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Muscles
Rest of the Muscles
68
Anatomy
10/16/2007

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Term
Sternocleidomastoid
Definition
Origin:  Manubrium of sternum, medial one-third of clavicle

Insertion:  Mastoid process and lateral half of superior nuchal line

Action:  Unilateral action tilts head slightly upward and toward the opposite side, as in looking over one's contralateral shoulder.  The most common action is probably rotating the head to the left and right.  Bilateral action draws the head straight forward and down, as when eating or reading.  Aids in deep breathing when head is fixed.
Term
Trapezius
Definition
Origin:  External occipital protuberance, medial one-third of superior nuchal line, nuchal ligament, spinous processes of vertebrae C7-T3 or T4

Insertion:  Acromion and spine of scapula, lateral one-third of clavicle

Action:  Extends and laterally flexes head.
Term
Internal intercostal muscles
Definition
Origin:  Superior margins and costal carilages of ribs 2-12; margin of sternum

Insertion:  Inferior margin of next higher rib

Action:  When quadratus lumborum and other muscles fix rib 12, internal intercostals depress and retract ribs; this compresses the thoracic cavity and expels air.  Used only in forceful expiration, not in relaxed breathing.
Term
External intercostal muscles
Definition
Origin:  Inferior margins of ribs 1-11

Insertion:  Superior margin of lower rib

Action:  When scalens fix rib 1, external intercostals elevate and protract ribs 2-12; this expands the thoracic cavity and creates a partial vacuum, causing inflow of air.  Excercise a braking action during expiration so that expiration is not overly abrupt.
Term
Diaphragm
Definition
Origin:  Xiphoid process of sternum; ribs and costal cartilages 7-12; lumbar vertebrae

Insertion:  Central tendon of diaphragm

Action:  Prime mover of inspiration (responsible for about two-thirds of air intake); contracts in preparation for sneezing, coughing, crying, laughing, and weight lifting; contraction compresses abdominal viscera and aids in childbirth and expulsion of urine and feces
Term
Linea alba
Definition
Connects right and left rectus abdominus
Term
External Oblique
Definition
Origin:  Ribs 5-12

Insertion:  Anterior half of iliac crest, pubic symphysis, and superior pargin of pubis

Action:  Supports abdominal viscera against pull of gravity; stabilizes vertebral column during heavy lifting; maintains posture; compresses abdominal organs, thus aiding in forceful expiration; aids in childbirth, urination, defecation, and vomiting.  Unilateral contraction causes contralateral rotation of waist.
Term
Internal Oblique
Definition
Origin:  Inguinal ligament, iliac crest, and thoracolumbar fascia

Insertion:  Ribs 10-12, costal cartilages 7-10, pubis

Action:  Same as external oblique except that unilateral contraction causes ipsilateral rotation of waist
Term
Rectus abdominis
Definition
Origin:  Pubic symphysis and superior margin of pubis

Insertion:  Xiphoid process, costal cartilages 5-7

Action:  Flex lumbar region of vertebral column, producing forward bending at the waist
Term
Transverse abdominis
Definition
Origin:  Inguinal ligament, iliac crest, thoracolumbar fascia, costal cartilages 7-12

Insertion:  Linea alba, pubis, aponeurosis of internal oblique

Action:  Compresses abdominal contents, with same effects as external oblique, but does not contribute to movements of vertebral column
Term
Levator ani
Definition
Origin:  Inner surface of lesser pelvis from pubis through tendinous arch of obturator internus to spine of ischium

Insertion:  Coccyx via anococcygeal body; walls of urethra, vagina, and anal canal

Action:  Compresses anal canal and reinforces external anal and urethral sphincters; supports uterus and other pelvic viscera; aids in the falling away of the feces; vertical movements affect pressure differences between abdominal and thoracic cavities and thus aid in breathing
Term
Bulbospongiosus
Definition
Origin:  Perineal body and median raphe

Insertion:  Male-Enseaths root of penis/Female-Pubic symphysis

Action:  Expels remaining urine from urethra after bladder has emptied.  Aids in erection of penis or clitoris.  In males, spasmodic contractions expel semen during ejaculation.  In females, contractions constrict vaginal orifice and expel secretions of greater vestibular glands.
Term
Ischiocavernosus
Definition
Origin:  Ramus and tuberosity of ischium

Insertion:  Ensheaths deep structures of penis or clitoris

Action:  Maintains erection of the penis or clitoris by compressing deep structures of the organ and forcing blood forward into its body
Term
Splenius capitis
Definition
Origin:  Inferior half of nuchal ligament, spinous processes of vertebrae C7-T6

Insertion:  Mastoid process and occipital bone just inferior to superior nuchal line; cervical vertebrae C1-C2 or C3

Action:  Acting unilaterally, produce ipsilateral flexion and slight rotation of head; extend head when acting bilaterally
Term
Quadratus lumborum
Definition
Origin:  Iliac crest, iliolumbar ligament

Insertion:  Rib 12 and vertebrae L1-L4

Action:  Aids respiration by fixing rib 12 and stabilizing inferior attachments of diaphragm.  Unilateral contraction causes ipsilateral flexion of lumbar vertebral column; bilateral contraction extends lumbar vertebral column.
Term
Subclavius
Definition
Origin: 

Insertion:

Action:
Term
Pectoralis major
Definition
Origin:  Medial half of clavicle, costal cartilages 1-7, aponeurosis of external oblique

Insertion:  Lateral lip of intertubercular sulcus of humerus

Action:  Flexes, adducts, and medially rotates humerus, as in climbing or hugging.  Aids in deep inspiration.
Term
Pectoralis minor
Definition
Origin: 

Insertion:

Action:
Term
Biceps brachii
Definition
Origin:  Long head-superior margin of glenoid cavity/Short head-coracoid process

Insertion:  Tuberosity of radius, fascia of forearm

Action:  Rapid or forceful supination of forearm; synergist in elbow flexion; slight shoulder flexion; tendon of long head stabilizes shoulder by holding humeral head against glenoid cavity
Term
Brachialis
Definition
Origin:  Anterior surface of distal half of humerus

Insertion:  Coronoid process and tuberosity of ulna

Action:  Primer mover of elbow flexion
Term
Rhomboideus major
Definition
Origin:  Spinous processes of vertebrae T2-T5

Insertion:  Medial border of scapula

Action:  Retracts scapula and braces shoulder; fixes scapula during arm movements
Term
Spinous processes of vertebrae C7-T1, nuchal ligament
Definition
Origin:  Spinous processes of vertebrae C7-T1, nuchal ligament

Insertion:  Medial border of scapula

Action:  Retracts scapula and braces shoulder; fixes scapula during arm movements
Term
Deltoid
Definition
Origin:  Acromion and spine of scapula; clavicle

Insertion:  Deltoid tuberosity of humerus

Action:  Anterior fibers flex and medially rotate arm; lateral fibers abduct arm; posterior fibers extend and laterally rotate arm.  Involved in arm swinging during such actions as walking or bowling and in adjustment of hand height for various manual tasks.
Term
Teres major
Definition
Origin:  Inferior angle of scapula

Insertion:  Medial lip of intertubercular sulcus of humerus

Action:  Extends and medially rotates humerus; contributes to arm swinging
Term
Teres minor
Definition
Origin:  Lateral border and adjacent posterior surface of scapula

Insertion:  Greater tubercle of humerus; posterior surface of joint capsule

Action:  Modulates action of deltoid, preventing humeral head from sliding upward as arm is abducted; rotates humerus laterally
Term
Supraspinatus
Definition
Origin:  Supraspinous fossa of scapula

Insertion:  Greater tubercle of humerus

Action:  Aids deltoid in abduction of arm; resists downward slippage of humeral head when arm is relaxed or when carrying weight
Term

Infraspinatus

Definition
Origin:  Ifraspinous fossa of scapula

Insertion:  Greater tubercle of humerus

Action:  Modulates action of deltoid, preventing humeral head from sliding upward; rotates humerus laterally
Term
Coracobrachialis
Definition
Origin:  Coracoid process

Insertion:  Medial aspect of humeral shaft

Action:  Flexes and medially rotates arm; resists deviation of arm from frontal plane during abduction
Term
Subscapularis
Definition
Origin:  Subscapular fossa of scapula

Insertion:  Lesser tubercle of humerus, anterior surface of joint capsule

Action:  Modulates action of deltoid, preventing humeral head from sliding upward as arm is abducted; rotates humerus medially
Term
Latissimus dorsi
Definition
Origin:  Vertebrae T7-L5, lower three or four ribs, iliac crest, thoracolumbar fascia

Insertion:  Floor of intertubercular sulcus of humerus

Action:  Adducts and medially rotates humerus; extends the shoulder joint as in pulling on the oars of a rowboat; produces backward swing of arm in such actions as walking and bowling.  With hands grasping overhead objects, pulls body forward and upward, as in climbing.  Aids in deep inspiration, sudden expiration such as sneezing and coughing, and prolonged forceful expiration as in singing or blowing a sustained note on a wind instrument.
Term
Triceps brachii
Definition
Origin:  Long head - inferior margin of glenoid cavity and joint capsule/Lateral head - posterior surface of proximal end of humerus/Medial head - posterior surface of entire humeral shaft

Insertion:  Olecranon, fascia of forearm

Action:  Extends elbow; long head extends and adducts humerus
Term
Brachioradialis
Definition
Origin:  Lateral supracondylar ridge of humerus

Insertion:  Lateral surface of radius near styloid process

Action:  Flexes elbow
Term
Pronator teres
Definition
Origin:  Humeral shaft near medial epicondyle; coronoid process of ulna

Insertion:  Lateral surface of radial shaft

Action:  Assists pronator quadratus in pronation, but only in rapid or forceful action; weakly flexes elbow
Term
Extensor carpi radialis longus
Definition
Origin:  Lateral supracondylar ridge of humerus

Insertion:  Base of metacarpal II

Action:  Extends wrist; aids in radial flexion of wrist
Term
Extensor carpi radialis brevis
Definition
Origin:  Lateral epicondyle of humerus

Insertion:  Base of metacarpal III

Action:  Extends wrist; aids in radial flexion of wrist
Term

Extensor carpi ulnaris

Definition
Origin:  Lateral epicondyle of humerus; posterior surface of ulnar shaft

Insertion:  Base of metacarpal V

Action:  Extends and fixes wrist when fist is clenched or hand grips an object; aids in ulnar flexion of wrist
Term
Flexor carpi radialis
Definition
Origin:  Medial epicondyle of humerus

Insertion:  Base of metacarpals II-III

Action:  Flexes wrist; aids in radial flexion of wrist
Term
Flexor carpi ulnaris
Definition
Origin:  Medial epicondyle of humerus; medial margin of olecranon; posterior surface of ulna

Insertion:  Pisiform, hamate, metacarpal V

Action:  Flexes wrist; aids in ulnar flexion of wrist
Term
Flexor digitorum longus
Definition
Origin: 

Insertion:

Action:
Term
Flexor pollicus longus
Definition
Origin:  Radius, interosseous membrane

Insertion:  Distal phalanx I

Action:  Flexes phalanges of thumb
Term
Extensor digitorum communis
Definition
Origin:  Lateral epicondyle of humerus

Insertion:  Dorsal surfaces of phalanges II-V

Action:  Extends wrist and metacarpophalangeal and interphalangeal joints of digits II-V; tends to spread digits apart when extending
Term
Flexor retinaculum
Definition
Origin: 

Insertion:

Action:
Term
Thenar muscles
Definition
Origin: 

Insertion:

Action:
Term
Iliopsoas
Definition
Origin: 

Insertion:

Action:  Flexes thigh at hip when trunk is fixed; flexes trunk at hip when thigh is fixed, as in bending forward in a chair or sitting up in bed; balances trunk during sitting
Term
Psoas major
Definition
Origin:  Bodies and intervertebral discs of vertebrae T12-L5, transverse processes of lumbar vertebrae

Insertion:  Lesser trochanter and nearby shaft of femur

Action:  Flexes thigh at hip when trunk is fixed
Term
Psoas minor
Definition
Term
Iliacus
Definition
Origin:  Iliac crest and fossa, superolateral region of sacrum, anterior sacroiliac and iliolumbar ligaments

Insertion:  Lesser trochanter and nearby shaft of femur

Action:  Flexes thigh at hip when trunk is fixed
Term
Gluteus maximus
Definition
Origin:  Posterior gluteal line of ilium, on posterolateral surface from iliac crest to posterior superior spine; coccyx; dorsal surface of lower sacrum; aponeurosis of erector spinae

Insertion:  Gluteal tuberosity of femur; lateral condyle of tibia via iliotibial band

Action:  Extends thigh at hip as in stair climbing (rising to next step) running and walking (backswing of limb); abducts thigh; elevates trunk after stooping; prevents trunk from pitching forward during walking and running; helps stabilize femur on tibia
Term
Gluteus medius and gluteus minimus
Definition
Origin:  Most of lateral surface of ilium between crest and acetabulum

Insertion:  Greater trochanter of femur

Action:  Abduct and medially rotate thigh; during walking, shift weight of trunk toward limb with foot on the ground as other foot is lifted
Term

Adductor longus

Definition
Origin:  Body and inferior ramus of pubis

Insertion:  Linea aspera of femur

Action:  Adducts and medially rotates thigh; flexes thigh at hip
Term
Tensor fasciae latae
Definition
Origin:  Iliac crest, anterior superior spine, deep surface of fascia lata

Insertion:  Lateral condyle of tibia via iliotibial band

Action:  Extends knee, laterally rotates tibia, aids in abduction and medial rotation of femur; during standing, steadies pelvis on femoral head and steadies femoral condyles on tibia
Term
Gracilis
Definition
Origin:  Body and inferior ramus of pubis; ramus of ischium

Insertion:  Medial surface of tibia just below condyle

Action:  Flexes and medially rotates tibia at knee
Term
Sartorius
Definition
Origin:  On and near anterior superior spine of ilium

Insertion:  Medial surface of proximal end of tibia

Action:  Aids in knee and hip flexion, as in sitting or climbing; abducts and laterally rotates thigh
Term
Rectus femoris
Definition
Origin:  Ilium at anterior inferior spine and superior margin of acetaulum; capsule of hip joint

Insertion:  Patella, tibial tuberosity, lateral and medial condyles of tibia

Action:  Extends knee; flexes thigh at hip; flexes trunk on hip if thigh is fixed
Term
Vastus lateralis
Definition
Origin:  Femur at greater trochanter and intertrochanteric line, gluteal tuberosity, and linea aspera

Insertion:  Patella, tibial tuberosity, lateral and medial condyles of tibia

Action:  Extends knee; retains patella in groove on femur during knee movements
Term
Vastus intermedius
Definition
Origin:  Anterior and lateral surfaces of femoral shaft

Insertion:  Patella, tibial tuberosity, lateral and medial condyles of tibia

Action:  Extends knee
Term
Vastus medialis
Definition
Origin:  Femur at intertrochanteric line, spiral line, linea aspera, and medial supracondylar line

Insertion:  Patella, tibial tuberosity, lateral and medial condyles of tibia

Action:  Extends knee; retains patella in groove on femur during knee movements
Term
Semitendonosus
Definition
Origin:  Ischial tuberosity

Insertion:  Medial surface of upper tibia

Action:  Flexes knee; medially rotates tibia on femur when knee is flexed; medially rotates femur when hip is extended; counteracts forward bending at hips
Term
Semimembranosus
Definition
Origin:  Ischial tuberosity

Insertion:  Medial condyle and nearby margin of tibia; intercondylar line and lateral condyle of femur; ligament of popliteal region

Action:  Flexes knee; medially rotates tibia on femur when knee is flexed; medially rotates femur when hip is extended; counteracts forward bending at hips
Term
Biceps femoris
Definition
Origin:  Long head - ischial tuberosity/Short head - linea aspera and lateral supracondylar line of femur

Insertion:  Dead of fibula

Action:  Flexes knee; extends hip; elevates trunk from stooping posture; laterally rotates tibia on femur when knee is flexed; laterally rotates femur when hip is extended; counteracts forward bending at hips
Term
Iliotibial tract
Definition
Tendon that links the gluteus maximus to the femur
Term
Tibialis anterior
Definition
Origin:  Lateral condyle and lateral margin of proximal half of tibia; interosseous membrane

Insertion:  Medial cuneiform, metatarsal I

Action:  Dorsiflexes and inverts foot; resists backward tipping of body (as when standing on a moving boat deck); helps support medial longitudinal arch of foot
Term
Fibularis tertius
Definition
Origin:  Medial surface of lower one-third of fibula, interosseous membrane

Insertion:  Metatarsal V

Action:  Dorsiflexes and everts foot during walking, helps toes clear the ground during forward swing
Term
Gastrocnemius
Definition
Origin:  Condyles and popliteal surface of femur, lateral supracondylar line, capsule of knee joint

Insertion:  Clacaneus

Action:  Plantar flexes foot, flexes knee; active in walking, running, and jumping
Term
Soleus
Definition
Origin:  Posterior surface of head and proximal one-fourth of fibula; middle one-third of tibia; interosseous membrane

Insertion:  Calcaneus

Action:  Plantar flexes foot; steadies leg on ankle during standing
Term
Extensor digitorum longus
Definition
Origin:  Lateral condyle of tibia, shaft of fibula, interosseous membrane

Insertion:  Middle and distal phalanges II-V

Action:  Extends toes II-V, dorsiflexes foot, tautens plant aponeurosis
Term
Extensor hallucis longus
Definition
Origin:  Anterior surface of middle of fibula, interosseous membrane

Insertion:  Distal phalanx I

Action:  Extends great toe, dorsiflexes foot
Term
Tendon of Achilles
Definition