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Neuropsychology
Chapter 15
29
Psychology
12/12/2010

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Term
Can alzheimer's be diagnosed?
Definition
Only with a brain biopsy after death
Term
The clinical neuropsychologist answers the following questions:
Definition
1. Any cerebral impairment?
2. How severe is the injury?
3. Is the lesion progressive or static?
4. Is the lesion diffuse or lateralized, or are there multiple lesions?
5. Is the impairments anterior or posterior? Can it be localized?
6.What is the most likely pathological process, and what is the prognosis?
7. What are the individual's cognitive/behavioral strengths and weaknesses, & how do they related to daily living skills, treatments, and rehabilitation?
8. Do the neuropsych deficits influence the patient's quality of life?
9. What is the patient's reaction to the injury and/or impairment?
Term
Halstead and Reitan
Definition
pioneered use of a standard battery approach of tests for identifying brain damage
Term
Opponents of the test battery approach
Definition
complex behavior cannot and should not be reduced to a single number or test score
Term
Process Approach (Hypothesis Approach)
Definition
Neuropsychologists should adapt each exam to the individual patient.
Term
Advantages to the Process Approach
Definition
1. Concentrates on most relevant areas for the patient.
2. emphasizes in what manner the patient fails to succeed in a specific cognitive task
3.
Term
Majority of neuropsychologists use which type of approach in testing?
Definition
Modified battery approach-choose specific tests to answer a referral question
Term
Figuring out "norms" in neuropsychology
Definition
compare individual's test scores and available normative data. Age, sex, education, and intelligence
Term
A patient scoring less than the "cutoff score"
Definition
labeled as impaired. If they score better, they are labeled as within normal limits (WNL)
Term
Most useful tests in relation to sensitivity and specificity
Definition
High sensitivity and high specificity
Term
What is the basis for the scoring system on many standardized tests?
Definition
The normal distribution
Term
Deficit Measurement
Definition
standardized and group oriented. Useful for understanding general conditions and disease states.
Term
Pattern Analysis
Definition
Modification of the differential score approach. Examines relationships among the scores in a test battery.
Term
Can a test be fully insensitive to brain injury?
Definition
No, no test is fully insensitive to brain damage
Term
Signs of lateralization
Definition
if one side of the body performs significantly worse than the other, the opposite hemisphere may have been injured
Term
What kind of observations are pathagnomic signs?
Definition
Qualitative Observations
Term
Greek definition for pathognomonic symptoms
Definition
"fit to give judgment" (often a specific diagnosis can be made from them)
Term
Do pathognomonic signs occur in normal people?
Definition
Rarely
Term
Examples of pathagnomonic signs
Definition
rotation of a drawing or the failure to draw the left half of a figure
Term
What type of tests to older people do less well on as they grow older?
Definition
clinical tests measuring adaptive abilities, problem-solving skills, and perceptual & attentional skills
Term
Premorbid
Definition
before disease or trauma
Term
what population has neuropsych tests focused on in the past?
Definition
Right-handed males.
Term
cerebral organization the same in males and females?
Definition
NO
Term
Women are better on what type of tests?
Definition
verbal skills, verbal learning, and verbal fluency
Term
Men Perform better on what type of tests?
Definition
visual-spatial
Term
malingering
Definition
intentional exaggeration or presentation of neuropsychological symptoms
Term
Do neuropsych tests have the ability to detect faking?
Definition
Not really
Term
dissimulation
Definition
patient is consciously denying that there is anything wrong for secondary gain
Term
Lezak
Definition
suggests they can detect malingering and functional disorders by finding performance patterns that are discrepant with known neuropsychological patterns