Shared Flashcard Set

Details

Nutrition
Midterm 1
209
Biology
01/26/2011

Additional Biology Flashcards

 


 

Cards

Term
What are the six classes of nutrients?
Definition

Carbohydrates

Proteins

Fats

Vitamins

Minerals

Water

Term

How many calories per gram are in ...

carbohydrates?

protein?

fat?

alcohol?

Definition

carbohydrates - 4

protein - 4

fat - 9

alcohol - 7

Term

What is ...

functional food?

fortified food?

Definition

functional: food that has natural ingredients that provide health benefits

fortified: manufacturer modifies food so that it has health benefit

Term

What is a ...

phytochemical?

nutraceutical?

Definition

phytochemical: naturally found in foods

nutraceutical: vitamin or herbal supplement that claims nutritional benefits nutrient - pharmaceutical combination

Term
List the water soluble (8 B, one other) vitamins
Definition

B-1 Thiamin, B-2 Riboflavin,

B-3 Niacin, B-5 Pantothenic Acid,

B-6 Pyrodoxine, B-7 Biotin,

B-9 Folate, B-12

 

C

Term
List the four fat soluble vitamins
Definition
A D E K
Term
List the seven major minerals
Definition

Calcium

Chloride

Magnesium

Phosphorous

Potassium

Sulfur

Sodium

Term
What are the limitations of established energy and nutrient recommendations for populations?
Definition
Established energy standard for general population not for individuals does not take into account all variables. For disease prevention, not for optimum health
Term
What is Optimum health?
Definition
Functioning at your highest potential
Term
Identify four members on an integrative medicine team.
Definition

Acupuncturist

Chiropractor/Osteopath

Naturopathic physician

Dietitian

 

Term
What are the four leading primary causes of death in the US?
Definition

Heart Disease

Stroke 

Cancer

Lung Disease

Term

Using the Exchange list Guideline handout, how many calories, gram protein, grams carbohydrate and grams of fat in:

1 egg, 1 C cooked oatmeal, 2 t butter, 1/2 C fruit juice

Definition

item, calories, carbs, protein, fat

1 egg, 75, 0, 7, 5

1 C oatmeal, 160, 30, 6, 0

2 t butter, 90, 0, 0, 10

1/2 C juice, 60, 15, 1, 0

 

385, 45, 14, 15

Term
What do you plan to change in your diet as a result of doing the computer diet analysis?
Definition

Lower calorie intake

more fruits and veges

less red meat

more whole grains

less alcohol

more organic

less processed foods

Term
What are the four most important things to look for on a nutrition label?
Definition

Serving Size

Ingredients

Total Calories

Total Grams of Fat

Term

What do these five vegetarians eat?

Ovo

Lacto

Pesco

Polo

Vegan

Definition

Ovo: eggs

Lacto: dairy products

Pesco: fish

Polo: chicken

Vegan: no animal products

Term
List six reasons for being a vegetarian.
Definition

No harm to animals

No growth bovine hormone/antibiotics found in meat

Lower on the food chain = less pesticide residue

More phytochemicals and fiber

Less damage to the environment

More cost effective

Term

Controls the entry of chyme into the duodenum

A. Liver, B. Villus, C. Goblet, D. Pylorus, E. Enzyme, F. Gastrin, G. Secretin, H. Capillary, I. Appendix, J. Diffusion, K. Epiglottis, L. Gallbladder, M. Carbohydrase, N. Hepatic portal vein, O. Hepatic vein, P. Ileocecal valve, Q. Cholecystokinin, R. Active transport, S. Hydrochloric acid, T. Lymphatic system

Definition
D. Pylrus
Term

Controls the entry of chyme into the colon

A. Liver, B. Villus, C. Goblet, D. Pylorus, E. Enzyme, F. Gastrin, G. Secretin, H. Capillary, I. Appendix, J. Diffusion, K. Epiglottis, L. Gallbladder, M. Carbohydrase, N. Hepatic portal vein, O. Hepatic vein, P. Ileocecal valve, Q. Cholecystokinin, R. Active transport, S. Hydrochloric acid, T. Lymphatic system

 

Definition
P. Ileocecal valve
Term

Prevents food from entering the windpipe when

swallowing

A. Liver, B. Villus, C. Goblet, D. Pylorus, E. Enzyme, F. Gastrin, G. Secretin, H. Capillary, I. Appendix, J. Diffusion, K. Epiglottis, L. Gallbladder, M. Carbohydrase, N. Hepatic portal vein, O. Hepatic vein, P. Ileocecal valve, Q. Cholecystokinin, R. Active transport, S. Hydrochloric acid, T. Lymphatic system

 

Definition
K. Epiglottis
Term

Organ that stores lymph cells

A. Liver, B. Villus, C. Goblet, D. Pylorus, E. Enzyme, F. Gastrin, G. Secretin, H. Capillary, I. Appendix, J. Diffusion, K. Epiglottis, L. Gallbladder, M. Carbohydrase, N. Hepatic portal vein, O. Hepatic vein, P. Ileocecal valve, Q. Cholecystokinin, R. Active transport, S. Hydrochloric acid, T. Lymphatic system

Definition
I. Appendix
Term

Enzymes that digest starch

A. Liver, B. Villus, C. Goblet, D. Pylorus, E. Enzyme, F. Gastrin, G. Secretin, H. Capillary, I. Appendix, J. Diffusion, K. Epiglottis, L. Gallbladder, M. Carbohydrase, N. Hepatic portal vein, O. Hepatic vein, P. Ileocecal valve, Q. Cholecystokinin, R. Active transport, S. Hydrochloric acid, T. Lymphatic system

Definition
M. Carbohydrase
Term

Substance that helps make/break a chemical bond

A. Liver, B. Villus, C. Goblet, D. Pylorus, E. Enzyme, F. Gastrin, G. Secretin, H. Capillary, I. Appendix, J. Diffusion, K. Epiglottis, L. Gallbladder, M. Carbohydrase, N. Hepatic portal vein, O. Hepatic vein, P. Ileocecal valve, Q. Cholecystokinin, R. Active transport, S. Hydrochloric acid, T. Lymphatic system

Definition
E. Enzyme
Term

A component of gastric juice

A. Liver, B. Villus, C. Goblet, D. Pylorus, E. Enzyme, F. Gastrin, G. Secretin, H. Capillary, I. Appendix, J. Diffusion, K. Epiglottis, L. Gallbladder, M. Carbohydrase, N. Hepatic portal vein, O. Hepatic vein, P. Ileocecal valve, Q. Cholecystokinin, R. Active transport, S. Hydrochloric acid, T. Lymphatic system

Definition
S. Hydrochloric acid
Term

Organ that released bile into intestine

A. Liver, B. Villus, C. Goblet, D. Pylorus, E. Enzyme, F. Gastrin, G. Secretin, H. Capillary, I. Appendix, J. Diffusion, K. Epiglottis, L. Gallbladder, M. Carbohydrase, N. Hepatic portal vein, O. Hepatic vein, P. Ileocecal valve, Q. Cholecystokinin, R. Active transport, S. Hydrochloric acid, T. Lymphatic system

Definition
L. Gallbladder
Term

Organ that synthesizes bile

A. Liver, B. Villus, C. Goblet, D. Pylorus, E. Enzyme, F. Gastrin, G. Secretin, H. Capillary, I. Appendix, J. Diffusion, K. Epiglottis, L. Gallbladder, M. Carbohydrase, N. Hepatic portal vein, O. Hepatic vein, P. Ileocecal valve, Q. Cholecystokinin, R. Active transport, S. Hydrochloric acid, T. Lymphatic system

Definition
A. Liver
Term

Fingerlike projection of small intestine lining

A. Liver, B. Villus, C. Goblet, D. Pylorus, E. Enzyme, F. Gastrin, G. Secretin, H. Capillary, I. Appendix, J. Diffusion, K. Epiglottis, L. Gallbladder, M. Carbohydrase, N. Hepatic portal vein, O. Hepatic vein, P. Ileocecal valve, Q. Cholecystokinin, R. Active transport, S. Hydrochloric acid, T. Lymphatic system

Definition
B. Villus
Term

Type of cell that secretes mucus

A. Liver, B. Villus, C. Goblet, D. Pylorus, E. Enzyme, F. Gastrin, G. Secretin, H. Capillary, I. Appendix, J. Diffusion, K. Epiglottis, L. Gallbladder, M. Carbohydrase, N. Hepatic portal vein, O. Hepatic vein, P. Ileocecal valve, Q. Cholecystokinin, R. Active transport, S. Hydrochloric acid, T. Lymphatic system

Definition
C. Goblet
Term

Absorption mechanism that requires energy

A. Liver, B. Villus, C. Goblet, D. Pylorus, E. Enzyme, F. Gastrin, G. Secretin, H. Capillary, I. Appendix, J. Diffusion, K. Epiglottis, L. Gallbladder, M. Carbohydrase, N. Hepatic portal vein, O. Hepatic vein, P. Ileocecal valve, Q. Cholecystokinin, R. Active transport, S. Hydrochloric acid, T. Lymphatic system

Definition
R. Active transport
Term

Absorption mechanism that doesn't require energy

A. Liver, B. Villus, C. Goblet, D. Pylorus, E. Enzyme, F. Gastrin, G. Secretin, H. Capillary, I. Appendix, J. Diffusion, K. Epiglottis, L. Gallbladder, M. Carbohydrase, N. Hepatic portal vein, O. Hepatic vein, P. Ileocecal valve, Q. Cholecystokinin, R. Active transport, S. Hydrochloric acid, T. Lymphatic system

Definition
J. Diffusion
Term

Connects an artery to the vein

A. Liver, B. Villus, C. Goblet, D. Pylorus, E. Enzyme, F. Gastrin, G. Secretin, H. Capillary, I. Appendix, J. Diffusion, K. Epiglottis, L. Gallbladder, M. Carbohydrase, N. Hepatic portal vein, O. Hepatic vein, P. Ileocecal valve, Q. Cholecystokinin, R. Active transport, S. Hydrochloric acid, T. Lymphatic system

Definition
H. Capillary
Term

Vessel that carries blood from liver to heart

A. Liver, B. Villus, C. Goblet, D. Pylorus, E. Enzyme, F. Gastrin, G. Secretin, H. Capillary, I. Appendix, J. Diffusion, K. Epiglottis, L. Gallbladder, M. Carbohydrase, N. Hepatic portal vein, O. Hepatic vein, P. Ileocecal valve, Q. Cholecystokinin, R. Active transport, S. Hydrochloric acid, T. Lymphatic system

 

Definition
O. Hepatic vein
Term

Vessel that carries blood from GI tract to liver

A. Liver, B. Villus, C. Goblet, D. Pylorus, E. Enzyme, F. Gastrin, G. Secretin, H. Capillary, I. Appendix, J. Diffusion, K. Epiglottis, L. Gallbladder, M. Carbohydrase, N. Hepatic portal vein, O. Hepatic vein, P. Ileocecal valve, Q. Cholecystokinin, R. Active transport, S. Hydrochloric acid, T. Lymphatic system

Definition
N. Hepatic portal vein
Term

Carries fat-soluble vitamins

A. Liver, B. Villus, C. Goblet, D. Pylorus, E. Enzyme, F. Gastrin, G. Secretin, H. Capillary, I. Appendix, J. Diffusion, K. Epiglottis, L. Gallbladder, M. Carbohydrase, N. Hepatic portal vein, O. Hepatic vein, P. Ileocecal valve, Q. Cholecystokinin, R. Active transport, S. Hydrochloric acid, T. Lymphatic system

Definition
T. Lymphatic system
Term

Hormone that signals release of pancreatic bicorbonate

A. Liver, B. Villus, C. Goblet, D. Pylorus, E. Enzyme, F. Gastrin, G. Secretin, H. Capillary, I. Appendix, J. Diffusion, K. Epiglottis, L. Gallbladder, M. Carbohydrase, N. Hepatic portal vein, O. Hepatic vein, P. Ileocecal valve, Q. Cholecystokinin, R. Active transport, S. Hydrochloric acid, T. Lymphatic system

 

Definition
G. Secretin
Term

Hormone that triggers release of gastric acid

A. Liver, B. Villus, C. Goblet, D. Pylorus, E. Enzyme, F. Gastrin, G. Secretin, H. Capillary, I. Appendix, J. Diffusion, K. Epiglottis, L. Gallbladder, M. Carbohydrase, N. Hepatic portal vein, O. Hepatic vein, P. Ileocecal valve, Q. Cholecystokinin, R. Active transport, S. Hydrochloric acid, T. Lymphatic system

 

Definition
F. Gastria
Term

Hormone signals release of bile

A. Liver, B. Villus, C. Goblet, D. Pylorus, E. Enzyme, F. Gastrin, G. Secretin, H. Capillary, I. Appendix, J. Diffusion, K. Epiglottis, L. Gallbladder, M. Carbohydrase, N. Hepatic portal vein, O. Hepatic vein, P. Ileocecal valve, Q. Cholecystokinin, R. Active transport, S. Hydrochloric acid, T. Lymphatic system

 

Definition
Q: Cholecystokinin
Term

What is mastication?

 

Definition
The act of chewing
Term
Which of the following describes the anatomy of the gastrointestinal tract?
Definition
A flexible muscular tube
Term

In what organ does the digestion process begin?

 

Definition
Mouth
Term
About how many more times sensitive is the smell of compared with the sense of taste?
Definition
1,000s
Term
After swallowing, in what order does food pass through the regions of the GI tract?
Definition
Stomach, duodenum, jejunum, ileum, colon.
Term
All of the following are characteristics of th ...e process of bigestion excecpt
Definition
saliva contains enzymes that digest sugars, fats, and protein
Term
Which of the following body organs do not secrete digestive enzymes?
Definition
Liver
Term
What is the function of mucus in the stomach?
Definition
Protects stomach cells from gastric juices
Term
What types of enzymes are responsible for hydrolyzing the proteins in food?
Definition
Proteases
Term
Which of the following best describes the normal pH of the stomach?
Definition
Very acidic
Term
Why is there little or no digestion of starch in the stomach?
Definition
Salivary enzymes do not work in an acid environment
Term

Important functions of hydrochloric acid in digestion/absorption include all the following except

 

it kills bacteria, it activates pancreatic lipase, it activates a proteolytic enzyme, it promotes hydrolysis of dietary protein

Definition
it activates pancreatic lipase
Term
After the pancreatic juices have mixed with chyme in the small intestine, which of the following describes the pH of the resulting mixture?
Definition
Approximately neutral
Term

Which of the following is not a component of pancreatic juice?

 

Bile, Water, Lipase, Sodium Bicarbonate

Definition
Bile
Term

Which of the following is generally not digested but does stimulate intestinal muscle contractions?

 

bile, fiber, starch, amylase

Definition
fiber
Term
The process by which bile acts on fat so enzymes can attack the fat is known as
Definition
emulsification
Term
What is the primary site for absorption of nutrients?
Definition
Microvillus
Term

Absorption of nutrients by intestinal cells occurs by all of the following mechanisms except

 

diffusion, transmigration, active transport, facilitated diffusion

Definition
transmigration
Term

Which of the following products of digestion is not normally released directly into the bloodstream?

 

fats, minerals, vitamin C, carbohydrates

Definition
fats
Term
When alcohol and barbiturates are ingested, they are absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract and transported first to the
Definition
liver
Term
What is the first major organ to receive nutrients that are absorbed into the lymph?
Definition
Heart
Term
Immediately after absorption, what circulatory system carries the fat-soluble vitamins and large fats?
Definition
lymphatic
Term
Microorganisms in food that are viable when consumed and that are beneficial to health are known as
Definition
probiotics
Term
What is the normal pH of stomach juices?
Definition
1.5-1.7
Term

Which of the following nutrients requires the greatest time for digestion?

 

fats, protein, minerals, carbohydrates

Definition
fats
Term

In which of the following are ample amounts of carbohydrates almost always found?

 

plant food, health food, animal products, protein-rich foods

Definition
plant foods
Term

Which of the following is not a simple carbohydrate?

 

starch, white sugar, disaccharide, monosaccharide

Definition
starch
Term

Which of the following is not a characteristic of glucose?

 

soluble in water, a monosaccharide, part of the sucrose molecule, sweeter tasting than sucrose

Definition
sweeter tasting than sucrose
Term
What is the sweetest-tasting simple carbohydrate in the diet?
Definition
Fructose
Term
List the three monosaccharides found in foods
Definition

glucose

fructose

galactose

Term
What is the reaction that links two monosaccharides together?
Definition
Condensation
Term

Which of the following is a byproduct of the condensation of two molecules of glucose?

 

water, oxygen, hydrogen, carbon dioxide

Definition
water
Term
What is the composition of sucrose?
Definition
one glucose and one fructose unit
Term
The chemical reaction by which starch is split into monosaccharides is termed
Definition
hydrolysis
Term
What is a polysaccharide made of?
Definition
Many glucose units attached
Term
What is the principle carbohydrate of milk?
Definition
Lactose
Term

Glycogen is stored mainly in which of the following tissues?

 

Muscles and liver, pancreas and kidneys, stomach and intestine, brain and red blood cells

Definition
muscles and liver
Term
What are cellulose, pectin, hemicellulose, and lignin?
Definition
Fibers
Term

Which of the following fibers is water insoluble?

 

gums, pectins, cellulose, mucilages

Definition
cellulose
Term

Water-soluble fibers include all of the following except

 

gums, pectins, lignins, mucilages

Definition
lignins
Term
A "functional fiber" is one that
Definition
is extracted from plants and has a beneficial health effect
Term

With few exceptions, all of the following characteristics are shared by water-insoluble fibers except

 

they are found only in plant-derived foods,

they consist primarily of non-starch polysaccharides,

neither has an appreciable effect on glucose absorption,

they enhance stool formation and elimination

Definition
neither has an appreciable effect on glucose absorption
Term
List two foods high in water soluble fiber
Definition
oats, legumes, cherries, apples
Term
List two foods high in water insoluble fiber
Definition
whole grains, celery, lettuce
Term
What is the minimum daily amount of dietary carbohydrate necessary to spare body protein from excessive break down?
Definition
50-100g
Term

All of the following are properties of fiber except

 

it delays gastric emptying

it provides a feeling of satiety

it elevates blood glucose levels

it contributes about 1.5-2.5 kCal per gram

Definition
it elevates blood glucose levels
Term
What is the name of the short chains of glucose units that result from starch breakdown?
Definition
Dextrins
Term
What is the primary organ that converts fructose to glucose following absorption?
Definition
Liver
Term
What is the first organ to receive carbohydrates absorbed from the intestine?
Definition
Liver
Term

All of the following are symptoms of lactose intolerance except

 

bloating

diarrhea

cramping

constipation

Definition
constipation
Term

What are the three other (than lactose intolerance) reasons why people do not drink cow's milk?

 

Definition

contains antibiotics and growth bovine hormone

allergic or sensitive to casein the milk protein

produces mucus

Term
What percentage of the world's adult production shows good tolerance to lactose ingestion?
Definition
30
Term
Gluconeogenesis is a term that describes the synthesis of
Definition
glucose from a non-carbohydrate substance
Term
At rest, the typical body stores of glycogen can provide energy for a maximum of about
Definition
1 day
Term
What is the minimum daily amount of dietary carbohydrate necessary to spare body protein from excessive break down?
Definition
50-100 g
Term
What is the primary function of insulin?
Definition
lowers blood glucose levels
Term
What is a normal range (mg/dL) for blood glucose?
Definition
70-110
Term
Which of the following blood glucose concentration (mg/dL) is most consistent with hypoglycemia?
Definition
40
Term

Indicate which one is type I or type II Diabetes

 

must have insulin to live

Definition
type 1
Term

Indicate which one is type I or type II Diabetes

 

Sometimes use insulin

Definition
type 2
Term

Indicate which one is type I or type II Diabetes

 

Are generally obese

Definition
type 2
Term

Indicate which one is type I or type II Diabetes

 

are rarely obese

Definition
type 1
Term

Indicate which one is type I or type II Diabetes

 

generally diagnosed as a child

Definition
type 1
Term

Indicate which one is type I or type II Diabetes

 

generally diagnosed when an adult

Definition
type 2
Term

Indicate which one is type I or type II Diabetes

 

exercise can decrease the need for medication

Definition
type 2
Term

Indicate which one is type I or type II Diabetes

 

take oral pills

Definition
type 2
Term
Describe the glycemic index of foods
Definition
measures the amount of blood glucose rise after eating a food. reference of white bread as the highest.
Term

How will you change your diet based on what you have learned carbohydrates?

 

Definition
Eat more whole grains, less processed refined foods, less dessert or sugar, less sugar substitutes, lower total carbohydrates, lower on the glycemic index, small frequent meals, more carbohydrates.
Term
A compound of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen with 3 fatty acids attached to a molecule of glycerol is
Definition
triglyceride
Term
What type of fatty acid is found in high amounts in olive oil (that has one double bond)?
Definition

Monounsaturated

 

Term
Which one of the following compounds is missing 4 or more hydrogen atoms?
Definition
Polyunsaturated fatty acid
Term
A major cause of rancidity of lipids in foods is exposure to
Definition
heat and oxygen
Term
Which of the following has the highest percentage of its fat in saturated from?
Definition
Coconut oil
Term

Which of the following is not a feature of lecithin?

 

widespread in foods

found in cell membranes

manufactured by the body

dietary supplements inhibits fat absorption

Definition
dietary supplements inhibits fat absorption
Term
What is the major sterol in the diet?
Definition
Cholesterol
Term
A common feature of the plant sterol is they
Definition
inhibit absorption of dietary cholesterol
Term

All of the following compounds may be synthesized from cholesterol except

 

bile

glucose

vitamin D

sex hormones

Definition
glucose
Term

Which of the following characteristics are shared by cholesterol and lecithin?

 

both are sterols

both are phospholipids

both are essential nutrients

both are synthesized in the body

Definition
both are synthesized in the body
Term
Chylomicrons are synthesized within the
Definition
intestinal cells
Term

Which of the following substances cannot be absorbed directly into the blood?

 

glycerol

long-chain fatty acids

short-chain fatty acids

medium-chain fatty acids

Definition
long-chain fatty acids
Term
A high risk of heart attack correlates with high blood levels of 
Definition
low-density lipoproteins
Term
A low risk of cardiovascular disease correlates with high blood levels of
Definition
high-density lipoproteins
Term
An important function of fat in the body is to 
Definition
protect vital organs against shock
Term

Which of the following is an omega-3 fat?

 

Acetic acid

Palmitic acid

Linoleic acid

Docosahexaenoic acid

Definition
Docosahexaenoic acid
Term
Aspirin works to reduce the symptoms of infection or pain by retarding the synthesis of
Definition
certain eicosanoids
Term

Which of the following foods provide essential fatty acids?

 

Fish only

Beef only

Plants only

Fish, Beef, Plants

Definition
Fish, Beef, Plants
Term
What is the highest total blood cholesterol concentration (mg/dL) that falls within the desirable range?
Definition
199
Term
What is the highest blood triglyceride concentration (mg/dL) that falls within the desirable range?
Definition
149
Term
What nutrient is used to ketones?
Definition
Fat (burned for energy by the muscles)
Term
What is the appropriate daily trans-fatty acid intake in the US?
Definition
5 g
Term

Each of the following is known to be linked to excessive intake of fats except

 

cancer

obesity

diabetes

lactose intolerance

Definition

lactose intolerance

 

Term
A lacto-ovo vegetarian wishing to ensure a liberal intake of linolenic acid should consume
Definition
canola oil and walnut
Term

High intake of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids are known to increase the risk for all the following except

 

a poor wound healing

higher LDL cholesterol

suppressed immune function

inflammation of the pancreas

Definition
inflammation of the pancreas
Term
Approximately how many grams of fat would be contained in an 800 - kcalorie meal that provides 50% of the energy from carbohydrate, 20% from protein, and the remainder from fat?
Definition
27
Term
In most nuts, what is the distribution of saturated and unsaturated fats, in order of highest to lowest amounts?
Definition
Monounsaturated, polyunsaturated, saturated
Term
Results of the Seven Countries Study found that the population groups with highest and lowest rates of heart disease both consumed at least 40% of their kCalories from fat but the healthier group was found to ingest more
Definition
olive oil
Term

Which of the following is a feature of nut consumption and improved cardiovascular health? The benefit ...

is unrelated to the phytochemical content

is unrelated to changes in LDL concentration

is found only from ingestion of a few types of nut

may be related, in part, to the high content of monounsaturated fats and low content of saturated fat

Definition
the benefits may be related, in part, to the high content of monounsaturated fats and low content of saturated fat
Term
In comparison to the composition of carbohydrates and fats, which element found in proteins makes them unique?
Definition
Nitrogen
Term

Which of the following is the primary factor that differentiates one amino acids fro another?

 

the side group

the central carbon atom

the number of oxygen atoms

the number of nitrogen atoms

Definition
the side group
Term
How many different kinds of amino acids make up proteins?
Definition
20
Term
Approximately how many different amino acids are used in the synthesis of body proteins?
Definition
20
Term

Any of the following can be used by the body for the synthesis of a nonessential amino acids except

 

a fragment of fat

an essential mineral

an essential amino acid

a fragment of carbohydrate

Definition
an essential mineral
Term
When two amino acids are chemically joined together, the resulting structure is called a 
Definition
dipeptide
Term
The application of heat or acid to a protein that causes its shape to change is known as
Definition
denaturation
Term
What digestive enzyme would be most affected in people who are unable to produce hydrochloric acid?
Definition
Pepsin
Term
After digestion of proteins, what products are absorbed into the circulation?
Definition
Free amino acids, and a few dipeptides and tripeptides
Term
What is the chief function of pepsin?
Definition
Cleaves proteins into smaller polypeptides
Term
Which of the following describes a process in protein synthesis?
Definition
The code to make a protein is carried by a strand of messenger RNA
Term

Which of the following is a characteristic of hormones?

 

inactive bacteria

act as a messenger molecule

coordinate visual response

act as bloodstream buffers

Definition
act as messenger molecule
Term
Proteins, because they attract hydrogen ions, can act as
Definition
buffers
Term

Which of the following proteins inactivates foreign bacteria and viruses?

 

Enzymes

Collagen

Hormones

Antibodies

Definition
antibodies
Term
When nitrogen taken into the body exceeds nitrogen losses, we say the person is in
Definition
positive nitrogen balance
Term
What amino acid is used to synthesize the neurotransmitter serotonin and the vitamin niacin?
Definition
Tryptophan
Term

Which of the following is a consequence of excess protein intake?

 

decreased excretion of calcium

decreased size of the liver and kidneys

increased production and excretion of urea

increased protein storage by the liver and kidneys

Definition
increased production and excretion of urea
Term
A person who is starving is losing
Definition
glycogen, protein and fat
Term

Which of the following illustrates a deanimation reaction?

 

removal of the amino group from an amino acid

separation of an amino acid from a peptide chain

addition of an amino group to from a new amino acid

addition of an amino acid to form a larger peptide chain

Definition
removal of the amino group from an amino acid
Term

What is the percentage digestibility of most plant proteins?

 

Definition
70-90
Term

Which of the following food proteins has the best assortment of essential amino acids for the human body?

 

corn

rice

egg

gelatin

Definition
egg
Term

Which of the following is not considered to be a source of high-quality protein in human nutrition?

 

soy

egg

corn

fish

Definition
corn
Term
What is a "limiting" amino acid in a protein?
Definition
an essential amino acid present in insufficient quantity for body protein synthesis to take place
Term
Which of the following is characteristic of protein nutrition in vegetarians?
Definition
most vegetarians eating a variety of foods need not balance essential amino acid intake at each meal
Term
What is the Daily Value for protein based on a 2000-kCalorie intake?
Definition
50 g
Term
What is complementary protein nutrition?
Definition
A strategy that combines plant proteins in the same day to improve the balance of essential amino acids.
Term
In general, the protein quality in grains would be most improved by the addition of a plant protein rich in 
Definition
lysine
Term
Excessive amounts of homocysteine in the blood are thought to increase the risk for
Definition
heart disease
Term
Which of the following describe an association between protein intake and kidney function?
Definition
restricting protein intake may slow down the progression of kidney disease
Term
What is the RDA for protein for a 48-kg woman?
Definition
38 g
Term
What amino acids supplement has been advertised in the popular media for treating herpes infections?
Definition
Lysine
Term
The study of how food interacts with genes is known as
Definition
nutrigenomics
Term
Approximately what percentage of a person's genes are similar to that of an unrelated person?
Definition
99.9
Term

Which of the following describes the sums of all chemical reactions that on in living cells?

 

Digestion

metabolism

absorbtion

catabolism

Definition
metabolism
Term
A typical cell contains "powerhouses", which is another name for the 
Definition
mitochondria
Term
What term is specific to reactions in which simple compounds are combined into more complex molecules?
Definition
Anabolic
Term
A feature of catabolic reaction is that they
Definition
involve the release of energy
Term
What is the major energy carrier molecule in most cells?
Definition
ATP
Term
What is the approximate percent efficiency of conversion of food energy to ATP in the body?
Definition
50
Term
Which of the following defines a coenzyme?
Definition
An organic molecule required for the functioning of an enzyme.
Term

Which of the following metabolic reaction occurs when a cell uses energy?

 

ATP gains a phosphate group and become ADP

ADP gains a phosphate group and becomes ATP

ATP releases a phosphate group and become ADP

ADP releases a phosphate group and become ATP

Definition
ATP releases a phosphate group and becomes ADP
Term

Which of the following can not be formed from acetyl CoA molecules?

 

Glucose

Cholesterol

Stearic acid

Carbon dioxide

Definition
Glucose
Term
Glycolysis is the conversion of
Definition
glucose to pyruvate
Term
The series of reactions involving conversion of glucose to pyruvate is known as
Definition
glycolysis
Term
An aerobic reaction is one that requires
Definition
oxygen
Term
When a person is performing intense physical exercise and begins to feel fatigue and a burning pain in the muscles, the response of the muscles is to synthesize more
Definition
lactate
Term
Fatty acid oxidation results in the direct production of 
Definition
acetyl CoA
Term

Which of the following compounds cannot be formed from fatty acids?

 

Ketones

Glucose

Acetyl CoA

Carbon dioxide

Definition
Glucose
Term

Which of the following cannot be used to make body proteins?

 

Glucose

Glycerol

Fatty acids

Amino acids

Definition
Fatty acids
Term
After digestion and absorption, an amino acid not used to build protein will first be subjected to 
Definition
removal of its amino group
Term
If the carbohydrate content of the diet is insufficient to meet the body's needs for glucose, which of the following can be converted to glucose?
Definition
acetyl CoA
Term
When protein consumption is in excess of body needs and energy needs are met, the excess amino acids are metabolized and the energy in the molecules is 
Definition
stored as glycogen and fat
Term
In the metabolism of amino acids for energy, what is the fate of the amino group?
Definition
excreted as urea
Term

Which of the following is not a possible fate of metabolized glucose?

 

urea

acetyl CoA

amino acid

muscle glycogen

Definition
urea
Term
The body's need for water increased on a high diet in
Definition
protein
Term
Jason is 35 years old and was recently diagnosed with 2 failing kidneys. He was advised to decrease the amount of protein he consumes. If Jason cheats by eating an 8-oz steak for dinner tonight, shortly thereafter, there would most likely be an increase in the urea levels of his
Definition
blood
Term

All of the following may serve as precursors for oxaloacctate synthesis except

 

fat

starch

glucose

protein

Definition
fat
Term

When energy-yielding nutrients are consumed in excess, which one(s) can lead to storage of fat?

 

fat only

carbohydrate only

Fat and carbohydrate only

all three

Definition
all three
Term
Which of the following outlines the overall sequence of events in the complete oxidation of glucose?
Definition
glycolysis, TCA cycle, electron transport chain
Term
The number of ATP molecules that can be produced from a molecule of protein, fat, and carbohydrate is generally related to the number of atoms of
Definition
hydrogen
Term
Which of the following accounts for the higher energy density of fatty acid compared with the other energy-yielding nutrients?
Definition
fatty acids have a greater percentage of hydrogen-carbon bonds
Term
Approximately how many molecules of ATP are generated from the complete oxidation of one molecule of glucose?
Definition
32
Term
Approximately how many ATP molecules are synthsized from the complete oxidation of a molecule of palmitic acid?
Definition
129
Term
Which of the following can be synthesized from all three energy-yielding nutrients?
Definition
Acetyl CoA
Term
After the first day or so of fasting, which of the following is most depleted in the body?
Definition
glycogen
Term
Of the total amount of carbohydrate energy consumed by the body, approximately what percentage is used by the brain and the nerve cells?
Definition
10
Term
During the first few days of a fast, what energy source provides about 90% of the glucose needed to fuel the body?
Definition
Triglycerides
Term
Which of the following dietary nutrients would most rapidly reverse a state of ketosis in a starving person?
Definition
Carbohydrates
Term
How are ketones formed?
Definition
condensation of acetyl CoA molecules
Term
A feature of ketosis is that it
Definition
occurs when fats are partially oxidized
Term
One average-sized can of beer contains about the same amount of alcohol as
Definition
1.5 oz of vodka
Term

Which of the following is(are) best suited for slowing alcohol absorption?

 

not eating

protein snack

caffeine drink

carbohydrate snack

Definition
carbohydrate snack
Term
Which of the following plays a major role in regulation the elimination of alcohol from the body?
Definition
liver alcohol dehydrogenase
Term
Which of the following statements is not characteristic of alcohol metabolism?
Definition
Alcohol is metabolized by muscle and brain cells as well as by the liver 
Term
What is the minimum blood alcohol percentage that define legal drunkenness in most states?
Definition
0.10
Term
What minimum concentration of alcohol in the blood is usually fatal?
Definition
0.5%