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NCO Academy Correspondence Study Questions
Volume 3 (Communication Skills)
61
Other
08/08/2010

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Term
How are the concepts of communication preparation universal?
Definition
The basic philosophy and guidance for effective writing and speaking is the same. Both involve getting started with the communication, subject research, support selection, and organizing.
Term
What is effective communiation?
Definition
Any communication that results in the receiver interpreting you message as you intended.
Term
For what three reasons do we generally try to communicate with each other?
Definition
We communicate to direct, influence or inform our audience.
Term
Explain the two audience concept as it applies to communication?
Definition
Every communication has a sending and a receiving audience. The sending audience is the group we represent, while the receiving audience is the group with whom we are communicating.
Term
Name four resources for researching your subject.
Definition
Four available resources are the library, the internet, reference books, and individuals
Term
List five categories of reference tools.
Definition
Almanacs, Dictionaries, Encyclopedias, Thesauruses, E-resources
Term
Name the five types of support and give a brief description of each.
Definition
1) Definitions explain or clarify unfamiliar items; (2) examples provide an illustration of what we are trying to communicate; (3) comparisons provide a reference to a similar and usually better known item; (4) testimony expresses the item through the words and thoughts of others; and (3) statistics show relationships and/or summarize collections of facts or data
Term
In what manner did Socrates describe speech? How does this correlate to a speech's structure.
Definition
Socrates analogized the parts of a speech to the body of an animal having a head (introduction), body, and tail (conclusion.
Term
Name five patterns used when organizing a presentation.
Definition
Types of patterns include: topical; time or chronological; reason; problem-solution; spatial or geographical; and cause-and-effect.
Term
Describe mind-mapping.
Definition
Mind mapping is a brainstorming activity in which you allow your unorganized thoughts to flow onto paper, connecting like items/thoughts as you progress.
Term
What outlining formats are mentioned in this lesson?
Definition
This lesson covers four outline types; scratch, formal, informal, and talking paper.
Term
What do the terms "faulty analogy," "asserted conclusion," "loaded question," and "non sequitur" have in common?
Definition
They are examples of flaws or fallacies in logic
Term
How are transitional devices valuable tools when arranging the elements in your message?
Definition
Transitional devices, when woven skillfully into your message, can assist your audience in following your train of though.
Term
What are the accepted standard for the format of the printed presentation?
Definition
(1) double space text (2) ensure all main points are adequately supported; paper lenghts will vary depending on topic and/or requirements (3) If computer-generated, use 12-point, Times New Roman font; maintain 1" margins all around; align text to left margin; do not center or justify text (4) if handwritten, print or write legibly; use standard 8.5 by 11" college rule notebook paper; remove any frayed, spiral, or perforated edges; ensure capital letters are distinguishable from lower case.
Term
What are the three areas to focus on when writing a paper?
Definition
Technical accuracy and coverate, arrangement and flow, and readablility and mechanics.
Term
What are the three areas to focus on when preparing a speech?
Definition
Technical accuracy and coverate, arrangement and flow, and presentation and delivery.
Term
Why is the "extemporaneous" approach to speaking appealing?
Definition
It is the least hostile and most intimate form of communicating with an audience. You are able to speak "off the cuff," but may also use speaking aids, such as index cards, outlines, etc...
Term
What three components are evaluated in the introduction of a written or spoken presentation?
Definition
Purpose, motivation, and overview
Term
What section is used to evaluate punctuation, grammer, and spelling?
Definition
Readability and Mechanics
Term
In which part of speech or written presentation would you evaluate the use and integration of transitions?
Definition
Organization
Term
What are three responisbilities of commanders and supervisors -- their staffs and subordinates -- when it comes to organizational communication?
Definition
Keep communication channels open; maintain an environment conductive to communication; and communication effectively
Term
In what way can organization personnel verify whether they are engaging critically and constructively in the exchange of ideas?
Definition
By completing a short, self-diagnostic exercise that reveals personal but applicable barriers to communicating.
Term
Name the four barriers that can hinder effective communications.
Definition
Organizational, language, managerial, and psychological
Term
Define Organizaional barriers that can hinder effective communications
Definition
Organizational barriers are a result of personnel not understanding their responsibilities and in the lines of authority within a given organizational structure.
Term
Define Language barriers that can hinder effective communications
Definition
Language barriers result from our inability to use the proper words to communicate with our receiver.
Term
Define Managerial barriers that can hinder effective communications
Definition
Managerial barriers stem from managers not listening and not taking an understanding attitude toward information and suggestions that reach them.
Term
Define psychological barriesr that can hinder effective communications
Definition
Psychological barriers result from psychological needs not being met. These needs are a feeling of security, opportunity for advancement, a desire to be treated fairly, and a realization that one's work is both useful and important
Term
What are the steps in overcoming communication barriers?
Definition
There are two steps. (1) Establish an organizational policy that defines lines of responsibility and authority, establishes communication channels, provides a climate for effective communication, and keeps key people informed. (2) Increase skills in written and oral expression
Term
How do communications flow within an organization?
Definition
Communications flow in three directions -- upward, downward, and laterally
Term
Often, what is the result of communications having to pass through many organizational levels?
Definition
It often causes a delay in communications and creates chances for distortion of the original message.
Term
The misuse of abstrations and a lack of common core experience are main contributors to which communications barrier
Definition
Language barriers
Term
What is the difference between a concrete and an abstract noun?
Definition
A concrete noun refers to objects that humans can directly experience. The usually convey the same meaning to everybody. An abstract noun tends to be vague and open to interpretation and its use oven leads to confusion.
Term
What is the clique? Describe one advantage and one disadvantage of a clique within and organization.
Definition
The formation of a clique is the direct result of social instinct to band together in groups. A clique can bind people together by enhancing unit morale, however, can also tae on a life of its own and becomen independent of organization objectives.
Term
What are the four steps in the process of writing?
Definition
(1) Prewriting (2) Drafting (3) Editing (4) Revising
Term
What five steps are involved in prewriting phase?
Definition
(1) Selecting your purpose and objective, (2) Analyzing your audience, (3) Researching your subject, (4) selecting a pattern, and (5) outlining
Term
When writing your draft, what areas should you focus on?
Definition
(1) Introduction (2) Body (3) Conclusion (4) Transitions, and (5) Support
Term
During the editing phase, what specifically are you looking for?
Definition
Look for basic grammatical errors and correct format. Check for complete paragraphs and sentences, the compare it to your outline to ensure you have included all of the main points and subpoints you intended to cover.
Term
Describe the revising phase.
Definition
Revising is a finishing step to improve the communication based on the editing phase and the feedback from the reviewers. You revise or rewrite your draft to make it into a more formal presentaion.
Term
What is sentence unity?
Definition
All the parts of the sentence matching in number, verb, possession, etc..
Term
Briefly define the four types of sentences you should use throughout your written communication.
Definition
(1)Simple sentence -- a sentence that expresses one complete thought
(2)Compound sentence -- a union of two or more simple sentences
(3)Complex sentence -- a simple sentence with a dependent clause attached to it
(4)Compound-complex sentence -- a combination of a compound and a complex sentence
Term
Name the standard sentence mechanics you should be aware of when writing
Definition
Punctuation, capitalization, and abbreviation
Term
Briefly describe each of the common obstacles to sentence coherence.
Definition
(1)Faulty order of sentence parts and misplaces modifiers -- sentence parts aren't in correct order
(2)Faulty parallelisms -- similar ideas or parts are not expressed in a parallel way
(3)Faulty relationship of ideas -- reader can't tell the relationship of a sentence parts due to dangling modifiers or omissions.
Term
What are the three basic components of a paragraph?
Definition
Topic,support, and closing sentence
Term
What is the basic concept of paragraph coherence?
Definition
All of the paragraph parts should be arranged so that their relationship is clear to the reader.
Term
What are some examples of transitional devices you can use to show a contrasting relationship?
Definition
But, still, however, nevertheless, and yet
Term
Considering the point of view for your communication, describe how writing in the second person is done?
Definition
The second person is the persion spoken to; using the second person allows the writer to maintain some personal relationship with the reader
Term
Describe the three common forms of tense you will use in your communication
Definition
(1) Past -- express actions or make a statements about something that happend in the past
(2) present -- express actions or make a statements about something that happening in the present
(3) future -- express actions or make a statements about something that happening in the future
Term
What does the voice of your writing indicate?
Definition
Voice shows if the subject acts or is acted upon
Term
How do you use numbers to maintain paragraph coherence?
Definition
If the controlling idea is singular, you keep all of the references to it singular
Term
What is the basic idea behind writing a draft?
Definition
The primary objective is to get your ideas down on paper in some form so you can edit and revise.
Term
Each time your work is edited, what should the editor be reading for?
Definition
Content, arrangement and flow, and readability and mechanics.
Term
What are the phases of the speaking process?
Definition
Prewriting, drafting, editing, and presenting
Term
When starting a presentation, what are some attention-getting devices you might consider?
Definition
Rhetorical questions; direct questions; quotations; illustrations; a starting statement; unusual or dramatic devices; references to the importance of the theme
Term
What is the definition of a rhetorical question?
Definition
A rhetorical question is one requiring no answer; its answer is usually obvious
Term
What is the purpose of the overview step in the process of speaking?
Definition
The overview step provides the audience with a road map of the information that is to follow.
Term
What should be accomplished during the summary?
Definition
The summary should restate the main points, the relationship between points, and the specific objective of the presentation.
Term
What devices are used to ensure the continuity of thought?
Definition
Transitions and interim summaries
Term
How many types of physical behaviors are there? Name them.
Definition
Three; Eye contact, body movement, and gestures
Term
According to Dr. Kline, what are the properties of voice?
Definition
Quality, intelligibility, and variety
Term
Upon what factors does the intelligibility of a presentation depend?
Definition
Articulation, pronounciation, vocal pauses, overuse of stock expressions, and substandard grammer
Term
What fundamentals of speech add variety to a presentation?
Definition
Rate, volume, force, pitch, and emphasis