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NAVLE Questions of the Day
Prepping for Veterinary Boards
174
Veterinary Medicine
05/19/2012

Additional Veterinary Medicine Flashcards

 


 

Cards

Term
What is the major active ingredient in most IV euthanasia solutions?
Definition
Pentobarbital
Term
Under what disease conditions is a highly sensitive test needed?
Definition
When a disease is rare and early detection improves prognosis
Term

 

In what species is this a normal finding?

[image]

Definition
Goats (marked poikilocytosis)
Term

 

In which species is this a normal finding?

[image]

Definition
Horse (rouleau formation of erythrocytes)
Term
Which lesions are most commonly associated with Marek's disease?
Definition
Nerve enlargement
Term
What do Eimeria oocysts in intestinal scrapings on a routine necropsy of a chicken suggest?
Definition
Incidental finding in healthy animals and only problematic if large numbers of sporulated oocysts are ingested
Term
Which three nerve blocks will correctly isolate the majority of lameness?
Definition

Palmar digital

Abaxial sesamoid

Low palmar

Term
How long after a booster of rabies vaccination is a dog, cat, or ferret considered to currently vaccinated and protected against rabies?
Definition
Immediately
Term
What condition would be expected to have a positive Ortolani sign?
Definition
Hip dysplasia
Term

 

A 5 year old female spayed Cocker Spaniel is presented with a strange expression. Her right ear and lip appear to droop. There is ptosis O.D and the dog is drooling on the exam table. What anatomical structure is damaged?

 

Definition
Facial nerve
Term
Damage to the left recurrent laryngeal nerve is associated with "roaring" in horses. What cranial nerve is the recurrent laryngeal nerve a branch of?
Definition
Vagus (cranial nerve X)
Term

 

What is the common name of this problem in the lower hock joints of a horse?[image]

Definition
Bone spavin
Term
A stray dog presents after being hit by a car. The dog has hypotonic forelimbs and spastic paresis in the hinds. All four limbs have proprioceptive deficits and sensation loss-signs are worse in the forelimbs. Where is the lesion?
Definition
Cervicothoracic region (C6-T2)
Term
Which diseases are classically associated with a high anion gap?
Definition

Grain overload (lactic acidosis)

Diabetic ketoacidosis

Renal insufficiency

Ethylene glycol toxicity

 

Term

 

A farmer reports that recently, one of his cattle was staggering and sick, with blood and black material seeping from the nose and anus. The cow died out in the pasture and a stray dog was seen chewing on the carcass several days ago. What is the next step if the dog looks as follows?

[image]

Definition
Report a suspected case of anthrax as this dog is likely suffering from oropharyngeal anthrax
Term
What is the earliest day post-breeding that an experienced practitioner can feel the fetal membrane slip of the chorioallantoic membrane of a cow?
Definition
30-35 days
Term
What is the earliest day post-breeding that an experienced practitioner can feel the placentomes in a cow?
Definition
70-75 days
Term
What is the earliest day post-breeding that an experienced practitioner can feel fremitus in a cow?
Definition
90-120 days
Term

 

A pig farm reports a problem in weaning-age piglets. Affected piglets are depressed, anorexic and with slight fevers. What is the best action to take if they look as follows[image]

Definition
High dose antibiotics for sick piglets (this is exudative dermatitis "greasy pig disease" caused by Staphylococcus hyicus)
Term
Which category of drugs are amrinone and milrinone?
Definition
Phosphodiesterase inhibitors (increase available intracellular calcium for use in muscle proteins)
Term
Positive inotropes include which classes of drugs?
Definition

Phosphodiesterase inhibitors (amrinone/milrinone)

Beta adrenergic agonists

(dopamine, isoproterenol, epinephrine)

Cardiac glycosides (digoxin, digitoxin)

Term

An 8 year old male neutered Golden Retriever presents with a 2 month history of nonspecific lethargy and weight loss. What is the top differential with the following conditions.

T=99.8 F(37.7 C), RR=24 brpm, HR=64 bpm

PCV=45%, RBC=6.5x10^12 g/L (normocytic/normochromic)

WBC=12,350 Neu=63%, Lym=24%, Mon=5%, Eo=8%

Na=148 mEq/L, Cl=118 mEq/L, K=6.0 mEq/L

LDH=200 u/L, ALT=36 u/L, AST=14 u/L, ALKP=101 u/L

Glucose=120 mg/dL, Cholesterol=200 mg/dL

BUN=29 mg/dL, CREA=1.6 mg/dL

Bilirubin=0.4 mg/dL, TP=4.6 g/dL, Albumin=1.6 mg/dL

USpG=1.031, no WBC/RBC, protein +++

Definition
Glomerulonephritis
Term

A 6 yr old female spayed Cocker Spaniel presents with a 2 days history of lethargy. Upon physical exam, mucosal petechiae and ecchymoses and an ocular hemorrhage O.D. is noted. What is the diagnosis with the following coagulation profile?

Thrombocytes=49,720

BMBT increase

aPTT normal

PT normal

TT normal

Definition

Idiopathic thrombocytopenia

(common in females, cocker spaniels, poodles, and old english sheepdogs)

Term

Which parasite has been associated with a hypoadrenocorticism-like syndrome and has been suggested as a cause for cecocolic intussusception in dogs?

[image]

Definition
Trichuris vulpis
Term
During necropsy of an 8 year old mixed breed dog from the Southern United States, reactive granulomas in the esophagus containing bright red worms, 40 mm to 70 mm long, are found. What is the diagnosis?
Definition
Spirocerca lupi
Term

An 8 year old male outdoor dog from the southern US is presented with a chronic reccurent history of unthriftiness, weight loss and large bowel diarrhea. On two previous occassions in the past 18 months, the dog has responded to treatment with Fenbendazole. Which diagnostic test can rule out a second disease in the dog, different from the following fecal examination.

[image]

Definition
Heartworm antigen test (this dog is obviously not on a monthly preventative that would prevent the shedding of these eggs in the feces)
Term
What are the characteristic signs of large bowel diarrhea?
Definition

Urgent defecation

Loose watery stools

Mucus/blood in stools

Term
You are an associate veterinarian paid a base salary of $55,000 annually, plus 8% bonus based on receipts in above your monthly production goal of $23,000. Bonuses are paid quarterly and your last three month's production were $23,000; $28,000; $27,000. How much is your quarterly bonus?
Definition
$720
Term

A 4 month old filly is presented with a 4 day history of lethargy, heavy breathing, cough and depressed appetite.

T=104.9, HR=72 bpm, RR=44 brpm

On lung auscultation, asymmetrically distributed crackles and wheezes are audible. Some areas have no breath sounds and a dull resonance on thoracic percussion. What is the treatment of choice for the following image

[image]

Definition

Erythromycin and Rifampin

(Consolidated nodular lung lesions and mediastinal lymphadenopathy indicative of pneumonia caused by Rhodococcus equi)

Term
A 6 yr old quarterhorse gelding is presented in September in North America with a 3 day history of depression, poor appetite, fever, and worsening gait. The owner says the horse seems weak on his hind legs, stumbles and sometimes presses his head against the wall of his stall. The horse is ataxic and hypermetric in all four legs. Serum antibody titers to EEE, WEE, and VEE are low. A western blot test of CSF for antibodies to Sarcocystis neurona is negative. Which diagnositic test should be performed next?
Definition
Serum IgM capture ELISA for West Nile Virus
Term
A 4 yr old standard bred mare is examined in the fall with a 5 day history of depression, left head tilt, facial paralysis, and worsening gait. The horse is ataxic and knuckles on both forelegs, worse on the right. There is muscle atrophy of the left shoulder and right hindquarters and strips of localized spontaneous sweating over the left trunk. Which diagnostic test would support the presumptive diagnosis?
Definition
Western Blot Test of CSF for Sarcocystic neurona
Term
In September, a 5 yr old quarterhorse mare is presented with a 5 day history of left head tilt, facial paralysis, depression, and stumbling. The horse is ataxic and knuckles on both forelegs, worse on the left. There is muscle atrophy of the left pectorals and right hindquarters and strips of localized spontaneous sweating over the left trunk. The horse is immunoblot test-positive for Sarcocystis neurona. What prognosis is given to the owner if she elects to treat the horse?
Definition

At least 60% of treated horses improve

(horses that remain positive after immunoblot testing commonly relapse but horses that become negative after immunoblot testing rarely relapse)

Term
What is the recommended treatment for a hygroma?
Definition

Rest

Anti-inflammatory drugs

Bandaging

Draining the area

Injection with corticosteroids

Term
What describes the inflammation of an acquired bursa over the dorsal carpus?
Definition
Hygroma
Term
What are the classic signs of stringhalt?
Definition
Involuntary hyperflexion of the hock towards the abdomen
Term
What are the classic signs of Elso heel?
Definition
Involuntary hyperextension of the hock
Term
What are the typical clinical signs of gonitis?
Definition
Inflammation of the stifle joint leading to degenerative disease
Term

Last fall, several malformed calves were born on a ranch. In the spring, the owner could not deliver feed to the back pasture for 3 days and 14 days later the heifers are losing weight, off feed and lethargic. Physical exam is unremarkable except for large linera cracks extending to the dermis on muzzles of affected cows. Blood chemistry/urinalysis:

Na=122 mEq/L, K=2.2 mEq/L, Ca=6 mg/dL,

ALT=70 u/L, CK=150 u/L, SDH=82 u/L

Bilirubin=0.6 mg/dL, BUN=140 mg/dL, CREA=4 mg/dL

Glob=4.4 g/dL, Alb=2.2 g/dL

USpG=1.010, protein +++, blood+++

What should be done next?

[image]

Definition
Check the pastures for oak trees and acorns (classic case of acorn/oak bud toxicosis)
Term
Which plants can cause nitrate toxicity?
Definition

Pigweed

Lamb's Quarter

Term

A tourniquet was placed at mid cannon bone on this cow's leg and Lidocaine is injected in the dorsal pedal vein. What is expected to happen?

[image]

Definition
Anaesthesia distal to the tourniquet
Term

During necropsy on a 4-yr old Beagle who died suddenly, a severe right ventricular hypertrophy is noted. Which condition is highest on the differential diagnosis list?

[image]

Definition
Pulmonic stenosis
Term

A 9-yr old German Shepherd is presented with unchecked bleeding from a cut on the gums above the right canine tooth. The owner relates that the dog has lost weight and had an episode of collapse 3 days ago, but recovered. On PE, the gums are pale with petechiae and ecchymotic hemorrhages. There is tachycardia and palpable cranial abdominal mass. Which coagulation disorder fits best with the following pattern:

Thrombocytes=82,533/uL

BMBT=elevated, aPTT=elevated, PT=elevated, TT=elevated, FDPs=elevated

Definition
Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation
Term
Which diseases are commonly associated with DIC?
Definition

Heartworm

Heart failure

Hemolytic anemia

Hemangiosarcoma

Hemorrhagic gastroenteritis

Hepatic disease (hepatic lipidosis)

Gastric dilitation volvulus

Mammary gland carcinoma

Pancreatitis

Term
A 5-yr old neutered domestic shorthair cat is presented for lethargy, vomiting, and diarrhea. The owner saw the cat licking up antifreeze spilled which he was flushing his truck's radiator yesterday. The cat is markedly depressed and dehydrated on physical exam. What is the most appropriate treatment?
Definition

Ethanol 20%

 

Term
What are the four things you want to control in the case of ethylene glycol toxicity?
Definition

Decrease its absorption(gastric lavage/induced vomiting)

Promote diuresis (IV fluids)

Address metabolic acidosis (add bicarbonate)

Prevent its metabolism (give ethanol)

Term

An 8-yr old male neutered domestic shorthair cat is presented with a 1-month history of progressive excercise intolerance, panting, anorexia, weight loss, and vomiting. On PE, there is moderate cyanosis and a jugular pulse. On chest auscultation, there is a systolic murmur loudest on the left side between the 5-7th ribs.

T=102.1 F, HR=176 bpm, RR=40 brpm

What is the diagnosis?

[image]

Definition

Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy

(classic Valentine heart)

Term

A cow is presented with pruritis and crusts around the face and a skin scraping was performed. What is the diagnosis?

[image]

[image]

Definition
Sarcoptic mange
Term

On a cold February day in the Northeastern US, the cow shown below is examined for pruritis and crusts around the perineum. A skin scrape shows some kind of mite with long legs and short unsegmented pedicles. What should be done next?

[image]

Definition

Topical 0.25% Crotoxyfos spray

(Chorioptic mange)

Term
What is the best screening test for identifying infected animals or herd for bovine leukemia virus (leukosis)?
Definition
Agar Gel ImmunoDiffusion (AGID)
Term
Which species is considered to be as susceptible to acetominophen toxicity as cats?
Definition
Ferrets
Term
What enzyme are cats and ferrets lacking that causes slow metabolization of acetominophen?
Definition

Glucuronyl transferase

(a liver enzyme that catalyzes the transfer a chemical group from one compound to another)

Term
The feline insulin molecule is identical to the insulin molecule from what other species?
Definition
bovine
Term
A 5-yr old quarterhorse gelding is presented with a 4-day history of progressive asymmetric neurologic signs and muscle wasting. A western immunoblot test of CSF is positive for Sarcocystis neurona. The owner wants to treat, but does not want to spend a lot of money. What treatment plan is most appropriate?
Definition
Trimethoprim sulfa and Pyrimethamine
Term
A 12-yr old neutered male black labrador retreiver is presented with a 3-week history of limping on the right forelimb. The lateral digit is swollen and the nail is deviated ventrally, with ulceration of the nail bed. A lytic bone lesion of the 2nd phalanx is visible on radiograph and cytology of the mass suggests neoplasia. Chest radiographs are clear. Following amputation of the digit, histopathology indicates that the mass is a squamous cell carcinoma. What advice should be given to the owner?
Definition

95% chance he will survive one year

75% chance he will survive two years

squamous cells carcinomas have low metastatic rates

Term

A 9-yr old spayed female domestic shorthair cat is presented with a 5-month history of progressive right rear lameness. Apart from the worsening lameness, the cat acts normally and has a normal appetite. Physical exam reveals pain and swelling localized to the distal femur. Radiographs demonstrate a mixed lytic lesion that does not cross the joint space. What is the most likely presumptive diagnosis?

T=101.3 F, HR=120 bpm, RR=36 brpm

Definition

Osteosarcoma

[image]

Term
What is one cause of abdominal fat necrosis (lipomatosis) in cattle?
Definition
prolonged grazing of tall fescue infected with Acremonium coenophialum (an endophyte)
Term
A rabbit is presented with inflamed and chapped membranes of the anus and genital region. The genital area is scalded and raw with brownish crusts and purulent exudate. What two conditions top the differential diagnosis list?
Definition

Treponematosis (rabbit syphillis)

[image]

Hutch burn (urine scalding)

[image]

Term

A group of 2.5 month old feeder pigs are presented with non-pruritic keratinized skin lesions and mild lethargy. One severely affected animal is depressed and anorexic. What treatment is most appropriate for the presumptive diagnosis?

[image]

[image]

Definition
Supplement dietary Zinc
Term

A poultry operation has experienced sudden die-off of 5% of its birds. Another 10% are sick with cyanosis and edema of the head, comb, and wattle. Many have subcutaneous ecchymotic hemorrhages on the shanks, feet, and head. Some have a greenish diarrhea. On necropsy, petechial hemorrhages are visible on visceral organs and in muscles and there are blood-tinged oral and nasal discharges. A few birds that survived illness have developed torticollis, opisthotonos, and appear incoordinated. What test is most appropriate to confirm the presumptive diagnosis?

[image]

Definition

Virus isolation from tracheal or cloacal swab

(highly pathogenic avian influenza virus)

Term
 What is the best initial treatment in the patient with a moderate elevation of calcium caused by idiopathic feline hypercalcemia?
Definition
Dietary change (such as high fiber or renal diets)
Term
Facial edema is seen in which type of feline lymphoma?
Definition
Mediastinal lymphoma (due to compression of the cranial vena cava)
Term
What is the neuroanatomic cause of extensor ridigidity in the forelimbs of a cat with Schiff-Sherrington syndrome?
Definition
interruption of inhibitory neuron input from the lumbar spinal cord (often due to severe trauma between T2 and T13)
Term
Which hormone can induce neoplastic transformation of hypertrophied mammary tissue in cats?
Definition
Progesterone
Term
A litter of 1-day old kittens present with anemia, icterus, and tail tip necrosis. What is the most likely differential diagnosis?
Definition

Neonatal isoerythrolysis

(due to blood type being different than the dam's)

Term
A herd of 12 multiparous broodmares housed on a 25 acre pasture in southeastern United States are having reproductive problems. Of the three mares that have foaled so far this year, none have produced milk. Another mare is now 12 months in foal and has no udder development. What is the most likely diagnosis?
Definition
Fescue toxicity (most significant in the last 90 days of gestation)
Term
You are presented a healthy 10 year old maiden mare for breeding evaluation in January. On rectal palpation, both ovaries have multiple, small (less than 15 mm) follicles and no corpus lutea. The uterus is flaccid with no edema. What is the most likely explanation for these findings?
Definition
Seasonal anestrus
Term

A potbellied pig is presented acutely lame and non-weight bearing on the right forelimb after jumping off of a soga. What is the most accurate interpretation of this radiograph of the affected limb?

[image]

Definition
Distal humeral condyle fracture (most common fracture of potbellied pigs)
Term
What is a major clinical complication of equine pituitary pars intermedia dysfunction?
Definition
Laminitis
Term
During a routine immunization visit for a 2 year olf neutered male Newfoundland dog, a systolic murmur is detected which is heart loudest on the left side of the chest between the 2nd and 5th intercostal space and at the thoracic inlet lateral to the trachea. Which condition is highest on a differential diagnosis list?
Definition
Aortic stenosis
Term
Which dog breeds are predisposed to aortic stenosis?
Definition

Newfoundland

German Shepherd

Golden Retriever

Boxer

Rottweiler

Term
What is the primary clinical presentation in chickens infected with Camplyobacter jejuni?
Definition
Nothing (asymptomatic)
Term

This heifer has walked with an increasingly stiff and extended hock and stifle since 2 onths of age. The gastrocnemius muscle is contracted, and the animal walks with short pendulum-like steps. What is the most likely diagnosis?

[image]

Definition
Spastic paresis (Elso heel)
Term

At what stage of the estrous cycle is this dog, based on the following vaginal smear?

[image]

Definition
Estrus
Term

At which stage in the estrous cycle is this dog, based on the following vaginal smear?

[image]

Definition
Diestrus
Term

A feeder pig operation has a problem with sudden onset of diarrhea followed by collapse and death in piglets 1-3 days old. What is the presumptive diagnosis based on the following lesions seen at necropsy?

[image]

Definition
Clostridium perfringens type C
Term

A cat is presented with bilateral conjunctivitis and rhinitis. What is the diagnosis based on the following conjunctival scrape?

[image]

Definition
Chlamydophila spp.
Term
What are ongoing losses in fluid therapy?
Definition

Vomiting

Diarrhea

Term
What are sensible losses in fluid therapy?
Definition
Fluid loss that can be easily measured (i.e. urine)
Term
What are insensible losses in fluid therapy?
Definition
Fluid loss that is hard to measure (i.e sweat, respiration)
Term
A newborn foal with hypoxic ischemia encephalopathy and a poor suckle response is being treated supportive with mare's milk via nasogastric tube, IV fluids with 5% dextrose and broad spectrum antibiotics. What other treatment is often critical to caring for foals like this?
Definition
Diazepam for seizure control
Term

During a fecal examination of a 2 month old piglet, this organism is seen? What is the diagnosis?

[image]

Definition
Ascaris suum
Term
After diagnosis of appendicular osteosarcoma in a dog, the leg is amputated and chemotherapy is initiated. At follow-up monitoring exam 3 months later, thoracic radiographs are clea. What finding would suggest a guarded prognosis?
Definition
High alkaline phosphatase
Term

What is the mean survival time of a dog diagnosed with an appendicular osteosarcoma after amputation?

 

Definition
4-5 months
Term
What is the mean survival time of a dog diagnosed with an appendicular osteosarcoma after amputation and chemotherapy?
Definition
10-12 months
Term
What percentage of animals diagnosed with an osteosarcoma also develop visible metastatic disease?
Definition
90-95%
Term

A dog presents with a history of eating a shiny new United States penny that was hidden in a piece of birthday cake. What problem may result?

[image]

Definition
Zinc toxicity
Term
A valuable female show dog is approaching estrus and the owner wants her bred by artificial insemination to one of the most successful and expensive stud dogs in the country. What testing method is most accurate to ensure optimum timing for breeding the bitch?
Definition
LH monitoring
Term

A calf is presented with fever, depression, visual defects and neck rigidity due to colisepticemic meningitis. What management action will help prevent this problem in the future?

[image]

Definition
Ensure adequate colostrum uptake
Term

A 4 year old German shorthair hunting dog from the mid-Atlantic United States is presented with a right forelimb lameness of 2 weeks duration. What is the next diagnostic step after this radiograph?

[image]

Definition
Bone biopsy and bacterial culture to differentiate between bacterial infection and neoplasia
Term

Which ectoparasite normally spends its entire life cycle on the chicken, causing feather damage, anemia, and irritation?

[image]

Definition
Northern fowl mite, Ornithonyssus sylviarum (most important parasite of breeding chickens)
Term

A 5 year old quarterhorse is presented with a depigmented hyperkeratotic plaques localize to the concave aspect of both ears. What message should be communicated to the owner?

[image]

Definition
Papillary acanthoma lesions usually persist for life
Term

 A commercial turkey operation experiences an outbreak of disease in 40% of its 12-16 weeks old birds. Typically affected birds show only depression, then death. Some animals appear weak, recumbent with one leg forward and one leg back. On necropsy, diffuse or nodular lymphoid tumors are visible in various organs, particularly the liver, and spleen. Two affected birds have distorted pupils. What is the diagnosis?

[image]

Definition
Marek's disease
Term
After a stressful period of cold winter in northern Colorado, a petting zoo reports that one adult mule deer out of a herd of eight is sick. On physical exam, the animal has a fever, increased respiratory and pulmonary rates, suggesting aspiration pneumonia. What is the most appropriate next step to take?
Definition
Report case to state health department as a suspected case of Chronic Wasting Disease
Term
An 8 year old dog is presented with a 2 weeks history of occasional cough and moderate excercise intolerance. On physical exam, there are increased lung sounds. Thoracic radiographs show right ventricular enlargement. Lab testing shows that the dog is heartworm antigen-positive, anemia and has proteinuria on urinalysis. What class of heartworm disease is this?
Definition
Class II Heartworm disease
Term

A 1 year old German Shepherd is presented with a 2 week history of lameness. Although the dog limps on the right foreleg as it enters the exam room, the owner reports that the dog was lame on the left hindleg last week. On physical exam, the reacts painfully on palpation of the long bones of the right foreleg.

T=99.8 F

RR=24 brpm

HR= 100 bpm

What is the most likely diagnosis?

Definition
Panosteitis
Term
Which dog breeds are at highest risk of panosteitis?
Definition

German Shepherd

Basset Hound

Term
Which disease in young, growing, large breed dogs is characterized by bilateral metaphyseal pain, swelling in the distal radius and ulna, fever, anorexia, and depression?
Definition
Hypertrophic osteodystrophy (HOD)
Term
Which disease is characterized by diffuse periosteal proliferation of long bones in dogs secondary to neoplastic or infectious masses in the thoracic or abdominal cavity?
Definition
Hypertrophic osteopathy
Term

Which disease in young dogs and cats is characterized by non-painful ossified swellings on metaphyseal cortical surfaces of long bones, vertebra, and ribs?

[image]

Definition
Multiple cartilaginous exostoses
Term
Which diease of young, large breed dogs is characterized by lameness and angular limb deformity?
Definition
Retained cartilage cores
Term

What is the most common cause for this problem seen in turtles?

[image]

Definition
Vitamin A deficiency
Term

A 4 year old quarterhorse in California is presented with fever, lethargy, ataxia, icterus, petechiation, and limb edema. A complete blood count shows characteristic neutrophil inclusion bodies suggesting equine granulocytic ehrlichiosis. What is the most appropriate treatment?

[image]

Definition
Oxytetracycline
Term
A petting zoo is experiencing a high mortality outbreak among young chickens, guinea fowl, pheasants, and turkeys. Affected birds hiddle near heat sources. They are off feed and weak, with whitish feces pasted around their vents. On necropsy, lesions include unabsorbed yolk sacs and gray nodules in the liver, spleen, lungs, heart, gizzard, and intestine. There are firm, cheesy cecal cores. This presentation is highly suggestive of which diagnosis?
Definition
Salmonella pullorum
Term

An 8 months old male German Shorthaired Pointer is presented with a history of intermittent hindlimb lameness which is exacerbated by excercise during hunting. On physical exam, the dog is painful on manipulation of the right stifle. What advice should the owner be given?

[image]

Definition
Do NOT breed this dog with osteochondrosis
Term
What are common sites for osteochondrosis in dogs?
Definition

Caudocentral humeral head (shoulder)

Medial aspect of humeral condyle (elbow)

Femoral condyle, often lateral (stifle)

Ridge of the talus (hock)

Term

An emaciated cow is presented. She appears weak and anorexic, with enlarged superficial cervical lymph nodes. She is somewhat dyspneic and has an intermittent hacking cough. Her manure looks normal.

T=102.9 F, HR=60 bpm, RR=30 brpm

The cow dies the next day revealing the following lung lesion on necropsy. What is the diagnosis?

[image]

Definition
Bovine tuberculosis
Term

A 7 year old intact female poodle is presented. The owner has noted a lot of drinking and some urinary accidents in the house the last week and that the dog hasn't seemed herself. Yesterday she vomited twice. On physical exam, the dog appears depressed and listless, has dark injected mucous membranes and a distender tender abdomen.

T=104 F, HR=100 bpm, RR=30brpm

What diagnosis is of most immediate concern?

Definition

Closed pyometra

[image]

Term

A 3 year old Quarterhorse/Appaloosa cross mare is presented on emergency because she collapsed in the last 30 minutes. The mare is recumbent and weak, with respiratory stridor, muscle fasciculations, sweating, prolapse of the third eyelid and her lips pulled back spasmodically, like a grin.

T=100.2 F, HR=24 bpm, RR=16 brpm

The hose is hydrated and has had no recent history of colic. During the examination, she improves markedly and within 60 minutes, stands and appears normal again with no treatment. What is the clinical diagnosis?

Definition
Hyperkalemic periodic paralysis
Term
Which equine diets may trigger a positive hyperkalemic periodic paralysis animal to have an episode?
Definition

Diets high in Potassium (i.e. alfalfa hay, molasses, electrolyte supplements, kelp-based supplements)

Fasting

Term

In September, two Quarthorse mares are presented that are pastured in a group of 5 in Oklahoma. The horses eat pasture grass supplemented by alfalfa hay and a small amount of grain. One mare was found peracutely dead this morning. The other is depressed, anorexic and colicy. Physical exam revelas dark, congested mucous membranes with small ulcer-like erosions. The mare makes frequent attempts to urinate, yielding red urine with a USG of 1.006. She makes repeated attemps to drink small amounts of water and keeps her muzzle submerged in the water trough. Necropsy of the other mare shows that the stomach and bladder linings are irritated and hemorrhagic.

T=102.7 F, HR=40 bpm, RR=20 brpm

What is the diagnosis?

Definition
Cantharidin toxicity from blister beetles
Term

A flock from a local broiler poultry farm is presented. Half of the flock has died in the last 10 days. Examination of the flock shows chickens that are gasping and coughing, extending their necks to inhale. Some have blood-stained beaks. There are no obvious neurologic signs. Necropsy finds hemorrhagic airways. What is the most likely diagnosis?

[image]

Definition

Infectious Laryngotracheitis (ILT)

Term

A flock from an egg layer poultry operation is presented to investigate an outbreak of respiratory disease among a mixed-age population of adult chickens. The owner reports a sidden onset of sneezing, nasal discharge, and facial swelling among about 30% of the birds. What is the clinical diagnosis?

[image]

Definition
Infectious Coryza
Term

A clinic's waiting room has:

A Rottweiler with a foreleg osteosarcoma

A white mouse with a mammary gland tumor on her belly

A Norway rat with a mammary gland tumor near her neck

A snot-nosed ferret with a chin rash and eye crusts

A thin boa constrictor that lies in dorsal recumbency

Which of these animals has the best prognosis?

Definition
Norway rat (benign mammary tumor)
Term

A fecal examination on a 7 year old dog, shows the following organism. What is the best treatment?

[image]

Definition
Fenbendazole
Term

What term describes excessive growth of granulation tissue around a healing wound?

[image]

Definition
Proudflesh
Term

A dozen young chickens at a broiler-raising facility are found dead on their backs and sides with no premonitory signs. Other birds appear cyanotic, with distended and reddened abdomens and congested blood vessels. Affected birds have tachypnea and reduced excercise tolerance. What is the clinical diagnosis of a bird with these lesions?

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Definition
Ascites syndrome (water belly)
Term
Ascites syndrome in chickens is related to what other serious medical condition?
Definition

Right ventricular heart failure

Pulmonary hypertension

Hepatic failure

Term

An adult chicken is presented for necropsy after sudden death at a poultry operation. What is the primary diagnosis with the following lesions on necropsy?

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Definition
Dissecting aneurysm due to aortic rupture
Term

A 10 year old female spayed Irish Setter is presented with a 2 day history of progressively worsening lethargy, weakness, and inappetence. Physical exam shows pale mucous membranes, tachycardia, bounding pulses and discolored urine. What are the key elements of acute treatment for this dog?

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Definition

Immunosuppressive therapy (Prednisone)

Anticoagulants (Heparin)

Blood Transfusion

Term
What are the dosing recommendations for Prednisone?
Definition

1-2 mg/kg BID

can be given orally, subcutaneously, or intramuscularly

Term
What are the dosing recommendations for Dexamethasone Na Phosphate?
Definition

0.15-0.25 mg/kg BID

given intravenously

Term
What are three conditions to monitor for in a dog with immune-mediated hemolytic anemia (IMHA)?
Definition

Thrombocytopenia

Thromboembolism

Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation (DIC)

Term

A newborn calf is presented with joints fixed in abnormal positions, kyphosis, and a cleft palate. What exposure during pregnancy for the cow may have caused this problem in-utero in the calf?

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Definition

Lupine spp.

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Term

A 6 months old Manchester terrier is presented with a 4 week history of hindlimb lameness. What is the diagnosis concluded from the following radiograph?

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Definition
Aseptic necrosis of the femoral head
Term
Which dog breeds are predisposed to aseptic necrosis of the femoral head?
Definition

Manchester terrier

Yorkshire terrier

Miniature Poodle

Chihuahua

Term

What is the typical treatment of a dog with the following condition?

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Definition

NSAIDs

Femoral Head/Neck Osteotomy

 

(Aseptic necrosis of the femoral head)

 

Term

An alpaca is presented in poor body condition with an unkempt coat, patchy alopecia and severe pruritis and crusting of the extremities. What is the most appropriate diagnostic step?

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Definition

Skin scrape and microscopic examination to confirm Sarcoptic mange

 

Term
What treatment plan would you instill for a camelid diagnosed with Sarcoptic mange?
Definition

Avermectic family drug once every two weeks subcutaneously

Amitraz

Term

Fractures of the proximal sesamoid bones in horses are often associated with damage to what structure?

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Definition
Suspensory ligament (due to insertion on these bones)
Term
What nerve block would most specifically relieve lameness resulting from a fracture of the navicular bone?
Definition
Palmar/plantar digital nerve block (heel block)
Term
A 6 year old Standardbred jumper is presented with a 3 month history of poor performance and intermittent shifting hindlimb lameness. On physical exam, there is poor muscling of the gluteal muscles and some asymmetry to the croup. The horse has a 7 cm swelling over the hindquarters on the left dorsal side and shows pain and reluctance to ventroflex the back which midline pressure is applied. On rectal palpation, crepitation and shifting can be felt dorsally as the horse walks slowly forward. What is the diagnosis?
Definition
Sacroiliac subluxation
Term
What is the most common clinical sign exhibited by a horse with cystic calculi (bladder stones)?
Definition
Hematuria after excercise
Term
What are cystic calculi in horses typically composed of?
Definition
Calcium Carbonate
Term
Where should a feline leukemia (FeLV) vaccine be injected?
Definition
Below stifle, lateral left hindlimb
Term
Where should a Rabies vaccine be injected?
Definition
Below stifle, lateral right hindlimb
Term
Which feline vaccinations have been associated with sarcomas?
Definition

Feline leukemia (FeLV)

Rabies

Term
Which blood disease is characterized by schistocytes on a complete blood count?
Definition

Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation (DIC)

(due to mechanical fragmentation of erythrocytes)

Term
A dog that was treated for vomiting with Metoclopramide is now displaying involuntary muscle spasms and inappropriate aggression. Which drug would be appropriate to help reverse the adverse effects?
Definition
Diphenhydramine hydrochloride (Benadryl)
Term
The Animal Welfare Act is enforced by which United States government agency?
Definition

Department of Agriculture

Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS)

Term
What is the purpose of the Animal Welfare Act?
Definition

Sets minimal standards of care for laboratory animals

Regulates pet trade, animal transport, and licensure of animal dealers

Prohibits commercial animal fighting

Term

A multiparoud cow that calved 2 months ago is presented with a history of blood-stained urine for the last week. Today, the cow is off-feed and colicky switching her tail restlessly and urinating frequently. A cowside dipstick test shows hematuria and proteinuria. The bladder, ureters, and left kidney feel grossly normal on rectal palpation.

T=103.8 F, HR=70 bpm, RR=32 brpm

What is the most likely diagnosis?

Definition
Pyelonephritis
Term

A 4 year old Quarterhorse mare is presented with a runny left eye and urine-scalded perineum. No other horses on the farm are sick. Physical exam reveals a corneal ulcer, keratitis OS, and atrophy of the temporal and masseter muscles. There is decreased perineal sensation, a weak tail, and weak anal sphincter with retained manure. The horse is BAR.

T=102.2 F, HR=40 bpm, RR=12 brpm

What is the most likely diagnosis?

Definition
Cauda equina neuritis (polyneuritis equi)
Term

Two blood samples are shown from a 4 year old spayed female Doberman Pinscher that presented with a 2 day history of progressive weakness and inappetance. Physical exam shows icterus, pale mucous membranes and tachycardia. What message should be communicated to the owner?

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Definition
Most dogs will relapse within a year with the diagnosis of immune-mediated hemolytic anemia (IMHA) and that chronic therapy and monitoring is essential
Term
What do dogs with immune-mediated hemolytic anemia (IMHA) typically die from?
Definition

Anemia

Thromboembolism

Term
What is the estimated mortality rate of an animal with immune-mediated hemolytic anemia (IMHA)?
Definition
40-60%
Term

A 4 year old Quarterhorse presents with a 3 week history of diffuse patchy alopecia on the ventral midline and face, including a bulls-eye lesion in the center of the forehead. There is a mild conjunctivitis and uveitis OU. A punch is shown. What is the most appropriate treatment?

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Definition
Ivermectin now, retreat in 4 months to treat Onchocerca spp. infection
Term
Several sheep are sick at a petting zoo that has cows, horses, pigs, bison, and white-tailed deer. One of the deer is also affected. Affected sheep are listless and off-feed, with serous or mucopurulent nasal discarge and rectal temperatures ranging from 105-107.5 F. Physical exam shows swollen muzzles with edema and congestion of the lips, nose and face with small hemorrhages and ulcers on the mucous membranes. The ulcers appear where the teeth contact the swollen lips and tongue. Two affected sheep are lame. What is the diagnosis?
Definition
Bluetongue virus
Term
A cat with a previous diagnosis of diabetes mellitus confirmed by persistent fasting hyperglycemia and persistent glycosuria is presented for a routine check-up. The owner relates that she ran out of injectable insulin two months ago, but the cat seems to do fine without it, so she stopped giving the insulin shots. On physical exam, the cat appears healthy and a dipstick test shows a blood glucose level of 125 mg/dL. What is the most likely explanation?
Definition
Transient diabetes mellitus
Term
Approximately what percentage of cats exhibit transient diabetes mellitus?
Definition
20%
Term
Approximately what percentage of diabetic cats exhibit Type II diabetes mellitus (non-insulin dependent)?
Definition
30%
Term
What treatment regimen is suggested for cats with non-insulin dependent type II diabetes mellitus?
Definition

Weight loss

Diet

Oral hypoglycemic drugs

Correction of concurrent insulin antagonistic disease

Term

A 3 year old male neutered Weimaraner dog is presented with a 2 day history of worsening anorexia, lethargy, cough, and excercise intolerance. On physical exam, the mucous membranes are pale with a few petechia.

T=99.8 F, HR=144 bpm, RR=24 brpm

A coagulation profile:

Thrombocytes: 343,500/uL, BMBT=normal, aPTT=increased, PT=increased, TT=normal, FDPs=normal

What is the most appropriate diagnosis?

Definition
Anticoagulant rodenticide toxicity
Term

A 4-yr old thoroughbred mare is presented with sudden onset of profuse watery diarrhea and marked depression. The mare has been intermittently treated with phenylbutazone over the last 2 months for minor lameness and was transported by trailer for 9 hours recently. On phyical exam, the horse is dehydrated, with slow capillary refill time, purplish mucous membranes and cold extremities.

T=100.0 F, HR=48 bpm, RR= 32 brpm, PCV= 65%

The horse dies 3 hours later. On necropsy there is blood-stained fluid in the intestines and pronounced edema and hemorrhage in the wall of the large colon and cecum.

What is the most likely diagnosis?

Definition
Colitis X, an acute-peracute lethal diarrheal disease
Term
When a foal is being treated with Erythromycin (for Rhodococcus equi), the mare is at risk of developing enterocolitis due to which bacterial organisms?
Definition
Clostridium difficile
Term
Several younger sheep in a large herd have died suddenly with a diagnosis of infectious necrotic hepatitis secondary to fluke infestations. What is the most pratical and effective control measure?
Definition
Vaccinate all animals with Clostridium novyi toxoid
Term
An adult horse with clinical signs of voluminous gastric reflux, depression, colic and fever is most likely suffering from which condition?
Definition
Proximal enteritis
Term
A 4-day-old foal with clinical signs of depression, icterus, head pressing and disorientation. Serum biochemistry reveals increased levels of GGT, ALP, and unconjugated bilirubin. On further questioning, the owner mentions that he gave the foal an oral nutritional supplement when it was a day old but was not sure what was in it. What could this supplement have contained to cause these clinical signs?
Definition
Iron
Term
Heat pasteurization of milk is done principally to prevent transmission of which organisms to people?
Definition
Mycobacterium bovis
Term

A commercial pig farm experiences and explosive outbreak of respiratory disease with high mortality, primarily in young pigs under 6 months of age. Affected pigs show severe respiratory distress, fever up to 107 F, anorexia and reluctance to move. Some animals display open-mouth breathing with a blood-stained frothy nasal and oral discharge. On necropsy, the lungs are bilaterally dark and swollen and ooze blood fluid from the cut surface.

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What is the most likely diagnosis?

Definition
Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae
Term
A foal born 12 hours ago is observed swishing its tail from side to side straining with an arched back and rolling on the stall floor? What test is indicated to rule in the presumptive diagnosis?
Definition
Digital exam of rectum (presumptive diagnosis meconium impaction)
Term

A number of older cows in a Texas herd are losing condition rapidly with a corresponding drop in milk production. Two pregnant animals have aborted. Affected animals are off feed, uncoordinated and out of breath after exertion. On physical exam, affected cows have a rapid bounding pulse and pale mucous membranes. One animal appears icterus with a temperature of 105 F. A blood smear looks like this:

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What is the most likely diagnosis?

Definition
Anaplasmosis
Term
Which two drugs are contraindicated in animals with a history of seizures?
Definition

Acepromazine

Ketamine

Term
The lesions of chronic Salmonella pullorum in poultry are indistinguishable from the lesions of which disease?
Definition
Fowl typhoid
Term

A 12 yo neutered male cat is presented with a history of vomiting, weight loss, increased drinking, polyphagia and recent urinary accidents in the house. On physical exam, the patient is unthrifty and tachycardic with a moderate systolic heart murmur loudest on the left.

 

T: 102 F, HR: 172 bpm, RR: 38 bpm

PCV: 40, WBC: 14,810

Na: 157, K: 4.1

LDH: 250, ALT: 108, TP: 6.2, Glu: 140

BUN: 42, CREA: 1.9, Bili: 0.2, USG: 1.017

 

Which test is most likely to confirm the diagnosis?

Definition
Serum Total T4 (hyperthyroidism)
Term
Which antibiotic is the treatment of choice in a vibriosis abortion storm?
Definition
Tetracycline
Term
Which drug is primarily used to treat pituitary dependent hyperadrenocorticism (Cushing's Disease) in dogs?
Definition

Mitotane

Trilostane

Term

A 3 year old Irish Setter presents with a history of lameness and swelling in the distal forelimb. What is the presumptive diagnosis?

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Definition
Osteosarcoma
Term
Which disease of rabbits is reportable?
Definition
Tularemia
Term

An obese 6 year old neutered male Pomeranian presents with a 2-year history of intermittent dry, honking cough. This morning he started retching. The dog never boards in a kennel and has not traveled recently. On physical exam, a cough can be eliicited by pressing on the trachea. A heart murmur is noted, loudest on the left at the 5-6th intercostal space. The rest of the exam  was unremarkable.

 

T: 102.2, HR: 120 bpm, RR: 80 brpm, CRT: 2s

 

What diagnosis is at the top of the differential list?

Definition
Tracheal collapse
Term
Which dog breeds are predisposed to tracheal collapse?
Definition

Toy breeds

Pomeranian

Toy Poodle

Miniature Poodle

Yorkshire Terrier

Term

This calf was aborted at 7.5 months pregnancy in early fall. The dam was a primiparous beef animal housed oon pasture in Northern California. Necropsy revealed multiple petechial hemorrhages on the palate and sclera and mucus membranes of the fetus and marked lymphadenopathy. The calf was not decomposed and the cow retained the placenta. What is the most likely cause of abortion in this case?

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Definition
Foothill abortion agent (Epizootic Bovine Abortion)
Term
A mare presents with a history of herding and mounting other mares in a broodmare group. During the physical exam, the mare is very unruly and tries to bite and kick. After sedation, rectal palpation findings reveal a walnut sized, smooth left ovary and a softball sized right ovary. No ovulation fossa is palpable on the right ovary. What is the most likely diagnosis for the right ovary?
Definition
Granulosa Cell Tumor
Term
What kind of organism causes Equine granulocytic ehrlichiosis?
Definition
Anaplasma
Term

This 3 year old Charolais bull weighing 2100 lbs was found at pasture walking in circles. He has been fed silage enriched with 5% dried chicken litter in addition to the winter pasture. Physical exam findings include

 

T: 104.6, HR: 46 bpm, RR: 21 brpm

 

He is depressed, anorectic, and drooling with a head tilt to the right. The right ear and eyelid both droop. The bull is ataxiz with predominantly right sided proprioceptive deficits. A sample of CSF has normal color but increased mononuclear cell count and proptein concentration. What is the most likely diagnosis?

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Definition
Listeriosis