the diet contains precursor vitamin A, which of the fllwing tissues can use it to form vitamin A?

 

Eyes

Kidneys

Adipose cells

Intestinal cells

Definition
Intestinal cells
Term

Which of the fllwing food substances can be converted to vitamin A in the body?

 

Tryptophan

Chlorophyll

Xanthophyll

Beta-carotene

Definition
Beta-carotene
Term

Which of the fllwing is not among the features of fat-soluable vitamins?

 

Require bile for absorption

Found in the fat and oily parts of foods

Transported permanently to the liver and adipose tissue

Pose a greater risk for developing a toxicity than water soluabe vitamins

Definition
Transported permanently to the liver and adipose tissue
Term

All of the fllwing are forms of vitamin A except

 

retinol

retinal

retinoic acid

retinoquinone

Definition
retinoquinone
Term
Which of the fllwing describes an association of vitamin A and vision?
Definition
Light causes retinal to shift from a cis to a trans configuration
Term
Approx what percent of the body's vitamin A stores are found in the liver?
Definition
90
Term
Which of the following describes the primary function of vitamin A in bone health?
Definition
It assists enzymes that degrade certain regions of the bone thereby allowing remodeling to occur
Term

Vitamin A supplements are helpful in treating which of the following conditions?

 

Acne

Ricketsw

Osteomalacia

Night blindness

Definition
Night blindness
Term

A person seeking good source of vitamin A would select all of the fllwing except

 

liver

bananas

apricots

sweet potatoes

Definition
bananas
Term
Which of fllwing is a feature of vitamin A in foods?
Definition
Chlorophyll in dark green leafy vegetables masks the presence of beta-carotene
Term

Which of the following compounds is known to function as a hormone?

 

Vitamin D

Vitamin K

Phylloquinone

Alpha-tocopherol

Definition
Vitamin D
Term
The plant version of vitamin D is known as
Definition
ergocalciferol
Term
The animal version of vitamin D is known as
Definition
Cholecalciferol
Term

Which of the fllwing shows the highest vitamin D activity?

 

Cholecalciferol

7-Dehydrocholesterol

25-Hydroxy vitamin D

25-Dihydroxy vitamin D

Definition
25 Dihydroxy vitamin D
Term

Which of the fllwing compounds serves as the major precursor for the body's synthesis of vitamin D?

 

Cholesterol

Tryptophan

Beta-carotene

Eicosapentanoic acid

Definition
Cholesterol
Term

Which of the fllwing can the body use to synthesize vitamin D?

 

Bone

Carotene

Tryptophan

Exposure to sunlight

Definition
Exposure to sunlight
Term

All of the fllwing are other names for vitamin D except

 

calciferol

calcitonin

cholecaliferol

dihydroxy vitmamin D

Definition
Calcitonin
Term
What is/are the main function(s) of vitamin D?
Definition
Promotes calcium and phosphorus absorption and promotes calcium mobilization from bone
Term
In what system would the effects of a vitamin D deficiency be most readily observed?
Definition
Skeletal
Term
Which of the folllowing is a feature of vitamin D?
Definition
The average consumption in the US does not meet the recommeded intake
Term
Which of the fllwing is a characteristic of vitamin D nutrition?
Definition
Prolonged exposure to sunlight degrades the vitamin D precursor in skin, thus preventing vitamin D toxicity
Term

Recently, there has been a lot of news about the importance of antioxidants in the diet. Which of the fllwing vitamins has been noted as preventing the oxidation of low-density lipoproteins?

 

A E K D

Definition
E
Term
The main function of vitamin E in the body is to act as a(n)
Definition
antioxidant
Term

Which of the following features do vitamins C and E share?

 

Both function as antioxidants

Both require bile for absorption

Neither participates in protein synthesis

Neither is affected by the processing of foods

Definition
Both function as antioxidants
Term
How is vitamin E thought to play a role in reducing the risk of heart disease?
Definition
It slows oxidation of low-density lipoproteins
Term
The major function of vitamin E is to inhibit the destruction of 
Definition
Polyunsaturated fatty acids
Term
Why are vitamin E deficiencies rarely observed in human beings?
Definition
The vitamin is widespread in foods
Term

There is some evidence for benefits from vitamin E supplements in all of the following groups except

 

premature infants

people with intermittent claudication

women with fibrocystic breast disease

people with problems of sexual impotence

Definition
people with problems of sexual impotence
Term
Which of the fllwing is characteristic of the tocopherols?
Definition
They are usually found in foods high in  polyunsaturated fats
Term
Which of the following is a property of the tocopherols?
Definition
Easily destroyed by the air and oxygen
Term

Which of the following is a feature of vitamin E in foods?

 

 

Definition
Most convenience foods are poor sources of vitamin E
Term
Which of the fllwing are major sources of vitamin E in the diet?
Definition
Vegetable oils
Term
Among the following, which contains the highest concentration of vitamin E?
Definition
Corn Oil
Term
Among the following, which contains the highest concentration of vitamin E?
Definition
Corn oil
Term
Which of the following is a feature of vitamin K?
Definition
It participates in synthesis of bone proteins
Term
Of the fllwing, which would most readily induce a vitamin K deficiency?
Definition
Antibiotic therapy
Term
In what chief capacity does vitamin K function?
Definition
Blood clotting
Term
What is prothrombin?
Definition
A protein needed for blood clot formation
Term
Which of the following is known to require vitamin K for its synthesis?
Definition
Prothrombin
Term
All of the fllwing are features of vitamin K in nutrition except
Definition
gut microflora synthesis supplies sufficient amounts to meet the needs of most healthy adults
Term
Which of the following vitamins is synthesized by intestinal bacteria?
Definition
K
Term
Knowing the role of vitamin K in the body, in what organ would you expect to find it in large quantities?
Definition
Liver
Term
The major form of vitamin K in foods is known as
Definition
phylloquinone