Shared Flashcard Set

Details

NAVLE-Equine A-Z
Equine A-Z
99
Veterinary Medicine
04/21/2009

Additional Veterinary Medicine Flashcards

 


 

Cards

Term
sporadic, rapidly progressive disease of foals characterized by acute respiratory distress and high mortality.
Cyanotic foal with a fever.
Definition
acute bronchointerstitial pneumonia of foals
Term
What are causes of acute broncho-interstitial pneumonia of foals?
Definition
no virus or bacteria consistant
Rhodococcus equi, Pseudomonas, Pneumocystis, Erythromycin AB given, warm weather
Term
What are clincial signs/clin path of acute broncho-interstitial pneumonia of foals?
Definition
1wk-8m foal, ONE foal on farm, cyanosis, fever, respiratory acidosis, HPP high, neutrophilia
Term
Diagnosis of acute broncho-intersitial pneumonia of foals?
Definition
RADS, necropsy (inflated lungs that fail to inflate, rib lines)
Term
What is the treatment for acute broncho-intersitial pneumonia of foals?
Definition
steriods, AB, oxygen
Term
What are the shock organs of the horse?
Definition
lung and colon
Term
What are signs of anaphylactic reaction in horses?
Definition
respiratory and lower GI signs (dyspnea, diarrhea)
anxiety, tachycardia, piloerection, sweating
Term
What are ddx for anemia and edema in horses?
Definition
big 3 (PEE): purpera, EIA, EVA
babesia, ehrlicia
Term
What does the auriculopalpebral nerve block do?
Definition
blocks motor innervation to orbicularis oculi (can't blink): CN VII
Term
What are clinical signs of Babesia? Where is it found?
Definition
hemolytic anemia, southern US (FL); carriers exists
Term
What is the treatment for Babesia?
Definition
Diminazine (Burnil), Protozoocide (Imidocarb)-also takes care of carriers, PONAZURIL
Term
How is bacterial pneumonia diagnosed?
Definition
neutrophilia with l shift, up HPP, reactive thrombocytosis, **TTA**, rads
Term
How would the different bacterial pneumonias appear radiographically?
Definition
intersitial: nodular-rhodococcus abscess, unstructured-early rhodococcus/viral
Alveolar-bronchopneumonia CrV, CdV
Term
What is the treatment of choice for various bacterial pneumonias?
Definition
GP: Pen, Ceftiofur; GN: Gentamycin, Enrofloxacin, Anaerobes: Pen
Term
Chronic SYNOVITIS of TIBIOTARSAL joint of BOTH hindlimbs; swelling/distension of joint capsule from increased synovial fluid formation due to poor conformation
Definition
BOG spavin
Term
#1 hock problem in horses; DJD of the TARSAL JOINT
Definition
BONE spavin
Term
What are the equine bots?
Definition
Gasterophilus intestinalis, lay yellow eggs on medial forelimb cannon bone
Term
Used to treat PNEUMOVAGINA to prevent genital infections and infertility, vaginitis, endometritis; must remove before breeding/birth
Definition
Caslick's
Term
most common cerebellar disease in horses, "Dandy-walker syndrome", mdiline defect of cerebellu with cystic dilation of 4th ventricle, seen in 1-6 month foals
Definition
cerebellar abiotrophy
Term
What is the cause of cerebellar abiotrophy?
Definition
unknown
Term
What are clinical signs of cerebellar abiotrophy?
Definition
intention tremors, lack of menace, hypermetria, ataxia
Term
Aka "Wobblers" and "Cervicle vertebral stenotic myelopathy"
Definition
cervical vertebral malformation (CVM)
Term
What is the cause of CVM?
Definition
developmental disease (6m-3yo rapidly growing with excessive protein and mineral imbalance)
Term
What are the two forms of CVM?
Definition
Cervical vertebral instabilty: ventroflexion of the neck causes cord compression (C3-C6)
Cervical static stenosis: continous compression
Term
What are signs of CVM?
Definition
spasticity (hind>front), wide base stance, CP deficits
Term
How do you dx and tx CVM?
Definition
CT, no treatment
Term
a foal with milk dripping from NOSTRILS, difficulty sucking, dysphagia, regurgitation
Definition
cleft palate
Term
Shaker foal syndrome, #1 signs is tongue hanging out
Definition
Clostridium botulinum
Term
What is Clostridium difficile?
Definition
GP rod, CYTOTOXIN, ACUTE COLITIS after AB tx
Term
How do you dx and tx Clostridium difficile?
Definition
ELISA, Metronidazole
Term
What are clinical signs of Clostridium perfringes?
Definition
foals that die rapidly (<10 days old)
bloody diarrhea, exotoxins (G+)
Term
What is club foot?
Definition
DDF contracture, upright feet
Term
What are causes of colic in newborn foals?
Definition
meconium impaction (epithelial cells, mucus, bile)
Term
What are the most common causes of colic in Minature Horses?
Definition
small colon impaction
Term
What is the most common cause of colic in a post-partum mare?
Definition
colonic torsion
Term
What would be a high ddx if you insert a NG tube and there is lots of reflux with a pH>5?
Definition
SI obsturction
Term
What causes colitis in horses?
Definition
endotoxemia
Term
What are clinical pathology signs of a horse with colitis?
Definition
decreased PCV (hemodilution), decreased Ca, azotemia, decreased electrolytes, metabolic acidosis
Term
What is the treatment for colitis in horses?
Definition
fluids, antidirrheals (Biosponge, charcoal, bismuth), anti-inflammatories, anti-endotoxin (polymyxin B)
Term
How do you determine if a colic horse needs sx?
Definition
non-responsive to analgesics, hx, NG reflux, rectal exam, HR (if HR>80, poor prognosis--needs fluids now)
Term
What is CID foals?
Definition
combined immunodefiiciency in ARABIAN foals, immunodeficient in B and T LYMPHOCYTES
Term
What are signs and tx for CID foals?
Definition
persistant infection and persistant lymphopenia
no tx
Term
What is COPD in horses?
Definition
"heaves", ALLERGIC DZ exacerbated by hay,dust, mold
Term
What are clinical signs of COPD in horses?
Definition
coughing, wheezing, SNOT-NOSED horses WITHOUT FEVER, increased expiratory effort due to bronchoconstriction, >6yo, heave line
Term
How do you treat COPD in horses?
Definition
decrease exposure, bronchodilators + steriods
Term
What is Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis?
Definition
"Pigeon fever", ulcerative lymphangitis, pectoral abscesses
Term
How is pigeon fever diagnosed?
Definition
Hemaglutination inhibition test, high WBC, HPP,globulins
Term
How is pigeon fever tx?
Definition
hot pack, drain abscess
NO AB--delay abscess formation
Term
What are ddx for crusting dermal lesions of horses?
Definition
dermatophytosis (ringworm), generalized granulomatous disease, dermatophilosis (rain scald), pemphigus foliaceus
Term
What causes "sweet itch" in horses?
Definition
culicoides hypersensitivity; smal fly with mottled wings
seasonal pest in warmer months...transmits ONCOCERCA
Term
What is the etiology of Culicoides hypersensitvity?
Definition
Type I hypersensitivy to saliva, gets worse with age
Term
What are clinical signs of culicoides hypersensitivity?
Definition
VENTRAL PRURITIS with lesions on POLE, MANE, TAIL from self-trauma
Term
What is curb?
Definition
thickening fo PLANTAR TRASAL LIGAMENT due to strain
Term
What is the most common endocrine disorder of horses and what is the etiology?
Definition
Cushings
PITUITARY ADENOMA (pars intermedia with no DA inhibitory control secretes ACTH which increases cortisol secretion from the adrenals)
Term
What are signs of Cushings in horses?
Definition
HAIRY HORSES, suporbital fat, PU/PD, ravenous appetite, weakness, fevers, older horses or ponies, narcolepsy
Term
How is Cushing's dx in horses?
Definition
Dex suppression test (don't do in Sept)if + then cortisol doesn't suppress
increased glu, GGT, stress leukogram
Term
What is the treatment for Cushings in the horse?
Definition
PERGOLIDE --DA agonist
Term
What is cutaneous habronemiasis?
Definition
stomach worm that causes "summer sores", worm enters via damaged skin and emerge aroudn eey/male genitalia/lower extremities and cause GRANULOMATOUS LESIONS with dead larvae inside
Term
A swelling at the base of the ear with seromucoid discharge caused by tooth germ tissue in the ear and is treated by surgical removal?
Definition
dentigenous cysts
Term
What is "rain scald"?
Definition
dermatophilus congolensis a GP BRANCHING bacteria that enters the damaged skin durgin RAINEY SEASONS
Term
What is the distribution of Dermatophilus congolensis?
Definition
DORSAL skin lesions, sticky matted hair with multiple CRUSTS WITH PURULENT EXUDATES
Term
How do you treat rain scald?
Definition
Tetracycline
Term
What is the lungworm of horses that are pastured with donkeys? What is it's ppp?
Definition
Dictyocaulus arnfeldi
2-3 months
Term
How do you diagnose and tx lungworms?
Definition
BAERMANN FECAL FLOAT
Ivermectin
Term
What causes Dorsal displacement of the soft palate?
Definition
neuromuscular dysfunction of PHARYNGEAL MM; caudal free margin of SOFT PALATE moves DORSLA TO EPIGLOTTIS and obstructs airway
Term
What are clincal signs of DDSP?
Definition
exercise intolerance
Term
What is the treatment of DDSP?
Definition
conservative: eliminate contributing dz (rest, anti-inflammatories)
surgical: 50% sucess rate (sternothryrohyoidius myectomy, soft palate resection)
Term
What are ddx for DDSP?
Definition
epiglottic entrapment
Term
What is the etiology of duodenitis-proximal jejunitis?
Definition
unknown cause
Term
What are signs of duodenitis-proximal jejunitis?
Definition
acute colic: increased HR/RR. pain, lots of reflux
Term
What is tthe tx and ddx for duodentiis-proximal jejunitis?
Definition
medical management (decompression)
SI obstruction (sx)
Term
What are ddx for dysphagia in the horse?
Definition
bristle grass, guttural pouch infect8ino, Pb posioning, snake bite, Strep equi, trauma, Yellow star thistle posioning
Term
What is an egg bar shoe and what does it do?
Definition
used for NAVICULAR DISEASE; raises heel/hoof angle 2-4 degrees
Term
What does EHV-1 do?
Definition
RESPIRATORY, ABORTION, ENCEPHALOMYELITIS
Equine viral rhinopneumonitis
Term
How is EHV-1 transmitted?
Definition
direct: AEROSOL (INHALATION)
indirect: nasal secretions, aborted feces, placenta/placental fluids
Term
What are signs of EHV-1?
Definition
SNOTS AND STORMS: respiratory infections(snots) then 4m later abortion STORMS (last trimester)
Term
How is EHV-1 diagnosed?
Definition
Respiratory: viral isolation with nasopharyngeal swab (neutropenia, lymphopenia)
abortion: viral isolation (Ag in fetal tissue); aborted tissues: pulmonary edema, pleural fluid, necrosis, petechiation
Term
How do you tx EHV-1?
Definition
none-only supportive care
Term
How do you prevent EHV-1?
Definition
vx pregnant mares **5,7,9m gestation** to prevent abortion; no permanent imunity
Term
What are ddx for EHV-1?
Definition
EVA, equine influenza, WNV
Term
What does EHV-3 cause?
Definition
equine coital exanthema (ECE) which is spred venereally
Term
What are signs of equine coital exantehma?
Definition
only repro signs: papules, pustules, ulcers to vestibular mucosa, vulvar skin, and penis and prepuce (balanoposthisis)
Term
How is EHV-3 treated?
Definition
spontaenous recovery over 2 weeks, no tx needed
Term
What does EHV-4 cause?
Definition
mild RESPIRATORY dz in WEANLINGS
Term
What are enteroltiths and where are they found?
Definition
MAP, in transverse colon
ARABIAN horses in CA/FL
Term
What would be clinical signs of epiglottic entrapment?
Definition
head shaking
Term
What are ddx for epistaxis?
Definition
exercise-induced pulmonary hemorrhage, guttural pouch mycosis
Term
What causes equine degenerative myeloencephalopathy? Clinical signs?
Definition
DEFICENT IN VIT E
wide base stance, CP deficits, ataxia, paresis, spasicity (esp hindlimb)
Term
How is equine degenerative myeloencephalopathy dx?
Definition
histopath with lesions in caudal brainstem nuclei and spinal cord
Term
What is the etiology and clincal signs of equine eosinophilic granulomas?
Definition
"nodular necrobiosis of collagen" or "collagenolytic granuloma"; associated with insect bites, trauma, or multifactoral
NODULAR, NON-ULCERATIVE mass NOT pruritic
Term
How is equine eosinophilic granuloma diagnosed?
Definition
biopsy: COLLAGEN DEGRADATION AND GRANULOMATOUS INFLAMMATION WITH EOSINOPHILS
Term
How is euqine eosinophilic granuloma treated?
Definition
sublesional corticosteriod injections, systemic AB, sx excision
DO NOT hot compress or use chlorhex scrub
Term
What is the etiology of equien granulocytic ehrlichiosis?
Definition
Anaplasma phagocytophilia, seasonal necrotizing vascultisi in N CA, carried by ticks, NO CARRIER STATE
Term
What are signs fo equine granulocytic erhlichiosis?
Definition
ANEMIA AND EDEMA, UNDULATING FEVER, icterus, petechia
Term
How is equine granulocytic ehrlichiosis dx and tx?
Definition
INCLUSION BODIES IN SEGS
OXYTETRACYCLINE +/- steriods is severe
Term
What is the cause of equine metabolic syndrome?
Definition
FAT horses (fat makes pro-inflammatory cytokines)
INSULIN RESISTANCE (tissues can't take up glucose)
Term
What are signs of equine metabolic syndrome?
Definition
obestiy, insulin resistance, hypertension
all leads to -->LAMINITIS
Term
How is equine metabolic syndrome dx?
Definition
FAT accumulation, increase cortisol with normal pituitary, high high insulin with normal to increased glu
Term
How is equine metabolic syndrome tx?
Definition
wt loss, exercise, LOW CARB diet