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Nutrition Exam-J
Midterm and Final Mix
136
Education
12/11/2010

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Cards

Term
What is traditionally used to determine intensity of aerobic activity?
Definition
Heart Rate
Term
What is a disease caused by a nutritional deficiency?
Definition
scurvy, goider, rickets
Term
What are some examples of a nutrient?
Definition
carbohyrates, minerals, vitamins
Term
Name the macronutrients?
Definition
carbs, fats and oils, proteins
Term
What nutrient is the most energy dense?
Definition
Fats
Term
Name some micronutrients?
Definition
vitamins and minerals
Term
Vitamins are classified into two groups, ________________ and ___________________.
Definition
fat-soluble and water-soluble
Term
What are four characteristics of a healthful diet ?
Definition
Adequate, moderate, balanced, variety
Term
What is required on all food labels?
Definition
1. Statement of Identity
2. Ingredients List
3. Nutritional Facts Panel
Term
The Dietary Guidelines for Americans recommends a minimum of how much moderate activity most days?
Definition
30 mins.
Term
Foods high in sugar promote what?
Definition
Obesity, unhealthy diet and body
Term
Excess sodium in the diet is linked to ____________________ in some individuals.
Definition
High Blood Pressure
Term
What is nutrient density?
Definition
Most nutrients for their calories
Term
Healthier fat sources include ________ and canola oil.
Definition
Olive and Canola Oil
Term
Hunger is best described as what?
Definition
Physiological sensation that prompts us to eat.
Term
The smallest units of matter that cannot be broken down by natural means are what?
Definition
Atoms
Term
What are the structural levels of the human body organized into (smallest to largest) ?
Definition
Atomic, Molecular, cellular, tissue, organs, organ system, organism
Term
Why are cell membranes called semi permeable?
Definition
It allows things to enter or leave the cell.
Term
What is the "powerhouses" of the cell that produces energy from food molecule called?
Definition
Mitochondria
Term
What is the term that describes the process by which the foods we eat are broken down into smaller components by either mechanical or chemical means?
Definition
Digestion
Term
What is the role that the liver plays in digestion and absorption of nutrients?
Definition

1. Produces Bile

2. Filters Blood (removes toxins)

Term
Most digestion and absorption occurs in the _____________________ .
Definition
Small Intestines.
Term
The mechanical and chemical digestion of food is initiated in the ________________ .
Definition
Mouth
Term
Salivary amylase is an ___________________ .
Definition
Enzyme
Term
What are the component of the gastric juices?
Definition
Hydrochloric Acid, Pepsin, Gastric Lipase, Mucus
Term
What is chyme?
Definition
Partially Digested
Term
A primary function of the mucus in the stomach is to do what?
Definition
Protect the stomach lining
Term
What macronutrient is NOT broken down chemically in the stomach?
Definition
Carbohydrates
Term
Proteins that induce chemical changes to speed up body processes are called ?
Definition
Enzymes
Term
Responding to the presence of fat in our meal, the gallbladder releases a substance called __________________ .
Definition
Bile
Term
Which of the organ is responsible for the manufacturing and secretion of insulin and glucagon, as well as many digestive enzymes?
Definition
Pancreas
Term
The fingerlike projections of the small intestine that increase surface area and allow for the absorption of nutrients are called ?
Definition
Villi
Term
In which organ does the majority of water absorption occur?
Definition
Large Intestine
Term
What are probiotics?
Definition
Live-Microorganisms thought to be healthy for host organsim (Lactic acid bacteria)
Term
What are the end product of photosynthesis?
Definition
Glucose
Term
Single units (molecules) of carbohydrates are called ?
Definition
Monosaccharides
Term
The term complex carbohydrates refers what?
Definition
poly-saccharides (long chains of glucose molecules)
Term
Found in liver and skeletal muscle cells, _______________ is the storage form of glucose in animals
Definition
Glycogen
Term
What is gluconeogenesis ?
Definition
Production of glucose
Term
During periods of rest and low intensity activity the body uses ________ as its predominant fuel source.
Definition
fat
Term
In the absence of carbohydrate, ______________ are produced from body fat as an alternative fuel for the brain.
Definition
ketones
Term
The fiber that is manufactured and added to foods and fiber supplements is called ___________________ .
Definition
Functional Fiber
Term
What health benefits are associated with consumption of soluble fibers?
Definition
1. Reduce risk of Type 2 Diabetes
2. Helps digestion
Term
What is associated with diets high in added sugars?
Definition
1. Cavities
2. Obesity
3. Decreased levels of good cholesterol
Term
Diabetes is a chronic disease in which the body doesn't process __________________ properly.
Definition
Glucose
Term
Why is yogurt tolerated better than milk by many lactase-deficient people?
Definition
The bacteria in yogurt helps digest the lactose
Term
What are lipids?
Definition
Fats and insoluble in water
Term
Most fat in the diet is in the form of ______________________________ .
Definition
Saturated
Term
A fatty acid that contains no double bonds is called what?
Definition
Trans fat
Term
What fatty acid is generally a solid at room temperature?
Definition
saturated
Term
What foods are rich sources of monounsaturated fatty acids?
Definition
Olive oil and Canola Oil
Term
What food is the richest source of omega-3 fatty acids?
Definition
Salmon (fish)
Term
The process of adding hydrogen to an unsaturated fatty acid and creating a more solid fat is called what?
Definition
Hydrogenation
Term
Diets high in trans fatty acids are associated with what problem?
Definition
Can raise LDL levels
Term
What ingredient would alert you to the presence of trans fatty acids in a product?
Definition
partially hydrogenated or shortening
Term
Why are phospholipids NOT an essential nutrient?
Definition
They are manufactured in our body
Term
____________________ are the key structural component of a cell's membrane.
Definition
Phospholipids
Term
The majority of fat digestion and absorption occurs in the ______________________ .
Definition
Small Intestines
Term
To facilitate the digestion of dietary fats, the gallbladder stores and releases a substance known as ________________ .
Definition
biles
Term
Where in the body are the majority of triglycerides stored for future energy needs?
Definition
Adipose Tissue
Term
The longer an individual exercises, the more ___________________ is used for energy.
Definition
Fat
Term
One potential problem with a very low-fat diet is that it may be deficient in _________________________ .
Definition
Essential Fatty Acids
Term
What type of dietary fat is known to elevate blood cholesterol levels?
Definition
Saturated Fat
Term
What is the leading cause of death in the United States?
Definition
Cardiovascular Disease
Term
Diets high in ______________________ have been shown to decrease blood levels of very low-density lipoproteins (VLDL).
Definition
Omega-3 Fatty Acids
Term
The production of HDL is increased by _________________ .
Definition
Omega-3 or excercise
Term
What element makes protein different from carbohydrate and fat?
Definition
Nitrogen
Term
The ________________________ gives each amino acid its distinct properties.
Definition
Sidechains
Term
Polypeptides are strings of ____________________ amino acids linked together by peptide bonds.
Definition
10 or more
Term
What food is a source of complete proteins?
Definition
Chicken
Term
In the human body, proteins are found where?
Definition
Muscle
Term
What is the major function of protein in the human body?
Definition
1.Building, repairing body tissue
2. Maintaining acid-base balance
3. Maintaining fluids
Term
In the stomach, proteins are broken down into smaller peptides by _________________ .
Definition
Pepsin
Term
The process of combining two incomplete proteins to make a complete protein is called what ______________________________ .
Definition
Mutual Supplementation
Term
The type of vegetarian who consumes dairy products but excludes all other types of animal protein, is called a ________________________ .
Definition
Lacto-vegetarian
Term
The proteins that help defend the body against bacteria, toxins and allergens are called what?
Definition
Antibodies
Term
In the absence of adequate dietary carbohydrate the body can breakdown protein to provide glucose to the brain by a process known as what?
Definition
Gluconeogenesis
Term
What best describes denaturation?
Definition
1.(Heat)
2. Chemical Reaction that causes a protein to lose its shape and function
Term
What is a complete protein?
Definition
Contains all nine essential amino acids
Term
Where does the absorption of proteins occur ?
Definition
Small Intestine
Term
What health problem has been associated with high protein intakes?
Definition
High Cholesterol
Term
________________ is the waste product that forms when nitrogen is removed from the amine group during amino acid metabolism.
Definition
Urea
Term
What is edema?
Definition
An abnormal fluid imbalance beneath the skin (swollen)
Term
After amino acids are absorbed in the small intestine they are transported by the blood stream directly to the ____________________
Definition
Liver
Term
What does aerobic mean?
Definition
With Oxygen
Term
What would be the best fluid replacement for events lasting less than one hour?
Definition
Water
Term
What is the primary mechanism by which the human body dissipates heat?
Definition
(Evaporative Cooling), Sweating, Perspiration
Term
To avoid ________ contamination during pregnancy, fish consumption should not exceed 12 ounces a week.
Definition
Mercury
Term
A low-birth-weight infant will weigh how much?
Definition
less than 5.5 lbs
Term
In which trimester of pregnancy is the fetus the most vulnerable to teratogens?
Definition
1st
Term
A normal-weight woman should gain approximately ________ during pregnancy.
Definition
25-35 lbs
Term
On average, Americans have a life expectancy that reaches into what age?
Definition
late 70's
Term
What is traditionally used to evaluate the level of intensity of aerobic activity?
Definition
heart rate
Term
What is the FIT principle ?
Definition
Frequency (how much), Intensity, Time (how long)
Term
To achieve muscular fitness it is recommended that training should occur at least how many days?
Definition
2-3 days
Term
What describes fat-soluble vitamins?
Definition
1. Insoluble in water
2. Micronutrients
3. Soluble in fat
Term
The best known role that vitamin A plays in the human body is what ?
Definition
Vision
Term
Where do humans obtain vitamin D?
Definition
Sunlight
Term
What is the primary dietary source of vitamin D for humans?
Definition
Milk
Term
What food preparation method would cause the greatest loss of vitamin C?
Definition
Frying
Term
What are rich sources of vitamin C besides citric fruit?
Definition
Broccoli and Spinach
Term
What term is synonymous with the word malignant?
Definition
Cancerous
Term
What is a mineral?
Definition
Organic Micronutrient
Term
The ________ diet has been used successfully to treat hypertension.
Definition
D.A.S.H.
Term
Diets rich in ________ are associated with maintaining healthy blood pressure levels.
Definition
Potassium
Term
The major dietary source of iodine is _____________________ .
Definition
Table Salt
Term
A deficiency of ________ is the most common deficiency worldwide.
Definition
Iron
Term
The spongy bone found within the ends of long bones is called what?
Definition
Trabecular Bone
Term
What is the most abundant mineral in our body?
Definition
Calcium
Term
The majority of our body's fluoride is stored in the ___________________ ..
Definition
Teeth and Bones
Term
___ - ___ % of an adult's healthy body weight is fluid.
Definition
50% to 70%
Term
The majority of the body's fluid is found where?
Definition
Within the cell
Term
What is the primary reason we sweat?
Definition
Regulates Body Temperature
Term
What is the function of the cerebrospinal fluid?
Definition
1. Protects brain
2. Acts as shock absorber
Term
Which organ is primarily responsible for maintaining fluid balance?
Definition
Kidney
Term
Which of the groups are the MOST vulnerable to dehydration?
Definition
Infants and Elderly
Term
________ is a potentially fatal condition characterized by the failure of the body's heat-regulating mechanisms.
Definition
Heat Stroke
Term
________ is a potentially fatal condition characterized by the failure of the body's heat-regulating mechanisms.
Definition
Heat Stroke
Term
Moderate alcohol consumption has been linked with a reduced risk of what disease?
Definition
Cardiovascular Disease
Term
What athletes would benefit from using a sports drink to meet their hydration needs?
Definition
Marathon Runner and Long Distance Runner
Term
A body weight that exceeds 100% of the normal standard for a given height is called what?
Definition
Morbid Obesity
Term
How is body mass index is determined ?
Definition
Ratio of body weight to height
Term
The three components of total energy expenditure are what?
Definition
1. BMR
2. Thermic effect of food
3. How is energy expended
Term
An apple-shaped fat pattern increases a person's risk for what diseases?
Definition
Cardiovascular disease and Type 2 diabetes
Term
What assessment technique can be used to evaluate an individual's fat distribution pattern?
Definition
Waist Circumference
Term
What describes the energy balance equation?
Definition
Energy Intake = Energy Expended
Term
Skinfold measurements, underwater weighing, and the Bod Pod® all measure what?
Definition
Body Composition
Term
What is the set point theory?
Definition
Your body has a set range that it wants to keep your weight at.
Term
What type of weight loss will an individual experience by restricting calories but not increasing his or her level of physical activity?
Definition
Lean Body Mass
Term
Obesity is classified as having a BMI of what?
Definition
30-39.9
Term
What best describes an eating disorder?
Definition
1. Abnormal eating
2. Atypical eating
3. Anorexia
Term
What type of eating disorder is characterized by episodes of bingeing and purging ?
Definition
Bulimia Nervosa
Term
What is exercise?
Definition
1. Purposeful
2. Planned
3. Structured Physical Activity
Term
The 2005 Dietary Guidelines for Americans recommends engaging in a minimum of ________ minutes of moderate physical activity most days of the week.
Definition
30 mins.
Term
____________ is the ability to carry out daily tasks with vigor and alertness, without undue fatigue.
Definition
Physical Fitness
Term
What is meant by the overload principle?
Definition
The principle of overload states that a greater than normal stress or load on the body is required for training adaptation to take place. The body will adapt to this stimulus. Once the body has adapted then a different stimulus is required to continue the change.