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Nuclear Chemistry
Nuclear Chemistry
67
Chemistry
03/07/2004

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Term
Although typically the nucleus is less than one ten-thousandth the size of the atom, it contains what percentage of the mass of the atom?
Definition
99.9
Term
What force holds the nucleus together?
Definition
Strong (or nuclear)
Term
The time required for half the atoms of a radioactive nuclide to decay.
Definition
Half-life
Term
Nucleons.
Definition
Protons and neutrons
Term
An atom.
Definition
Nuclide
Term
The difference betweeen the mass of an atom and the sum of the masses of its protons, neutrons, and electrons.
Definition
Mass Defect
Term
The energy released when a nucleus is formed from nucleons.
Definition
Nuclear Binding Energy
Term
The most stable nuclei have this ration of neutrons to protons.
Definition
1:1
Term
Has it been found that the most stable nuclide have an even or odd number of nucleons?
Definition
Even
Term
A reaction that affects the nucleus of an atom.
Definition
Nuclear Reaction
Term
A change in the identity of a nucleus as a result of a change in the number of its protons.
Definition
Transmutation
Term
What did Becquerel do on March 1, 1896 and why was it important?
Definition
He wrapped a photographic plate with a lightproof covering and placed a uranium compound on top of it. Evne though he did not place it in sunlight, the plate was still exposed. This led to the discovery of radioactivity.
Term
The spontaneous disintegration of a nucleus into a slightly lighter nucleus, accompanied by emission of particles, electromagnetic radiation, or both.
Definition
Radioactive Decay
Term
All of the nuclides beyond what atomic number on the periodic table are unstable and radioactive.
Definition
83
Term
The charge of an alpha particle
Definition
+2
Term
Two protons and two neutrons bound together and emitted from the nucleus during some kinds of radioactive decay.
Definition
Alpha Particle
Term
An electron emitted from the nucleus during some kinds of radioactive decay.
Definition
Beta Particle
Term
A particle that has the same mass as an electron, but has a positive charge, and is emitted during some kinds of radioactive decay.
Definition
Positron
Term
High-energy electromagnetic waves emitted from a nucleus as it changes from an excited state to a ground energy state.
Definition
Gamma Rays
Term
Occurs when an inner orbital electron is captured by the nucleus of its won atom.
Definition
Electron Capture
Term
What is the half-life of Carbon-14?
Definition
5715 years
Term
What is the half-life of Uranium-238?
Definition
4.46E9 years
Term
A series of radioactive nuclides produced by successive radioactive decay until a stable nuclide is reached.
Definition
Decay Series
Term
The heaviest nuclide of a decay series.
Definition
Parent Nuclide
Term
The nuclides produced by the decay of the parent nuclides.
Definition
Daughter Nuclides
Term
Elements with more than 92 protons in their nuclei.
Definition
Transuranium Elements.
Term
Why is Carbon-14 important?
Definition
It can be used to estimate the age of organic material up to about 50000 years old.
Term
The process by which the approximate age of an object is determined based on the amount of certain radioactive nuclides present.
Definition
Radioactive Dating
Term
Process in which a very heavy nucleus splits into more-stable nuclei of intermediate mass.
Definition
Fission
Term
A reaction in which the material that starts the reaction is also one of the products and can start another reaction.
Definition
Chain Reaction
Term
How many neutrons are given off when uranum-235 fission occurs?
Definition
2 or 3
Term
These use heat from nuclear reactors to produce electrical energy.
Definition
Nuclear Power Plants
Term
The minimum amound of nuclide that provides the number of neutrons needed to sustain a chain reaction.
Definition
Critical Mass
Term
These use controlled-fission chain reactions to produce energy or radioactive nuclides.
Definition
Nuclear Reactors
Term
Light-mass nuclei combine to form a heavier, more stable nucleus.
Definition
Nuclear Fusion
Term
Explain how to draw a nuclear symbol.
Definition
Mass number over atomic number in front of the symbol
Term
Write the equation that shows the equivalency of mass and energy.
Definition
E=mc2
Term
Where and when did the worse nuclear accident in the United States occur?
Definition
Three Mile Island in Pennsylvania on March 28, 1979.
Term
Where and when did the worse nuclear accident in the world occur?
Definition
April 26, 1986 in the former Soviet Union
Term
Ultimately, what was the main cause of the biggest three nuclear accidents (Three Mile Island, Chernobyl, and Tokiamura, Japan) in world history?
Definition
Human Error
Term
What would be the products of the alpha decay of Uranium-233?
Definition
Helium-4 and Thorium-229
Term
What would be the products of the beta decay of Magnesium-24?
Definition
Aluminum-24 and a beta particle
Term
What would be the products of the positron decay of Potassium-38?
Definition
Argon -38 and a positron
Term
What would be the product if Gallium-67 decays by electron capture?
Definition
Zinc-67
Term
The stable nuclei cluster over a range of neutron-proton ratios.
Definition
Band of Stability
Term
The numbers of nucleons that represent completed nuclear energy levels-2,8,20,28,50,82 and 126.
Definition
Magic Numbers
Term
The difference between the mass of an atom and the sum of the masses of its protons, neutrons, and electrons.
Definition
Mass Defect
Term
The energy released when a nucleus is formed from nucleons.
Definition
Nuclear Binding Energy
Term
A reaction that affects the nucleus of an atom.
Definition
Nuclear Reaction
Term
Nucleons exist in different energy levels, or shells, in the nucleus.
Definition
Nuclear Shell Model
Term
A proton or neutron.
Definition
Nucleon
Term
The process by which the approximate age of an object is determined based on the amount of certain radioactive nuclides present.
Definition
Radioactive Dating
Term
The general term for any isotope of any element; another term for an atom that is identified by the number of protons and neutrons in its nucleus.
Definition
Nuclide
Term
A change in the identity of a nucleus as a result of a change in the number of its protons.
Definition
Transmutation
Term
Bombardment of stable nuclei with charged and uncharged particles.
Definition
Artificial Transmutation
Term
The particles or electromagnetic radiation emitted from the nucleus during radioactive decay.
Definition
Nuclear Radiation
Term
The spontaneous disintegration of a nucleus into a slightly lighter and more stable nucleus, accompanied by an emission of particles, electromagnetic radiation, or both.
Definition
Radioactive Decay
Term
Unstable nucleus that undergoes radioactive decay.
Definition
Radioactive Nuclide
Term
An element with more than 92 protons in its nucleus.
Definition
Transuranium Element
Term
A device that uses exposure of film to measure the approximate radiation exposure of people working with radiation.
Definition
Film Badge
Term
An instrument that detects radiation by counting electric pulses carried by gas ionized by radiation.
Definition
Geiger-Muller Counter
Term
A radioactive atom that is incorporated into a substance so that movement of the substance can be followed by a radiation detector.
Definition
Radioactive Tracer
Term
The quantity of ionizing radiation that does as much damage to human tissue as is done by 1 roentgen of high voltage X rays.
Definition
rem
Term
A unit used to measure nuclear radiation; equal to the amount of radiation that produces 2E9 ion pairs when it passes through a cubic centimeter of dry air.
Definition
Roentgen
Term
An instrument that converts scintillating light to an electric signal for detecting radiation.
Definition
Scintillation Counter
Term
Neutron-absorbing rods that help control a nuclear reaction by controlling the number of free electrons.
Definition
Control Rods
Term
A material used to slow down the fast neutrons produced by fission.[image][image]
Definition
Moderator