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nervous system 2
brain
145
Anatomy
02/17/2010

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Cards

Term
olfactory
Definition
sense of smell
Term
optic
Definition
vision
Term
oculomotor
Definition
eye movements
Term
trochlear
Definition
eye movements
Term
trigeminal
Definition
sensations of face,scalp,and teeth;chewing movements
Term
abducens
Definition
eye movements
Term
facial
Definition
sense of taste; contraction of muscles of facial expressions
Term
vestibulocochlear
Definition
hearing; sense of balance
Term
vagus
Definition
sensations of throat and larynx and of thoracic and abdominal organs; swallowing, voice production, slowing of heartbeat, acceleration of gut movements
Term
glossopharyngeal
Definition
sensations of throat, taste, swallowing movements, secretion of saliva
Term
accesory
Definition
shoulder movements; turning movements of head
Term
hypoglossal
Definition
tongue movements
Term
parietal lobe
Definition
identifies touch, size, shape, colors, and spacial perception
Term
temporal lobe
Definition
sense of hearing and memory and sequencing
Term
occipital lobe
Definition
vision is interpreted 
Term

which parts of the brain are not part of the cerebrum?

 

Definition
cerebellum, brain stem, diencephalon
Term
cerebellum
Definition
balance, coordination, skill
Term
brain stem
Definition
vasomotor control, motor activity, breathing, heart rate
Term
diencephalon
Definition
body temp, appetite, sleep cycle control
Term
What are the 3 parts of the brain stem?
Definition
medulla oblongata, pons, and midbrain
Term
What is the structure of the brain stem?
Definition
White matter with bits of gray matter scattered through it
Term
What are the 2 parts of the diencephalon?
Definition
hypothalamus and the thalamus
Term
What is the second largest part of the human brain?
Definition
cerebellum
Term
What is the largest part of the human brain?
Definition
cerebrum
Term
What is the outer layer of gray matter in the cerebrum?
Definition
cerebral cortex
Term
What is the cerebrum made up of and composed of?
Definition
made up of lobes and is composed of dendrites and cell bodies of neurons
Term
the interior of the cerebrum is composed mainly of what?
Definition
white matter that is nerve fibers arranged in bundles called tracts
Term
What are meninges?
Definition
protective membranes covering the brain and spinal cord
Term
is the brain one of our largest organs?
Definition
yes!
Term
name in order from lowest to highest parts of brain stem.
Definition

1.medulla oblongata

2.pons

3.midbrain

Term
What is the medulla oblongata?
Definition
enlarged, upward extension of the spinal cord
Term
how are the make up of the brain stem and spinal cord different?
Definition
spinal cord consists of gray matter in the interior and white matter surrounding it. the brain stem has gray matter that mixes with white matter
Term
The portion of the brain stem that joins the spinal cord to the brain is the?
Definition
medulla
Term
Which of the following is not part of the diencephalon?
Definition
cerebrum, thalamus, pituitary gland, third ventricle gray matter
Term
ADH is produced by the?
Definition
hypothalamus
Term
What are the functions of the hypothalamus?
Definition
controls heart rate, constriction and dilation of blood vessels, contraction of stomach and intestines, produces hormones 
Term
Which of the following parts of the brain helps in the association of sensations with emotions as well as aiding in the arousal or alerting mechanisms
Definition
Thalamus
Term
the lobes of the cerebrum correspond to?
Definition
the bones that lie over them
Term
where does the gray matter lie in the cerebrum?
Definition
on the surface
Term
What is the outer region of the cerebrum called?
Definition
cerebral cortex
Term
The 2 hemispheres of the cerebrum are connected by?
Definition
the corpus callosum
Term
within the interior of the cerebrum are a few islands of gray matter known as?
Definition
basal ganglia
Term
a cerebrovascular accident is known as?
Definition
a stroke
Term
What is an MRI?
Definition
a scanning method that uses a magnetic field to induce brain tissues to emit radio waves
Term
What is a CT?
Definition
an imaging technique for the brain that involves scanning the head with a revolving x-ray generator
Term
What is an EEG?
Definition
measurement of electrical activity of the brain
Term
What is a CVA?
Definition
stroke
Term
T/F: the spinal cord is approximately 24-25 inches long
Definition
False 17-18
Term
the spinal cord ends at the sacrum t/f
Definition
false bottom of the first lumbar vertebra
Term
T/F the extensions of the meninges beyond the cord is convenient for preforming CAT scans without danger of injuring the spinal cord.
Definition
false; lumbar punctures
Term
bundles of myelinated fibers -dentrites- make up the white outer columns of the spinal cord.
Definition
False; spinal tracts
Term
t/f; ascending tracts conduct impulses up the cord to the brain and descending tracts conduct impulses down the cord to the brain.
Definition
true
Term
T/F tracts are functional organizations in that all of the axons the compose a tract serve several functions.
Definition
false; one general function
Term
T/F a loss of sensation caused by a spinal cord injury is called paralysis.
Definition
False anesthesia 
Term
12 pairs
Definition
cranial nerves
Term
dermatome
Definition
spinal nerves
Term
vagus
Definition
cranial 
Term
shingles
Definition
spinal nerves
Term
31 pairs
Definition
spinal nerves
Term
optic
Definition
cranial
Term
C1
Definition
spinal nerves
Term
plexus
Definition
spinal nerves
Term
the_____,_________, and ______ centers are located in the medulla
Definition
cardiac, respiratory, and vasomotor collectively called the vital centers
Term
impulses from the vital centers control?
Definition
heartbeat, respirations, and blood vessel diameter
Term
What is the diencephalon?
Definition
a small but important part of the brain located between the the midbrain and the cerebrum
Term
What are the two major structures of the diencephalon?
Definition
hypothalamus and the thalamus
Term
the hypothalamus is located____below the thalamus
Definition
below
Term
What are the extensions of the hypothalamus?
Definition
posterior pituitary gland, the stalk that attaches it to the undersurface of the brain, and gray matter located in the third ventricle
Term
How is the hypothalamus's size related to its importance?
Definition
with its size it is one of the least significant parts of the brain, but with its contributions to survival its one of the most important brain structures
Term
the hypothalamus exerts major control over?
Definition
all internal organs
Term
What is the thalamus?
Definition
located just above the hypothalamus and is a dumbbell shaped section of gray matter
Term
The thalamus is composes mostly of?
Definition
dendrites and cell bodies of neurons that have axons extending up toward the sensory areas of the cerebrum
Term
What is the second largest part of the brain?
Definition
cerebellum
Term
the cerebellum lies under the_____ lobe of the cerebrum.
Definition
occipital
Term
In the cerebellum, gray matter composes the_____layer while _____ matter composes the interior
Definition
gray, white
Term
The cerebrum has many ridges and grooves called?What are the deepest sulci called?
Definition
ridges are called gyri and the grooves are called sulci. fissures
Term
Definition
Term
The______ divides the brain into left and right hemispheres.
Definition
longitudinal fissure
Term
What functions as the center for all spinal cord reflexes?
Definition
spinal cord
Term
Parietal lobe?
Definition
identifies touch, size, shape, colors, spacial perception
Term
temporal lobe
Definition
sense of hearing, memory and sequencing
Term
frontal lobe
Definition
personality, emotions, problem solving, speaking, expressive language
Term
occipital lobe
Definition
vision is enterpreted
Term
cerebellum
Definition
balance, coordination, skill
Term
brain stem
Definition
motor activity, breathing, heart rate and vasomotor control
Term
diencephalon
Definition
body temp, appetite, sleep cycle control
Term
Which parts of the brain are not part of the cerebrum?
Definition
cerebellum, brain stem and diancephalon
Term
gray matter in the brain stem functions as?
Definition
reflex centers ex: heart rate, blood vessel diameter, and respirations
Term
Definition
Term
What do sensory tracts do?(brainstem)
Definition
conduct impulses to higher parts of the brain
Term
What do motor tracts do?
Definition
conduct from the higher parts of the brain to the spinal cord
Term
What is the hypothalamus made up of?
Definition
posterior pituitary gland, pituitary stalk, and gray matter
Term
the hypothalamus acts as a major controlling center for____ therefore helps control what? 
Definition
the ANS; all internal organs
Term
What are some functions for the hypothalamus?
Definition
controls hormone secretion, appetite, wakefulness and pleasure
Term
What is the dumbbell shaped mass of gray matter in each cerebral hemisphere?
Definition
thalamus
Term
What does the thalamus do?
Definition
relays sensory impulses to cerebral cortex sensory areas and produces the emotions of pleasantness and unpleasantness
Term
Does the cerebellum assist the cerebrum and other regions of the brain?
Definition
yes
Term
What is the spinal cord made of?
Definition
the outer part is composed of white matter made up of bundles of axons called tracts. the interior is composed of gray matter made up of mainly of neuron dendrites and cell bodies
Term
Definition
Term
sensory tracts conduct impulses ___ the brain
Definition
to
Term
Definition
Term
motor tracts conduct impulses ___the brain
Definition
from
Term
reflexes that result from conduction over arcs who whose centers lie in the spinal cord are called?
Definition
spinal cord reflexes
Term
What are the 2 common kinds of spinal cord reflexes?
Definition
withdrawal(pulling hand away from hot surface) and jerk reflexes(knee jerk)
Term
Definition
Term
Definition
Term
spinal cord tracts carry impulses____ and ____the brain
Definition
to and from
Term
is nerve tissue sturdy? So what protects it?
Definition
no;meninges
Term
Definition
Term
Do meninges cover the brain and the spinal cord?
Definition
yes
Term
What are meninges?
Definition
tough fluid filled membrane that covers the brain and the spinal cord
Term
What surrounds the meninges?
Definition
bone
Term
what are the 3 layers of the meninges?
Definition
dura mater(tough outer layer that lines the vertebral canal), arachnoid mater(cobweb with fluid in the spaces and is between the other), pia mater(the innermost layer that covers the spinal cord itself)
Term
What is the fluid called that fills the spaces between the pia mater and the arachnoid mater in the brain and spinal cord? Where is another place it fills?
Definition
cerebrospinal fluid(CSF);spaces in the brain called cerebral ventricles
Term
Definition
Term
There are lateral ventricles in the ____side of the brain and the _____
Definition
right and left
Term
CSF is one of the body's______.
Definition
circulating fluids
Term
What is the choroid plexus?
Definition
a network of brain capillaries that are involved with the production on CSF
Term
What are interneurons?
Definition
nerves that conduct impulses from sensory neurons to motor neurons
Term
CSF forms continuously from____.
Definition
blood
Term
What is the PNS?
Definition
the nerves connecting the brain and the spinal cords to other parts of the body
Term
The PNS includes_____nerves and _____nerves.
Definition
cranial and spinal
Term
 the ANS connects the brain to what?
Definition
cardiac, smooth and glands
Term
_____pairs of cranial nerves are attached to the undersurface of the brain extending mostly from the _____
Definition
12; brain stem
Term
the cranial nerves conduct impulses between the _____and structures in the _____,_____ and ______
Definition
brain;head;neck;thorax
Term
What are spinal nerves?
Definition
nerves that connect the spinal cord to peripheral structures such as the skin and skeletal muscles
Term
What are spinal tracts?
Definition
the white columns of the spinal cord that provide two way conduction paths to and from the brain
Term
there are _____pairs of spinal nerves
Definition
(31 pairs total); 8-cervical, 12-thoracic, 5-lumbar, 5-sacrospinal, 1-coccygeal segment
Term
Definition
Term
do spinal nerves have special names? how are they named?
Definition
no; a letter and a number identify each one
Term
Definition
Term
What is a plexus?
Definition
complex network formed by converging and diverging nerves, blood vessels, or lymphatic vessels
Term
Definition
Term
Definition
Term
What is the pneumonic device for cranial nerves?
Definition
on old olympus tiny tops a friendly viking grew vines and hops
Term
What are dermatomes?
Definition
skin surfaces areas supplied by a single spinal nerve
Term
What is the ANS? What does it regulate?
Definition
motor neurons that conduct impulses from the central nervous system to cardiac, smooth and glands; the body's automatic or involuntary functions
Term
the ANS contains______!
Definition
ganglions
Term
What are the 2 divisions of the ANS?
Definition
sympathetic and parasympathetic system
Term
Autonomic conduction paths=
Definition
2 neurons and a ganglion
Term
What does the sympathetic nervous system do?
Definition
serves as the emergency or stress system,controlling effectors during strenuous exercise and strong emotions.
Term
group of changes induced by sympathetic control is called?
Definition
the fight or flight response
Term
dendrites and cell bodies of sympathetic neurons are located?
Definition
in the gray matter of the thoracic and upper lumbar segments of the spinal cord
Term
What is the parasympathetic nervous system? and where are the parasympatheric neurons located?
Definition
dominates control of many visceral effectors under normal everyday conditions(homeostasis); gray matter of the brain stem and sacral segments of the spinal cord
Term
Definition