Shared Flashcard Set

Details

Nutrition Final
nutrition test cards
159
Culinary Art
05/02/2010

Additional Culinary Art Flashcards

 


 

Cards

Term
A nutritious (optimal) diet:
Definition
a. maximizes health and longevity
b. prevents nutrient deficiencies
c. decreases risks for chronic diseases
d. is composed of foods that are available, safe and palatable
e. All of the above

(E)
Term
In nutrition, the word essential means:
Definition
a. anything necessary for good health and proper functioning of the body
b. a necessary nutrient that can be obtained only from the diet
c. that the body can manufacture the nutrient from raw materials
d. compounds the body can make for itself
e. none of the above

(B)
Term
Which of the following conditions is the most nutrition responsive?
Definition
a. Hypertension
b. Iron-deficiency anemia
c. Diabetes
d. Sickle cell anemia
e. Down syndrome
(B)
Term
Which of the following is/are energy yielding nutrient(s)?
Definition
a. alcohol
b. vitamins
c. protein
d. a and b
e. a, b and c

(C)
Term
Which of the following is NOT a way(s) to recognize a nutritious diet?
Definition
a. Balance
b. Moderation
c. Adequacy
d. Variety
e. Protein control

(E)
Term
A study conducted in several countries where a high intake of fish and a low intake of animal fat were correlated with a low rate of death from breast cancer is an example of a(n):
Definition
a. Epidemiological study
b. Case study
c. Intervention study
d. Blind experiment
e. Clinical trial

(A)
Term
True or False: One of the benefits of a placebo controlled, double-blind, randomized clinical trial is that it controls for the placebo effect.
Definition
a. True
b. False

(TRUE)
Term
When comparing the two categories of nutrient standards, the Dietary Reference Intakes and the Daily Values, one difference between the two is:
Definition
a. The Daily Values are used on the U.S. food labels.
b. The Dietary Reference Intakes are to be used on food labels.
c. The Daily Values are a better way of determining nutrient goals of individuals.
d. The Dietary Reference Intakes do not account for age or gender.
e. a and c

(A)
Term
True or False: The Estimated Average Requirements (EAR) are used for setting recommended intake values for energy.
Definition
a. True
b. False

(TRUE)
Term
The Ingredient List on a food label must list _______ ingredients on the label in _________order of predominance by weight:
Definition
a. MAJOR, DESCENDING
b. MAJOR, ASCENDING
c. ALL, ASCENDING
d. ARTIFICIAL, DESCENDING
e. ALL, DESCENDING

(E)
Term
When determining the amounts of food to eat from each group in the USDA Food Guide for each day, you need to remember that:
Definition
a. The recommended amounts will vary, depending on age, physical activity, and gender.
b. The recommended amounts are the same for all food groups to provide nutritional adequacy.
c. You can eat the same foods every day, as long as you are selecting from all food groups.
d. You should not eat more than the recommended amounts from each food group.
e. None of the above

(A)
Term
Which of the following statements is/are true about body cells?
Definition
a. Cells require energy, nutrients, and oxygen.
b. Not all cells contain a complete set of genes.
c. Nutrients and genes within the cells interact with each other.
d. a and c
e. a, b, and c

(D)
Term
Which of the following is/are true about digestion?
Definition
a. the process by which food is broken down into smaller, absorbable units
b. consists of mechanical and chemical actions
c. limited only by sleep and exercise
d. b and c
e. a, b, and c

(E)
Term
Which of the following gastrointestinal tract organs is/are involved in mechanical digestion?
Definition
a. oral cavity
b. stomach
c. small intestine
d. pancreas
e. a, b, and c

(E)
Term
True or False: The primary organ of digestion and absorption is the large intestine.
Definition
a. True
b. False


(FALSE)
Term
Which of the following is/are true about the digestive juices?
Definition
a. gastric juice in the stomach has the role of digesting fats
b. pancreatic juice neutralizes acids before they reach the small intestine
c. saliva begins the digestion of protein
d. bile released by the gallbladder breaks down carbohydrates in the stomach
e. c and d

(B)
Term
A person in an emergency situation is unable to eat for several weeks. Which of the following would provide the energy the person would need to survive?
Definition
a. fat
b. liver glycogen
c. bones
d. muscle glycogen
e. b and c

(A)
Term
After absorption into the villi, water soluble nutrients are taken up by the _______whereas fats and fat soluble nutrients are taken up by the _______.
Definition
a. digestive system, liver
b. lymphatic system, bloodstream
c. liver, bloodstream
d. lymphatic system, liver
e. bloodstream, lymphatic system

(E)
Term
Which of the following is/are true concerning carbohydrates?
Definition
a. consist of carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen
b. critical energy source for brain, nerve tissues, and red blood cells
c. Monosaccharides include glucose, sucrose, and galactose.
d. a and c
e. None of the above

(B)
Term
The hormone ___________ lowers blood glucose while the hormone _____________raises blood glucose.
Definition
a. glucagon, throxine
b. insulin, glucagon
c. insulin, norepinephrine
d. throxine, cortisol
e. glucagon, insulin

(B)
Term
When excess glucose is consumed compared to energy needs, which of the following will happen to the excess glucose?
Definition
a. Excreted
b. Converted and stored as fat
c. Converted and stored as protein
d. Stays in stomach
e. Stays in bloodstream

(B)
Term
Which of the following is/are effect(s) of fiber?
Definition
a. Promotes weight gain
b. Promotes constipation and hemorrhoids
c. Reduces the risks of heart and artery diseases
d. Prevents diverticulosis
e. c and d

(E)
Term
Which of the following is/are nutritional issues after gastric bypass surgery?
Definition
a. Dumping syndrome
b. Anemia
c. Scurvy
d. a and b
e. a, b, and c

(D)
Term
How would you respond to someone who states that white bread is just as nutritious as whole-wheat bread?
Definition
a. White bread is just as nutritious because it has been enriched with iron, niacin, riboflavin, thiamin, and folate.
b. Whole-wheat bread is preferable because it is likely to contain several nutrients not added to white bread.
c. Whole-wheat bread is higher in fiber content than white bread.
d. a and b
e. b and c

(E)
Term
The Glycemic index:
i. is used to measure how consumption of a particular food will impact blood glucose.
ii. is generally higher for high-fiber, complex-carbohydrate-rich foods like fruits and vegetables.
iii. can be a useful tool for picking foods to control a diabetic condition.
iv. is independent of what other foods are being concurrently consumed.

Definition
a. i. and iii
b. i., ii, and iii
c. i., iii., and iv
d. i., ii., iii., and iv
e. None of the above

(A)
Term
True or False: In Type 2 Diabetes, the pancreas produces insulin, but peripheral cells are resistant.
Definition
a. True
b. False


(TRUE)
Term
Which of the following is/are true about High Fructose Corn Syrup (HFCS)?
Definition
a. provides higher calories per unit gram than table sugar
b. consists of fructose and galactose
c. widely used in foods and beverages because of its ability to keep ingredients evenly dispersed
d. a and c
e. a, b, and c

(C)
Term
Which yogurt provides the highest percent of total calories from carbohydrates per serving?
Definition
a. DANNON® Fruit on the Bottom Blueberry
b. DANNON® Active Fiber Strawberry
c. DANNON®Light & Fit Carb & Sugar Control Strawberries & Cream
d. a and c
e. All the same

(A)
Term
What is the percent of total calories from sugar per serving of Dannon® Fruit on the bottom Blueberry?
Definition
a. 4%
b. 8%
c. 20%
d. 34%
e. 90%

(D)
Term
Which yogurt provides the highest percent of total calories from dietary fiber per serving?
Definition
a. DANNON® Fruit on the Bottom Blueberry
b. DANNON® Active Fiber Strawberry
c. DANNON®Light & Fit Carb & Sugar Control Strawberries & Cream
d. a and c
e. All the same

(E)
Term
DANNON®Light & Fit Carb & Sugar Control Strawberries & Cream provides the lowest percent of total calories per serving by using ____________.
Definition
a. Modified corn starch
b. Acesulfame potassium
c. Sucralose
d. b and c
e. a, b, and c

(D)
Term
Which of the following is NOT true about lipids?
Definition
a. include triglycerides, phospholipids, and sterols
b. are more calorie dense than protein
c. All fats have same health effects.
d. improve satiety
e. aid in absorption of fat-soluble vitamins

(C)
Term
Which of the following lipids is/are essential fatty acids?
Definition
a. Linoleic acid
b. Linolenic acid
c. Eicosanoids
d. a and b
e. a, b, and c

(D)
Term
Canola oil
Definition
b. Monounsaturated fatty acids
Term
Butter
Definition
Saturated fatty acids
Term
Corn oil
Definition
Polyunsaturated fatty acids
Term
Large lipids are incorporated into _______________ for transport in the lymph and blood.
Definition
a. Chylomicrons
b. Omega-3 fatty acids
c. Essential fatty acids
d. Adipose tissue
e. Triglycerides

(B)
Term
Which of the following is NOT a characteristic of a saturated fatty acid?
Definition
a. no double bonds
b. liquid at room temperature
c. includes coconut oil and palm oil
d. typically of animal origin
e. typical food sources include butter and lard

(B)
Term
Risk factors for heart disease that can be changed include:
Definition
a. High blood LDL, low blood HDL
b. High blood pressure
c. Diabetes Mellitus
d. Cigarette Smoking
e. all of the above


(E)
Term
True or False: “trans fat free” on a food label means having 0 g of trans fat and 0 g of saturated fat per serving.
Definition
a. True
b. False

(FALSE)
Term
Which of the following is NOT true about trans fatty acids?
Definition
a. Produce inflammation
b. Similar shape to unsaturated fatty acids
c. Raise LDL and lower HDL cholesterol
d. Stay fresh longer than unsaturated fatty acids
e. Naturally occur in dairy foods and beef

(B)
Term
Which of the following is TRUE about protein?
Definition
a. Contains carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen
b. Provides 4 kcal/g
c. composed of different amino acid units
d. all of the above
e. none of the above

(D)
Term
Tyrosine is an example of a ________________________ which is normally nonessential, but must be supplied by the diet under special circumstances when the need for it exceeds the body’s ability to produce it.
Definition
a. conditionally essential amino acid
b. limiting amino acid
c. restrictive amino acid
d. contingent amino acid
e. none of the above

(E)
Term
What are the roles of proteins in the body?
Definition
a. supporting growth and maintenance
b. building enzymes and hormones
c. maintaining fluid and electrolyte balance
d. providing energy and glucose
e. all of the above


(E)
Term
True or False: Protein digestion requires stomach acid.
Definition
a. true
b. false


(TRUE)
Term
A high quality protein
Definition
a. contains all of the non-essential amino acids
b. contains all of the essential amino acids in relatively the same amounts that human beings require
c. may also contain non-essential amino acids
d. a and b
e. b and c

(E)
Term
True or False: Negative nitrogen balance occurs for a pregnant woman, a growing child, and a person building muscle.
Definition
a. true
b. false


(FALSE)
Term
True or False: A protein’s quality is influenced by the protein’s digestibility and the protein’s amino acid composition.
Definition
(TRUE)
Term
True or False: Marasmus is rapid onset, acute protein energy malnutrition, and includes symptoms of edema and fatty liver.
Definition
a. true
b. false

(FALSE)
Term
Which of the following nutrients could be lacking in a poorly planned vegetarian diet?
Definition
a. Folate
b. Vitamin A
c. Vitamin C
d. Vitamin B12
e. Fiber

(D)
Term
Which of the following is NOT true about vitamins?
Definition
a. Organic compounds
b. Consumed in large quantities
c. Indispensable for body function
d. Noncaloric essential nutrients
e. Contain Carbon


(B)
Term
Which is/are TRUE about water soluble vitamins?
i. Easily absorbed and excreted
ii. Stored extensively in tissues
iii. Include B vitamins and vitamin C
iv. Absorbed by the lymph

Definition
a. i. and ii.
b. i., ii., and iii.
c. i. and iii.
d. i., iii., and iv.
e. All of the above.

(C)
Term
Which is/are TRUE about fat soluble vitamins?
i. Require bile for absorption.
ii. Are not stored long in the body.
iii. Include C, E, A, and D.
iv. Must be consumed daily to ensure adequate intake.

Definition
a. i.
b. i., and ii.
c. i., ii, and iii.
d. i., iii., and iv.
e. None of the above.

(A)
Term
Vitamin A
Definition
Night blindness
Term
Vitamin C
Definition
. Scurvy
Term
Niacin
Definition
Pellagra
Term
Folate
Definition
Neural Tube Defect
Term
Thiamine
Definition
Beriberi
Term
Which of the following would benefit from taking supplements?
Definition
a. elderly
b. women in their childbearing years
c. vegan
d. a and c
e. a, b, and c

(E)
Term
True or False: Vitamin B12 and folate help cells multiply
Definition
a. true
b. false

(TRUE)
Term
Which is the major source of trans fats in the U.S.?
Definition
a. salad dressing
b. potato chips
c. margarine
d. commercial cakes, cookies, and other bakery items
e. milk and dairy products

(D)
Term
What is known as the ‘bad cholesterol?’
Definition
a. Estrogen
b. Omega-3 fatty acids
c. High Density Lipoprotein (HDL)
d. Low Density Lipoprotein (LDL)
e. Triglycerides

(D)
Term
An elderly woman has had difficulty with digesting her foods because of reduced stomach acid, has had progressively worse nerve pain in her legs, and is now having difficulty walking. Her physician suspects she may have a deficiency of which vitamin?
Definition
a. Vitamin C
b. Vitamin B12
c. Vitamin B6
d. Folate
e. Niacin

(B)
Term
Which of the following is NOT true about a person’s usual intake?
Definition
a. If the usual intake falls above the RDA, the intake is probably adequate.
b. If the usual intake falls between the RDA and EAR, the adequacy of usual intake is difficult to assess.
c. If the usual intake falls below the EAR, the intake is probably adequate.
d. All of the above
e. None of the above

(C)
Term
3. Which of the following is NOT a retrospective dietary intake assessment method?
Definition
a. Food records
b. 24 hr dietary recall
c. Detailed diet histories
d. Food frequency questionnaire
e. None of the above

(A)
Term
Which of the following is(are) potential error(s) in dietary intake assessment?
Definition
a. non-response bias
b. recall error
c. memory problems
d. day-to-day variability in intake
e. All of the above

(E)
Term
Which of the following is NOT a function of water?
Definition
a. Lubricant around joints
b. Provides energy for muscles to perform work
c. Aids in maintaining body temperature
d. Shock absorber
e. Delivers nutrients and removes wastes from body tissues

(B)
Term
Water balance is regulated by the:
Definition
a. brain
b. kidneys
c. stomach
d. a and b
e. b and c

(D)
Term
All of the following are examples of nutritional effects on drug absorption or excretion EXCEPT:
Definition
a. Food components can enhance absorption of drugs
b. High fat foods slow the rate of stomach emptying
c. Dietary protein may decrease excretion rate of drugs excreted by the kidney
d. Food can increase the viscosity of the intestinal contents
e. Malnourished people may exhibit a slower rate of kidney clearance

(C)
Term
Trace minerals are found in amounts __________ and major minerals are found in amounts ________ in the body
Definition
a. Exceeding 5g, less than 5g
b. Exceeding 10g, less then 10g
c. Exceeding 10g, less than 5g
d. Less than 5g, exceeding 5g
e. Less than 10g, exceeding 10g

(D)
Term
Which of the following factors does your sensitivity to caffeine depend on:
Definition
a. Body mass
b. History of caffeine use
c. Stress
d. a and c
e. a, b, and c

(E)
Term
Magnesium
Definition
Poor heart function
Term
Iodine
Definition
Cretinism
Term
Iron
Definition
Anemia
Term
Zinc
Definition
arrested sexual maturation
Term
Which of the following is/are true about dietary sources of calcium?
Definition
a. Milk and milk products are major contributors of calcium in a typical U.S. diet.
b. Non-dairy sources include soy milk, fortified orange juice, and fruits.
c. Dairy sources always have a higher bioavailability than non-dairy sources.
d. a and b
e. a, b and c

(D)
Term
Which of the following is NOT a contributing factor to the development of osteoporosis?
Definition
a. genetics
b. advanced age
c. lack of physical activity
d. water intake
e. b and d

(D)
Term
Which of the following is/are true about sources of iron?
Definition
a. Heme iron found in plants is absorbed poorly.
b. Iron absorption is increased by tannins, phytates, and Vitamin C.
c. MFP factor increases iron absorption.
d. Non-heme iron found in animal foods is more absorbed than heme iron
e. a, b, and d

(C)
Term
Which of the following is/are true about trace minerals?
Definition
a. Trace mineral content of food depends on soil and water.
b. Interaction among them are not common
c. Trace minerals can be toxic at intakes not far above estimated requirements.
d. a and c
e. b and c

(D)
Term
Which of the following is/are true about Body Mass Index (BMI)?
Definition
a. describes relative weight for waist circumference
b. correlates with degree of body fatness and disease risk
c. useful for evaluating non-obese people’s fatness
d. a and b
e. a, b, and c

(B)
Term
___________ is a hormone that stimulates hunger, and ____________is a hormone that reduces hunger.
Definition
a. insulin, thyroxine
b. ghrelin, leptin
c. leptin, ghrelin
d. thyroxine, ghrelin
e. leptin, gestrone

(B)
Term
Dr. Flatt presented his successful weight management experiences during his guest lecture. His weight and height were 217 lbs (98.6 kg) and 68 in (1.73 m) in 1989. While adopting healthier lifestyles, he was able to lose 38 lbs by 1990 and has maintained healthy weight until now. Which of the following describe(s) his weight and related health status?
Definition
a. His BMI was reduced from 33 to 27 over one year, from 1989 to 1990.
b. His active lifestyle approach was increasing physical activity while maintaining similar dietary intake given his job and age.
c. Maintaining healthy weight and active lifestyle helps him keep muscle size, but not muscle strength.
d. a and b
e. a and c

(A)
Term
Which of the following is NOT a method for measuring body composition?
Definition
a. Bioelectrical impedance
b. Skinfold test
c. Dual energy X-ray absorption (DEXA)
d. Underwater weighing
e. Set point analysis

(E)
Term
Tom and Jane are both 19-year-old athletes who are 6’ tall and weigh 170 pounds; Jerry is a 41-year-old salesman who weighs 165 pounds and is 5’ 7” tall. Who would have the higher basal metabolic rate?
Definition
a. Tom
b. Jerry
c. Jane
d. Tom and Jane
e. All the same

(A)
Term
Which of the following is NOT true about eating disorders?
Definition
a. Biopsychosocial disease
b. Disturbance in eating behavior, but does not affect physical health
c. includes anorexia nervosa, bulimia, and eating disorders not otherwise specified
d. issues for both men and women
e. None of the above

(B)
Term
True or False: Dieting is the number one trigger of eating disorders
Definition
a. true
b. false

(TRUE)
Term
True or False: Grapefruit juice causes changes in the absorption rate of many drugs
Definition
a. true
b. false

(TRUE)
Term
Which of the following is what family members and friends of individuals with eating disorders should NOT do?
Definition
a. Be patient with them
b. Let the person know you are concerned about his/her health.
c. Hold the person with the eating disorder accountable for her/his behavior.
d. Express your feelings honestly with the person.
e. Insist that the person increase or decrease food intake, or change their attitude.

(E)
Term
Which of the following is NOT true about degenerative diseases?
Definition
a. Chronic, irreversible diseases characterized by degeneration of body organs
b. Multi-factorial causes
c. Can not be transmitted from one person to another
d. Leading causes of death and illness in developing nations
e. Examples are heart diseases, diabetes, and cancer.

(D)
Term
Lifestyle choices associated with degenerative diseases include:
Definition
a. Poor dietary habits
b. Smoking
c. Alcohol use
d. Physical inactivity
e. All of the above

(E)
Term
What is/are the major contributor of plaques among inner walls of arteries?
Definition
a. Omega-3 fatty acids
b. Fiber
c. Saturated fat
d. Phytochemicals
e. All of the above

(C)
Term
Which of the following holds the key to maintaining the BEST possible immune system support?
Definition
a. nutrient supplements
b. herbal remedies
c. phytochemicals
d. adequate nutrition
e. all of the above

(D)
Term
Which of the following is associated with a reduced risk of CVD?
Definition
a. high HDL
b. high total cholesterol
c. high LDL
d. high triglycerides
e. None of the above

(A)
Term
Which of the following is/are nutrition factors for lowering blood pressure?
Definition
a. lower salt intake
b. maintain healthy weight
c. moderate alcohol intake
d. Exercise regularly
e. All of the above

(E)
Term
What is ideal resting blood pressure systolic/diastolic (mmHg)?
Definition
a. ≥140/≥90
b. <130/<90
c. <120/<80
d. ≥140/≥70
e. <120/<100

(C)
Term
Which of the following is(are) TRUE about American diet trends?
Definition
a. Increased popularity in dining out
b. Increased spending on fast food over the last 30 years
c. Lower calories, total fat, and sodium in food away from home
d. a and b
e. a, b, and c

(D)
Term
The consumer nutrition environment includes:
Definition
a. Types and locations of food outlets (stores, restaurants)
b. Accessibility (hours of operation, drive through)
c. Price, promotion, placement of foods within food outlets
d. a and b
e. a, b, and c

(C)
Term
Factors contributing to the “obesogenic environment” include:
Definition
a. Less use of cars
b. High number and variety of inexpensive, high calorie food options
c. Physical inactivity
d. a and c
e. b and c

(E)
Term
Which of the following is NOT a trend of physical activity in America?
Definition
a. Decreased participation in physical activity throughout adolescence
b. Majority of elementary schools provide daily physical education
c. Less than half of adults get no free-time physical activity at all
d. a and b
e. None of the above

(B)
Term
Processed foods:
Definition
a. Undergo canning, freezing, or dehydrating
b. Have extended shelf life or shortened preparation time
c. Often contain extra fat, sweeteners, and flavors
d. None of the above
e. All of the above

(E)
Term
Which of the following is the most consumed food item by 6-19 year old boys and girls?
Definition
a. French fries
b. Carbonated beverages
c. Whole milk
d. Pizza
e. Hamburgers

(B)
Term
True or False: Energy density continues to increase in the food supply, but does not increase food intake.
Definition
a. true
b. false

(FALSE)
Term
True or False: Nutrition information for all foods served is NOT available at the UGA dining halls
Definition
a. true
b. false

(FALSE)
Term
Nutrition services available through the UGA food service department include:
Definition
a. Low-fat, vegetarian, vegan, and parent submitted menus
b. Free nutrition counseling from a Registered Dietitian (RD)
c. Extended and continuous hours throughout the day for most dining halls
d. a and b
e. a, b, and c

(E)
Term
UGA food service provides Egg Beaters ®, egg substitute product. Which of the following is(are) true about the Egg Beaters ®?
Definition
a. Made with real egg whites and fortified with vitamins and other nutrients
b. Yellow color is due to added Vitamin C
c. Contain similar level of energy and cholesterol to real eggs.
d. a and b
e. a and c

(A)
Term
During the UGA food service lecture, Ms. Katherine Ingerson, RD provided examples how little changes in your food choice could contribute to your weight and health. If a person drinks one 12oz soda everyday and decided to drink water, Crystal light, diet soda or plain herbal tea instead and changed nothing else in their diet, how much weight would they lose after 1 year?
Definition
a. 3 pounds
b. 6 ¼ pounds
c. 10 pounds
d. 15 ½ pounds
e. 18 pounds

(D)
Term
Which of the following is(are) healthy options in the dining halls?
Definition
a. Use microwaves for steaming vegetables from the salad bar
b. Low-fat yogurt and cottage cheese
c. Equal, NutraSweet, and Splenda
d. b and c
e. a, b, and c

(E)
Term
Which of the following is(are) consequences of chronic hunger?
Definition
a. General weakness
b. Fatigue
c. Stunted growth
d. Iron-deficiency anemia
e. All of the above

(E)
Term
True or False: Hunger, nutrient deficiencies, or over-nutrition could not coexist within the same country, the same area, or even the same family.
Definition
a. true
b. false

(FALSE)
Term
Which of the following is the limited or uncertain availability of nutritionally adequate and safe foods or limited or uncertain ability to acquire acceptable foods in socially acceptable ways?
Definition
a. Food security
b. Hunger
c. Food safety
d. Food insecurity
e. Severe hunger

(D)
Term
Which of the following is(are) common element(s) of the household food insecurity experience?
Definition
a. uncertainty and worry
b. insufficient quantity of food
c. inadequate quality of food
d. socially unacceptable means of acquiring food
e. all of the above

(E)
Term
The prevalence of food insecurity varies by household characteristics. Which of the following characteristic(s) show increased levels of food insecurity in the U.S.?
Definition
a. Single-headed households with children
b. African American households
c. Households with elderly
d. a and b
e. a, b, and c

(D)
Term
True or False: On average, food stamps are sufficient to provide for the recipient for the entire month
Definition
a. true
b. false

(FALSE)
Term
__________ is the largest federal food assistance program in the U.S.
Definition
a. WIC program
b. Emergency feeding program
c. National School Lunch program
d. Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program
e. Senior Nutrition Program

(D)
Term
Which of the following is/are consequence(s) of food insecurity and hunger?
Definition
a. Poor overall health
b. Lower levels of aggression and anxiety
c. Increased school absences, tardiness, and test scores
d. a and b
e. a and c

(E)
Term
Requirements of organic animal products include:
Definition
a. Animals feed must be 100% organic and not contain antibiotics and hormones
b. Animals must be provided with low-stress habitats that reduce impact of manure
c. Animals must be fed with locally grown products
d. a and b
e. a, b, and c

(D)
Term
According to the movie Food Inc., which crop is in 90% of the processed foods we eat, grown on 30% of the land base in the United States, and is the number one food fed to livestock?
Definition
a. potatoes
b. corn
c. wheat
d. soybeans
e. barley

(B)
Term
Which of the following is/are NOT ways of protecting the environment?
Definition
a. Choose foods that are low on the food chain
b. Buy as much plastic and foam packaging as possible
a. Choose chicken from local farmers
b. Use reusable pans and dishes
c. Ride a bike to work or classes

(B)-buy
Term
True or False: Current research supports that organic food is more nutritious than conventionally grown food.
Definition
a. true
b. false

(FALSE)
Term
__________________ is the total number of living organisms that a given environment can support without deteriorating in quality.
Definition
a. Ecological capacity
b. Carrying capacity
c. CAFO
d. Sustainable food system
e. None of the above

(B)
Term
Which of the following is(are) NOT the area of ongoing debate for genetically engineered foods?
Definition
a. environment
b. human health
c. food security
d. socio-economic concerns
e. concentrated animal feeding operation

(E)
Term
Which of the following is(are) key(s) to performance nutrition?
Definition
a. Adequate total energy to support activity and maintain lean body mass
b. Optimal nutrition and hydration before activity
c. Appropriate fueling during activity
d. Recovery after activity
e. All of the above

(E)
Term
In order to promote peak performance in practice and competition, what factor(s) is(are) important for athletes to consider in their eating habits?
Definition
a. timing
b. composition of meal
c. portion sizes in meal
d. a and b
e. a, b, and c

(E)
Term
A person who continues exercising moderately for longer than _____ minutes begins to use less glucose and more fat for fuel.
Definition
a. 5
b. 10
c. 15
d. 20
e. 25

(D)
Term
A university football player is eating enough protein foods in his diet to provide him with 2.5 grams per kg of his body weight. What type of benefit will he get from his high protein intake?
Definition
a. this exceeds the recommendation for his sport so he should consider trading carbohydrate for some of the protein
b. although this exceeds the recommendation for his sport he will benefit from the additional protein as the body converts it to muscle mass
c. this is an extremely toxic level that may cause serious health problems
d. his body will adjust to the higher protein intake to require that amount on a regular basis
e. None of the above

(A)
Term
Which of the following is(are) true about planning meals for maximizing performance?
Definition
a. Pre-game meals should be high carbohydrates and protein, and moderate fat to maximize glycogen stores, hydrate, and prevent hunger
b. During exercise lasting more than 1 hour, fluids and carbohydrates should be consumed to maintain glucose levels and delay fatigue
c. A recovery snack or meal should be eaten after 1 hour of workout to reload glycogen stores and repair tissue
d. a and b
e. a, b, and c

(B)
Term
• The temperature range that is considered the Danger Zone
Definition
o 1°F - 135°F (5°C - 57°C)
Term
• The federal agency responsible for the food safety
Definition
o Food Safety and Inspection Service (FSIS)
o U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA)
o Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)

Term
o Potentially Hazardous Food
Definition
a term used by food safety organizations to classify foods that require time-temperature control to keep them safe for human consumption
Term
o A PHF is a food that:
Definition
• Contains moisture - usually regarded as a water activity greater than 0.85
• Contains protein
• Is neutral to slightly acidic - typically having a pH between 4.6 and 7.5

Term
o Examples of PHFs are:
Definition
• Meat (beef, pork, lamb)
• Poultry (chicken, turkey, duck)
• Fish
• Shellfish and crustaceans
• Eggs (except those treated to eliminate Salmonella)
• Milk and dairy products
• Heat-treated plant food (cooked rice, beans, or vegetables)
• Baked potatoes
• Certain synthetic ingredients
• Mushrooms
• Raw sprouts
• Tofu and soy-protein foods
• Untreated garlic and oil mixtures

Term
four steps to food safety
Definition
1. Clean
2. Separate
3. Cook
4. Chill

Term
• Causes of foodborne illness
Definition
o Bacteria
Term
• What vitamins and minerals are important for pregnant women to get and why
Definition
o Folic Acid
• Helps prevent birth defects of the brain and spinal cord
• May also protect the pregnant woman against cancer and stroke
o Iron
• Helps the muscles in both mother and baby develop
• Helps prevent anemia, a condition in which a woman’s red blood cells are too small and too few
• Red blood cells carry oxygen around your body and to your baby.
• Can also lower the risk of preterm birth and low birth weight
o Calcium
• Helps the nervous, muscular and circulatory systems stay healthy
• When a pregnant woman doesn't get enough calcium from her diet, the body takes the calcium from her bones to give it to her growing baby
• Having less calcium in the bones can cause serious health conditions later in life, such as osteoporosis (causing a greater risk for breaks)
o Docosahexaenoic acid- DHA (Omega-3 Fatty Acid)
• Helps to support the development and function of the baby’s brain and eyes

Term
• What a neural tube defect is, why it occurs, and how to avoid it
Definition
o An opening in the spinal cord or brain that occurs very early in human development (about 1 in 1000 babies suffers from a NTD)
o What causes NTDs is not completely understood- a combination of genetic, environmental and nutritional factors
o Research has shown that women with folic acid deficiencies also have a higher chance of having a child with a neural tube defect, but this is only one factor
o Taking a folic acid supplement can strongly decrease chances of NTD in child (but NOT completely eliminate)

Term
• What prenatal supplements provide more of compared to regular supplements
o WebMD recommends that your prenatal vitamin has at LEAST:

Definition
• 400 mcg of folic acid
• 400 IU of vitamin D
• 200 to 300 mg of calcium
• 70 mg of vitamin C
• 3 mg of thiamine
• 2 mg of riboflavin
• 20 mg of niacine
• 6 mcg of vitamin B12
• 10 mg of vitamin E
• 15 mg of zinc
• 17 mg of iron
o A prenatal vitamin should have more calcium, iron, and folic acid that a regular supplement → most do not have DHA (which is important for a pregnant woman) so you need a separate supplement for that in most cases

Term
• What are the recommended weight gain ranges during pregnancy
Definition
o If your pre-pregnancy weight was in the healthy range for your height (a BMI of 18.5 to 24.9), you should gain between 25 and 35 pounds, gaining 1 to 5 pounds in the first trimester and about 1 pound per week for the rest of your pregnancy for the optimal growth of your baby.
o If you were underweight for your height at conception (a BMI below 18.5), you should gain 28 to 40 pounds.
o If you were overweight for your height (a BMI of 25 to 29.9), you should gain 15 to 25 pounds. If you were obese (a BMI of 30 or higher), you should gain between 11 and 20 pounds.
o If you're having twins, you should gain 37 to 54 pounds if you started at a healthy weight, 31 to 50 pounds if you were overweight, and 25 to 42 pounds if you were obese.

Term
o Fetal Alcohol Syndrome:
Definition
The sum total of the damage done to the child before birth as a result of the mother drinking alcohol during pregnancy
• It involves brain damage, impaired growth, and head and face abnormalities

Term
o Gestational Diabetes
Definition
a condition that occurs during pregnancy- defect in the way the body processes and uses sugars (glucose) in the diet
Term
o Preeclampsia:
Definition
a condition that arises when hypertension occurs in pregnancy (pregnancy-induced hypertension) in association with significant amounts of protein in the urine
• It refers to a set of symptoms rather than any causative factor, and there are many different causes for the condition
• Elevated blood pressure = most visible sign of the disease; also involves generalized damage to the maternal endothelium, kidneys, and liver, with the release of vasoconstrictive factors being secondary to the original damage.

Term
• Why breast milk is so good for babies and what it provides
Definition
o Breast milk excels as a source of nutrients for the young infant
• With the exception of vitamin D, breast milk provides all the nutrients a healthy baby needs for the first 6 months of life
o Breast milk also conveys immune factors
• Protect an infant against infection
• Inform its body about the outside environment

Term
• Benefits of breastfeeding for the infant and mother
Definition
o For the Infant:
• Provides antibodies (decreases respiratory and GI infections)
• Nutrients are very absorbable
• Decreases risks of allergies
• Decreases risk of childhood obesity
• Promotes correct development of jaws
o For the Mother:
• Postpartum Amenorrhea
i.e. ovulation is delayed during lactation, spaces out the pregnancies
• Decrease in Breast & Uterine Caner-risk decreases the longer a women breastfeeds...

Term
• How formula is different from breast milk
Definition
o Infant formula companies try to copy composition of breast milk
o Because not from mother, there are no antibodies passed from mother to child (which help prevent GI and respiratory infections)
-must meet AAP standards
-must use formula if you stop breastfeeding before one year
-can begin formula at 4-6 months
Term
o Vitamin A
Definition
• Unlike other vitamins and minerals, Vit A is absorbed and stored more efficiently; most have good Vit. A status
Term
o Vitamin D
Definition
• A significant problem in older adults; best source is milk and many do not drink milk (also limited exposure to sun)
Term
o Vitamin B12
Definition
• ~ 15 % are deficient in Vit B12; often due to Atrophic Gastritis (not enough Intrinsic Factor to absorb B12)
Term
o Iron
Definition
• Iron deficiency anemia less common than in younger people; may occur if low kcal intake or chronic blood loss or from meds
Term
o Zinc
Definition
• Commonly low in older adults; intake or absorption may be low
• Deficiency can resemble aging (decreased taste and immunity; dermatitis)

Term
o Calcium
Definition
• Appropriate RDA is controversial
• Intakes are too low in elderly

Term
• Know the definition of a standard drink
Definition
• 12 oz beer
• 4 oz wine
• 1 ¼ oz of 80 proof liquor
→ All contain about ½ ounce of pure alcohol

Term
• Know how alcohol can affect nutritional status
Definition
o Alcohol interferes with the process of
• Digestion, storage, utilization, and excretion of nutrients
o Can impair the way body controls blood sugar levels
• Hyperglycemia- increased blood sugar
• Hypoglycemia- decreased blood sugar

-mineral and vitamin deficiencies
*important excreted minerals- calcium (bone growth), Magnesium (normal muscle and never function), Potassium (proper muscle contraction), Zinc (immune system to work properly)
Term
• Know what is considered high-risk and low-risk drinking
Definition
o High-Risk drinking
• Women = 4+ drinks/day
• Men = 5+ drinks/day
o Low-Risk

Term
• How to introduce solid foods (when to do this and what types of foods are okay and which to avoid)
Definition
o Can begin between _____ mos
o Iron fortified infant cereal is first solid food
o Solid foods have less fluid, need to keep fluid intake high
o Other issues
• Food allergies: introduce single ingredient foods, 4-5 days apart
• Choice of foods: variety, balance, moderation; do not add sugar or salt; do not restrict fat; no low fat milk (till age 2)
• Foods to provide iron (fortified cereals, meat, legumes)
• Foods to provide Vitamin C (fruits, veggies)
• Foods to omit: concentrated sweets, canned veggies (salt too high), honey
• Choking hazards: popcorn, whole grapes, whole beans, hot dog slices, hard candies, nuts
• No REGULAR MILK till 1 year
-infants first foods - omit sweets of any kind, products containing sugar alcohols like SORBITOL should be limited
Term
Body Composition During Aging
Definition
• Lose bone, decrease muscle/lean body mass and increased body fat
• Good nutrition and exercise can minimize this
-muscle mass in thighs- compare old and young people
-bone loss = bone vertebrae shrinking
Term
o Immune System During Aging
Definition
• Decrease in immune function; thus infection disease disease is a major cause of death
-ie. pneumonia
Term
o GI tract During Aging
Definition
• Intestinal wall loses elasticity --> constipation
• ATROPHIC GASTRITIS - seen in 1/3 of those over 60 yr; inflamed stomach, bacterial overgrowth

Term
o Tooth Loss During Aging
Definition
• Tooth loss and gum disease are common
• Dentures are not same as teeth - may limit food choices

Term
o Sensory Losses and Other Physical Problems During Aging
Definition
• May have problem driving, seeing well enough to shop; carrying groceries cooking and cleaning up too hard
• Sensory losses --> decreased taste and interest in food

Term
• How older adults’ needs are different compared to younger adults
Definition
o Still need ALL nutrients and healthy foods
o Fewer calories, especially if inactive
o Need more _Vitamin D (1000 IU/day)_
o Need “crystalline” vitamin B12
o Women need less iron (not menstruating)
o Need less sodium (< 1,500 mg/day)
o Probably need more protein than officially recommended (about 1+ gram/kg body weight

-need more physical activity to build muscle mass
-need more B12