Shared Flashcard Set

Details

N365
Culture final
87
Nursing
12/14/2011

Additional Nursing Flashcards

 


 

Cards

Term
A couple newly arrived from Russia is expecting their first child. When the nurse encourages the husband to accompany his wife to the delivery room, he is reluctant to do so. The nurse should
Definition
Respect his wishes and not make him feel guilty.
Term
Olga Karina, a recent Russian Jewish immigrant, brings her 10-year-old son, Boris, to the emergency room. Boris has a 5-day history of pulmonary congestion. During the physical examination, the nurse notices several 1-inch-diameter ecchymotic areas on his back. The nurse recognizes these bruises as
Definition
form of cupping.
Term
Newer immigrants from Russia should be assessed for
Definition
Endocrine disorders.
Term
Gina Faminow, a 22-year-old Russian immigrant, tells the nurse she is afraid of having a chest x-ray because of the radiation. The nurse should explain
Definition
That U.S. x-rays use lower radiation doses than Russian x-rays.
Term
Care for the Amish is culturally encoded in their dialect as abwaarde, which means
Definition
To minister to someone by being present.
Term
What was the primary reason the Amish came to the New World?
Definition
Religious freedom
Term
The nurse is preparing discharge instructions on wound care for William Yoder, a 40-year-old Amish man. The nurse should
Definition
Provide verbal and written instructions in English.
Term
A female public-health nurse has gone to an Amish community to increase immunization rates. The nurse should greet the Amish with
Definition
A handshake.
Term
Amish newspapers are printed in
Definition
English.
Term
Tanika Jefferson, an African American age 42 years, is 10 pounds underweight and has lactose intolerance. The first step in prescribing a diet with increased calcium is
Definition
Determining her food preferences.
Term
Tonya Jeffs, an African American, brings her very plump 2-month-old for a well-baby check-up. The nurse notices that the baby bottle has oatmeal in it. The nurse should
Definition
Provide factual information about introducing solid foods early.
Term
Many African Americans use high-context communication. This means
Definition
Fewer words are used to express a thought.
Term
Dark-skinned African Americans are at a higher risk of developing pressure ulcers than are white-skinned people, which may be due to the
Definition
Lack of ability to make an early diagnosis of skin pressure in African Americans.
Term
Which of the following statements is true when comparing breast cancer in African Americans and white ethnic groups?
Definition
African Americans have a lower incidence of breast cancer.
Term
Jonathan Sachs, an Orthodox Jew, wishes to be in the delivery room with his wife for their first child. The nurse must seat Mr. Sachs in a position
Definition
Where he cannot see his wife's perineum.
Term
When caring for an Orthodox Jewish man, it would be most important for the nurse to
Definition
Offer hand-washing facilities before meals.
Term
Jews originating from Ethiopia are called
Definition
Falasha.
Term
Jewish Kashrut laws govern
Definition
Dietary practices.
Term
Nathan Cohen, a 40-year-old Orthodox Jew, accompanies his wife to the maternity unit. The female nurse offers to shake his hand to welcome him to the maternity unit. Mr. Cohen does not extend his hand but rather places his hands behind his back. Mr. Cohen refused to shake hands with the nurse because
Definition
Orthodox Jewish men are not permitted to touch women other than their wives.
Term
A 66-year-old Arab Islamic man is having difficulty making a decision about having surgery for an abdominal aortic aneurysm. The best strategy for helping him to make the decision about surgery would be
Definition
Helping him contact an imam.
Term
The home health nurse, while making a visit to an Arab man with a chronic illness, notices that he is berating his 13-year-old daughter for what the nurse considers a minor offense. The nurse should
Definition
Explain child abuse laws in the United States.
Term
Male caregivers need to be especially mindful when touching devout Islamic females. When touch is necessary, the nurse should
Definition
Ask if using gloves is acceptable for the examination.
Term
Amal Abd Al-Ramaan, an 80-year-old Arab Muslim, has been cared for at home where he has been recuperating from a brain surgery. He was brought to the emergency room comatose and is not expected to live. His son very loudly tells the nurse that he must face Mecca immediately. Which direction would the nurse turn him?
Definition
Depends on which part of the world he is in
Term
Whereas over half of the Iranian population speaks Farsi, the rest speak all of the following EXCEPT
Definition
Arabic.
Term
Jaleh Zargooshi, an Iranian mother of three, is having episodes of crying, sullenness, and somatization. The nurse recognizes these symptoms as
Definition
Narahati.
Term
The mandatory head covering for women in Iran is called a
Definition
Hejab.
Term
An older man comes to the Emergency Department with acute abdominal pain. He is unable to speak English. His identification shows that he is from Iran. What language will you request from the language line?
Definition
Farsi
Term
Millenium development goals
Definition
-Eradicate extreme hunger and poverty
-Achieve universal primary education
-Promote gender equality and empower women
-Reduce child mortality
-Improve maternal health
-Combat HIV, AIDS, Malaria and Other diseases
-Ensure environmental sustainability
-Develop a global partnership for development
Term
Millenium development strategies
Definition
◦Raise awareness of MDGs and advocate for countries and sub-national regions to adopt and adapt MDGs;
◦Provide leadership and UN coordination to develop capacity in countries to assess what is needed to achieve the MDGs, to conceptualize policies and to design strategies and plans. For this purpose, UNDP organizes consultations and training, conducts research, develops planning and information management tools;
◦Provide hands-on support to countries to scale up implementation of initiatives to achieve the MDGs, in areas such as procurement, human resources and financial management;
◦Assist countries to report on their progress.
Term
Millenium development goal:
Eradicate extreme hunger and poverty
Definition
The world is on track to meet the MDG target of halving the proportion of people living on less than $1 a day. Overall poverty rates fell from 46 per cent in 1990 to 27 per cent in 2005 in developing regions, and progress in many developing countries is being sustained. This is despite setbacks caused by the 2008-09 economic downturn and the effects of the food and energy crises.
•The number of people living under the international poverty line of $1.25 a day declined from 1.8 billion to 1.4 billion between 1990 and 2005.

•The proportion of people living in extreme poverty in developing regions dropped from 46 per cent to 27 per cent — on track to meet the target globally.

•The economic crisis is expected to push an estimated 64 million more people into extreme poverty in 2010.

•About one in four children under the age of five is underweight in the developing world, down from almost one in three in 1990.
Term
Millenium development goal:
-Achieve universal primary education
Definition
Despite great strides in many countries, the target is unlikely to be met. Enrolment in primary education has continued to rise, reaching 89 per cent in the developing world in 2008. Between 1999 and 2008, enrolment increased by 18 percentage points in sub-Saharan Africa, and by 11 and 8 percentage points in Southern Asia and Northern Africa, respectively.
•In 2008, there were 96 girls for every 100 boys enrolled in primary school, and 95 girls for every 100 boys in secondary school in developing regions.
•The share of women employed outside of agriculture remains as low as 20 per cent in Southern Asia, Western Asia and Northern Africa.
•The global share of women in parliament continues to rise slowly and reached 19 per cent in 2010 — far short of gender parity.
Term
Millenium development goal:
-Promote gender equality and empower women
Definition
Gender gaps in access to education have narrowed, but disparities remain high in university-level education and in some developing regions. Girls’ enrolment ratios in primary and secondary schools have significantly increased in recent years.
•In 2008, there were 96 girls for every 100 boys enrolled in primary school, and 95 girls for every 100 boys in secondary school in developing regions.
•The share of women employed outside of agriculture remains as low as 20 per cent in Southern Asia, Western Asia and Northern Africa.
•The global share of women in parliament continues to rise slowly and reached 19 per cent in 2010 — far short of gender parity.
Term
Millenium development goal:
-Reduce child mortality
Definition
Child deaths are falling, but not quickly enough. Between 1990 and 2008, the death rate for children under five has decreased by 28 per cent, from 100 to 72 deaths per 1,000 live births. That means that, worldwide, 10,000 fewer under-fives die each day.
•The number of children in developing countries who died before they reached the age of five dropped from 100 to 72 deaths per 1,000 live births between 1990 and 2008.
•Almost nine million children still die each year before they reach their fifth birthday.
•The highest rates of child mortality continue to be found in sub-Saharan Africa, where, in 2008, one in seven children died before their fifth birthday.
•Of the 67 countries defined as having high child mortality rates, only 10 are currently on track to meet the MDG target.
Term
Millenium development goal:
-Improve maternal health
Definition
Maternal mortality remains unacceptably high. New data show signs of progress in improving maternal health — the health of women during pregnancy and childbirth — with some countries achieving significant declines in maternal mortality ratios. But progress is still well short of the 5.5 per cent annual decline needed to meet the MDG target of reducing by three quarters the maternal mortality ratio by 2015.
•More than 350,000 women die annually from complications during pregnancy or childbirth, almost all of them — 99 per cent — in developing countries.
•The maternal mortality rate is declining only slowly, even though the vast majority of deaths are avoidable.
•In sub-Saharan Africa, a woman’s maternal mortality risk is 1 in 30, compared to 1 in 5,600 in developed regions.
•Every year, more than 1 million children are left motherless. Children who have lost their mothers are up to 10 times more likely to die prematurely than those who have not.
Term
Millenium development goal:
-Combat HIV, AIDS, Malaria and Other diseases
Definition
The global response to AIDS has demonstrated tangible progress toward the achievement of MDG 6. The number of new HIV infections fell steadily from a peak of 3.5 million in 1996 to 2.7 million in 2008. Deaths from AIDS-related illnesses also dropped from 2.2 million in 2004 to two million in 2008. Although the epidemic appears to have stabilized in most regions, new HIV infections are on the rise in Eastern Europe and Central Asia. Globally, the number of people living with HIV is continuing to increase because of the combined effect of new HIV infections and the beneficial impact of antiretroviral therapy.
The global response to AIDS has demonstrated tangible progress toward the achievement of MDG 6. The number of new HIV infections fell steadily from a peak of 3.5 million in 1996 to 2.7 million in 2008. Deaths from AIDS-related illnesses also dropped from 2.2 million in 2004 to two million in 2008.
•Every day over 7,400 people are infected with HIV and 5,500 die from AIDS- related illnesses. HIV remains the leading cause of death among reproductive-age women worldwide.
•An estimated 33.4 million people were living with HIV in 2008, two thirds of them in sub-Saharan Africa.
•Access to HIV treatment in low- and middle-income countries increased ten-fold over a span of just five years.
• Malaria kills a child in the world every 45 seconds. Close to 90 per cent of malaria deaths occur in Africa, where it accounts for a fifth of childhood mortality.
•1.8 million people died from tuberculosis in 2008, about 500,000 of whom were HIV-positive.
Term
Millenium development goal:
-Ensure environmental sustainability
Definition
The world will meet or even exceed the drinking water target by 2015 if current trends continue. By that time, an estimated 86 per cent of the population in developing regions will have gained access to improved sources of drinking water, up from 71 per cent in 1990. Four regions — Northern Africa, Latin America and the Caribbean, Eastern Asia and South-Eastern Asia — have already met the target
•Official development assistance stands at 0.31 per cent of the combined national income of developed countries, still far short of the 0.7 per cent UN target. Only five donor countries have reached or exceeded the target.
•Debt burdens have eased for developing countries and remain well below historical levels.
•Only 1 in 6 people in the developing world has access to the Internet.
Term
Millenium development goal:
-Develop a global partnership for develpment
Definition
Levels of official development assistance (ODA) continue to rise despite the financial crisis, but Africa is short-changed and aid remains below expectations. Net disbursements of ODA reached almost $120 billion in 2009, an all-time high. In real terms, this represents a slight increase of 0.7 per cent compared to 2008, even though in current US dollars ODA fell by over two per cent.
•Official development assistance stands at 0.31 per cent of the combined national income of developed countries, still far short of the 0.7 per cent UN target. Only five donor countries have reached or exceeded the target.
•Debt burdens have eased for developing countries and remain well below historical levels.
•Only 1 in 6 people in the developing world has access to the Internet.
Term
Three most common that afflict homeless persons represent about two thirds of the problems presented in primary health care sites
Definition
Respiratory
Trauma
Minor Skin Ailments/Infections
Term
Communicable Diseases are of particular concern in the homeless population for 2 reasons:
Definition
-The potential for rapid spread among people living in crowded shelters or unsanitary conditions
-Potential health risk to the general public
Term
Tuberculosis is a concern in the homelss population because of:
Definition
-Access to preventative services
-Prevalence and Incidence of TB
-Crowding and insufficient ventilation in shelters
-Increase prevalence of other health conditions
-Incomplete drug therapy
Term
Homeless population Health problems
Definition
-Dental Problems
-Substance Abuse Disorders
About 1/3 of homeless adults abuse alcohol and/or drugs
-Chronic Mental Illness
20-25% Affects daily life significantly and causes
Barriers to employment
Term
Homelss barrirers to health care coverage
Definition
-Vast majority of adults not deemed eligible for Medicaid or Medicare unless in the system many months, with advocacy
-Majority of eligible by criteria are not enrolled

Adults age 18 to 64 overwhelmingly uninsured

Medicaid tied to state of residence

Proof of Medicaid is often lost

Health Department /indigent care clinics provide little to no evening/weekend access
Term
Access Barriers For Homeless
Definition
Dealing with complex, non user friendly system
System perceived as hostile bordering on abusive
Basic issues of time, childcare, and transportation
Shelter routines not conducive to dealing with illness
Term
Nursing Considerations in the care of homelss patients
Definition
Intentionally convey an attitude of openness and willingness to be with the patients and understand their lives
Actively listen to your clients
Honoring human dignity and patients rights to choose from options in life
Case worker/social worker/
Supporting and promoting self-care
Provide health education and dissemination of information
Term
Health care and the Homeless
Definition
13% of homeless adults report poor health itself was a factor in losing their home
61% of homeless 2-year-olds in NYC not properly immunized
38% of sheltered children in NYC have asthma
Incidence of middle ear infection 50% greater
Term
Statistics Related to Homelessness
Definition
15.1% of the U.S. lived in poverty in 2010
Highest poverty rates since 1993
Term
Factors that Impact Homelessness
Definition
Increase in poor household experiencing severe housing cost burden
Increase in unemployment
Decrease in annual wages for the working poor (average $9,151/year)
Alaska, Main, DC & Rhode Island had a 10% decrease
Increase in foreclosures by 21% from 2008 to 2009
Doubled up population increased by 12%

From 2008 to 2009 there was a 60% increase in the # of unemployed people affecting ALL states.
Wages for all people decreased by 1% but for the poor it was over 2%
Foreclosures in Alabama, Hawaii, Idaho, Mississippi, and West Virginia doubled
Doubled up (living with family/friends)
Term
Transgender
Definition
People who identify more strongly with the other gender than the one to which they were assigned (e.g., women who feel like men, or men who feel like women) are called "transgendered”
Gender is not associated with sexual orientation
“FTMs” and “MTFs”
Term
CDC recommends annual screening of MSM for
Definition
Syphilis
Gonorrhea
Chlamydia
HIV
Immunization for Hepatitis A and B
Term
Transgender
Definition
Risks and response behaviors to watch out for..
Cycling in/out employment (health ins)
Hx interrupted medical care or avoidance
Pursuing alternate gender confirmation therapies( ex. black market hormones)
Interrupted education
Isolation
Extreme poverty
Term
Care of Lesbians
Definition
Screenings and Health concerns
Depression
Higher rates r/t stigmatization
Critical to screen
Lesbians of ethnic groups… added stress
Overweight or obesity
More likely to be overweight
Have a better body image-which is a positive
Raises risk of heart disease, diabetes, hypertension and other health problems
Term
Care of Gay and Bisexual Men
Definition
44% of self identified gay men had not told their PCP about their sexual orientation

May avoid tx d/t fear of discrimination
Term
Health risks of gay and bisexual men
Definition
HIV
Despite significant reductions in HIV incidence, gay and bisexual men are still disproportionately affected.
Estimates…42% of new HIV infections each year
Important to discuss risk factors, recent survey showed that only 20% discussed HIV risk factors in the last 5 years
Term
“Black or African American”
Definition
refers to a person having origins in any of the Black racial groups of Africa
The Black racial category includes people who marked the “Black, African American or Negro” checkbox
Includes respondents who reported entries such as African American; Sub-Saharan African entries, such as Kenyan and Nigerian; and Afro-Caribbean entries, such as Haitian and Jamaican
Term is often used interchangeably
Term
Cities with largest numbers of Black residents:
Definition
New York, Chicago, Philadelphia, Detroit and Houston.
Term
Household information
for black americans
Definition
Married couples 29.1% vs 52.9% (whites)
Female Head of Household 28% vs. 8.8% (whites)
Term
Leading Causes of Death African Americans, U.S., 2007
Definition
Heart Disease
Cancer
CVA
Unintentional Injuries
Diabetes
Homicide
Nephritis, Nephrotic Syndrome, & Nephrosis
Chronic Lower Respiratory Diseases
HIV
Septicemia
Term
Black americans and smoking
Definition
Levels of serum continine higher
Term
Black americans
Definition
Males
Higher rates of colon, rectum, lung and bronchus, prostate and cancers.
Females
Higher rates of multiple myeloma, all cancers of the digestive systems and all cancers of the respiratory system and breast cancer.
Term
African Americans born in the year 2000 face
Definition
a 2 in 5 risk for diabetes
Term
Four causes account for more than half of all infant deaths
Definition
Birth defects
Preterm birth & low birth weight (LBW)
SIDS
Respiratory distress syndrome
Term
2000 Infant mortality rate for African Americans is 13.6 per 1000 live births compared with 5.7 per 1000 for whites (CDC, 2008)
The leading cause of IMR for blacks is
Definition
Leading cause of death within the first year of life is pretermbirth (prematurity) or LBW
Term
Jewish sub groups
Definition
Orthodox -22%
Hasidic
Lubovitch
Conservative-33%

Reform-38%

Restructionist-2%

Other – 5%
Term
Jewish Language
Definition
Hebrew

Yiddish

Liddeno
Term
Jewish Rites and Passages
Definition
Circumcision

Bar Mitzvah

Bas Mitzvah
Term
Jewish Death Rituals and Expectations
Definition
The dying person is not left alone
Ask if patient is observant
Ask if he/she wants kosher meals
Ask if any concerns
Ask if he/she wants to see a rabbi, if so what kind
Following death, the body is not left alone
Funerals and burials typically 24-28 hours following death
Family may “sit shiva”
Term
Genetic Diseases in Jewish culture
Definition
Most genetic diseases are autosomal recessive
Tay-Sachs disease
Gaucher’s disease
Canvan’s disease
Familial dysautonomia
Fanconi’s anemia
Mucolipidosis IV
Term
Arab Muslims
Definition
represent 1/3 of Muslims
Fastest growing religion
Arabic required to study the Qur’an
Different religious practices & beliefs
Term
Jihad
Definition
Peaceful – strive for a better way of life. Endeavor, strain, exertion, effort, diligence, fighting to defend one’s life, land, and religious freedom.
Term
Jihad
Definition
Peaceful – strive for a better way of life. Endeavor, strain, exertion, effort, diligence, fighting to defend one’s life, land, and religious freedom.
Term
5 PILLARS OF ISLAMIC BELIEFS
Definition
Declaration of faith
Daily communal prayers (Athan)
Fasting during Ramadan (Sawn)
Giving alms to the poor (Zakat)
Pilgrimage to Mecca, Saudi Arabia (Hajj)
Term
Fasting during Ramadan (Sawn)
Definition
28-30 days, variable, follows Islamic lunar calendar (August 1-30, 2011; July 20 – August 18, 2012)
Abstain from food , drink from dawn to sunset. Some also abstain from sex and smoking
Develops restraint, self-control, self-discipline, & self-obedience
Pregnant, lactating women, children, the sick, or the elderly are excused from fasting
Term
Islam BELIEFS & PRACTICES
Definition
Social customs or political oppression should not be confused with religious practices
Oppression of women in few Islamic countries
Qur’an does NOT deny women freedom to learn, be productive, or own property
Importance of hijab (modesty) – covering of the hair & arms when in public, used when one reaches puberty

Term
1. Jinn (evil eye)
2. Jinaan
Definition
1. Amulets, beads, evoking the name of Allah
2. (possession by evil jinn)
mental or emotional illness
Term
Common diseases of Islamic peoples
Definition
Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency
Sicle cell anemia
Thalassemias
CAD
Hookah
High fat intake
Stress
DM
Term
Muslim DEATH RITUTALS
Definition
Turn body towards Mecca
Buried in the same manner
Wash the body 3 times by a Muslim of the same sex (if muslim)
Term
Iranian or Persian
Definition
Speak Farsi (Persian)
Humoral theory
Balance of garm (hot) & sard (cold)
Thumbs up is a vulgar sign
Halal meat
Avoidance of pork & alcohol
Cheshm-i-bad (evil eye) belief
Term
Washington –
Definition
Ukraine 24,295
Russian 18,936
Term
Russian superstition
Definition
Don’t shake hands over the threshold of the door as this is a bad omen
Door is viewed as the center of the house spirit
Remove shoes prior to entering the house
Term
Russian Health conditions
Definition
High smoking prevalence
63% of men and 15% of women
Somatization of depression
HTN, CAD, hyperlipidemia, GI, DM
Alcoholism
Genetic characteristic that prevents processing of ethanol from potatoes or fruit
Higher rates of polyps in the GI track
Suggest screening
Decrease immunization rates
Term
Amish
Definition
Origin in Anabaptist movement in Switzerland in 1525
Term
Amish beliefs
Definition
Find meaning & purpose in devoting life to God
Demut (humility) is a priority
Hochmut (pride) is to be avoided
Seek to be unpretentious, defer to others, quiet manner, avoid confrontation, modest outward dress (plain colors, style, no ornaments/jewelry or use of cosmetics
Term
Amish language
Definition
English
Schooling, business, non-Amish communications
Deitsch (Pennsylvania German)
Spoken at home and with other Amish
Used during visiting (oral news)
Term
Freindschaft
Definition
Amish(3 generational family structure)
Term
Amish Health Care Beliefs
Definition
Different perceptions of health & illness
Health is being able to work and perform role
Illness is a failure to function in the work role vs. a set of symptoms
Delays in seeking treatment
Low immunization rates
Approximately 16-26% of Amish children vaccinated
No Church rule against vaccination
Term
Rumspringa
Definition
At 16-21 years old
Young Amish are free to choose
to remain Amish or leave
Term
Amish rituals and traditional healing beliefs
Definition
Brauche – curing by “warm hands”
Abnemme – failure to thrive and puny looking child
Aagwachse – “livergrown” s/s: crying and abdominal pain due to rough buggy rides