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muscles origin insertion action
collin county college a&p1 2011 practical final study guide
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Anatomy
11/09/2011

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Cards

Term
Soleus
Definition
origin: Superior tibia and fibula

insertion: Posterior calcaneus

action: Plantar flexes foot
Term
Epicranium - frontal belly
Definition
origin: Epicranial aponeurosis

insertion: Skin of the Eyebrown, bridge of nose

action: Raise the Eyebrown, wrinkles forehead
Term
Epicranium - occipital belly
Definition
origin: Occipital and temporal bones

insertion: Epicranial aponeurosis

action: Pulls scalp posteriorly
Term
Orbicularis Oculi
Definition
origin:Frontal and maxillary bones

insertion:Eyelid

action:Closes eyes, blinking, squinting
Term
Levator Labii Superioris
Definition
origin:
Zygomatic bone and infraorbital margin of maxilla

insertion:
Skin and muscle of upper lip and border of nostril

action:
Raises and furrows upper lips; open lips
Term
Zygomatic Major and Minor
Definition
origin:
Zygomatic Bone

insertion:Skin and muscle of corner the mouth

action:Raises lateral corners of mouth upward (smiling muscle)
Term
Risorius
Definition
origin:
Fascia of masseter muscle

insertion:
Skin at angle of the mouth

action:
Pulls Corner of Lips Laterally; tenses lip; zygmatic synergistic
Term
Orbicularis Oris
Definition
origin:
Maxilla and Mandible

insertion:
Skin and muscle at angle of the mouth

action:
Closes lips; purses and protrudes lips (kissing and whistling muscle)
Term
Buccinator







Definition
origin:
Molar region of maxilla and mandible

insertion:
Orbicularis Oris

action:
Draw corner of mouth laterally, ; compresses cheek (as in whistling); holds food between teeth during chewing

Term
Masseter Muscles














Definition
origin:
Zygomatic arch and maxilla

insertion:
Angle and ramus of mandible

action:
Closes the Jaw
Term
Temporalis Muscles
Definition
origin:
Temporal Fossa

insertion:
Coronoid process of mandible

action:
Closes and retracts the Jaw
Term
Buccinator
Definition
origin:
Molar region of maxilla and mandible

insertion:
Orbicularis Oris

action:
Draw corner of mouth laterally, ; compresses cheek (as in whistling); holds food between teeth during chewing
Term
Genioglossus
Definition
origin:
Internal surface of mandible

insertion:
Inferior aspect of tongue and body of hyoid bone

action:
Protracts tongue
Term
Styloglossus
Definition
origin:
Styloid process of temporal bone

insertion:
Inferolateral tongue

action:
Retracts and elevates tongue
Term
Superior Rectus Muscles
Definition
origin:
Bony orbit

insertion:
Outer surface of eyeball

action:
Elevates the Eye and Turns it Medially
Term
Inferior Rectus Muscles
Definition
origin:
Bony orbit

insertion:
Outer surface of eyeball

action:
Depresses the Eye and turns it Medially
Term
Lateral Rectus Muscles
Definition
origin:
Bony orbit

insertion:
Outer surface of eyeball

action:
Moves eye laterally
Term
Medial Rectus Muscles
Definition
origin:
Bony orbit

insertion:
Outer surface of eyeball

action:
Moves eye medially
Term
Inferior Oblique Muscles
Definition
origin:
Bony orbit

insertion:
Outer surface of eyeball

action:
Elevates the Eye and Turns it Laterally
Term
Superior Oblique Muscles
Definition
origin:
Bony orbit

insertion:
Outer surface of eyeball

action:
Depresses the Eye and turns it Laterally
Term
Digastric
Definition
origin:
Lower margin of Mandible and Mastoid Process

insertion:
Hyoid Bone

action:
Elevates Hyoid Bone; open mouth and depress mandible
Term
Stylohyoid
Definition
origin:
Styloid Proxcess of Temporal bone

insertion:
Hyoid Bone

action:
Elevates and Retracts Hyoid Bone
Term
Geniohyoid
Definition
origin:
Inner surface of mandible

insertion:
Hyoid Bone

action:
Pulls hyoid bone superiorly and anteriorly
Term
Sternohyoid
Definition
origin:
Manubrium and medial end of Clavicle

insertion:
Hyoid Bone

action:
Depresses Larynx and Hyoid Bone
Term
Sternothyroid
Definition
origin:
Manubrium

insertion:
Thyroid cartilage of larynx

action:
Depresses Larynx and Hyoid Bone
Term
Omohyoid
Definition
origin:
Superior border of Scapula

insertion:
Hyoid Bone

action:
Depresses Larynx and Hyoid Bone
Term
Sternocleidomastoid
Definition
origin:
Manubrium of sternum and medial aspect of clavicle

insertion:
Mastoidprocess of temporal bone and superior nuchal line of occipital bone

action:
Simultaneous contraction : flexion forward of the neck; independent contraction: rotate head toward shoulder on opposite side
Term
Scalenes: Anterior, Middle, Posterior
Definition
origin:
Transverse processes of cervical vertebrae

insertion:
Anterolaterally on ribs 1 and 2

action:
Flex and sligthly rotate neck; elevates first 2 ribs; aid in inspiration
Term
Splenius
Definition
origin:
Spinous process of vertebrae C7-T6

insertion:
Mastoid process of temporal bone, occipital bone, and transverse process of cervical vertebrae

action:
Extends or hyperextends the head
Term
Iliocostalis
Definition
origin:
Iliac crest, inferior thoracic and cervical ribs

insertion:
Ribs and transverse processes of cervical vertebrae

action:
Extends and laterally flex the vertebral column
Term
Longissiums
Definition
origin:
Transverse processes of lumbar through cervical vertebrae

insertion:
Transverse processes of thoracic and cervical vertebrae, and mastoid process of temporal bone

action:
Extends and laterally flex the vertebral column; extends head and turns the face toward same side
Term
Spinalis
Definition
origin:
Spinous process of upper lumbar and lower thoracic vertebrae

insertion:
Spinous process of upper thoracic and cervical vertebrae

action:
Extends vertebral column
Term
Semispinalis
Definition
origin:
Transverse processes of C7-T12

insertion:
Occipital bone, and spinous processes of cervical and thoracic vertebrae

action:
Extends vertebral column and head, and rotates them to opposite side
Term
Quadratus Lumborum
Definition
origin:
Iliac crest

insertion:
Transverse processes of lumbar vertebrae and lower margin of 12th rib

action:
Flexes vertebral column laterally
Term
External Intercostal
Definition
origin:
Inferior Border of Rib Above

insertion:
Superior border of Rib Below

action:
Elevates Rib Cage
Term
Internal Intercostal
Definition
origin:
Superior border of Rib Below

insertion:
Inferior Border of Rib Above

action:
Depresses Rib Cage
Term
Diaphragm
Definition
origin:
Ribs and its Cartilage, Sternum, Vertebrae

insertion:
Central Tendon

action:
Prime Action in Inspiration
Term
Rectus Abdominis
Definition
origin:
Pubic crest and symphysis

insertion:
Xiphoid Process, Ribs

action:
Flexes and Rotates Lumbar Vertebral Column, Increase Abdominal Pressure
Term
External Oblique
Definition
origin:
Lower 8 Ribs

insertion:
Linea Alba, Pubic crest and tubercle, Iliac crest

action:
Flex Vertebral Column and Compress Abdominal Wall; Helps Trunk Rotation and Lateral Flexion
Term
Internal Oblique
Definition
origin:
Lumbar Fascia, iliac crest, Inguinal Ligament

insertion:
Linea Alba, Pubic crest, and last 3 or 4 Ribs


action:
Flex Vertebral Column and Compress Abdominal Wall; Helps Trunk Rotation and Lateral Flexion
Term
Transversus Abdominis
Definition
origin:
Last 6 Ribs, Inguinal Ligament, iliac crest, Lumbar Fascia

insertion:
Linea Alba, Pubic crest

action:
Compresses Abdominal Content
Term
Pectoralis Minor Muscles
Definition
origin:
3-5 Ribs

insertion:
Coracoid process of Scapula

action:
Ribs Fixed: Moves Scapula Forward and Inferiorly and with Scapula fixed it moves up the rib cage (Accessory Muscle for Respiration)
Term
Serratus Anterior Muscles
Definition
origin:
1-8 Ribs

insertion:
Scapula (Anterior Surface of medial border)

action:
Rotates scapulat so that the inferior angle moves laterally and upward; Fixates, Protracts the Scapula
Term
Trapezius Muscles
Definition
origin:
Occipital Bone, Spinous processes of C7 and all throacic vertebrae

insertion:
Acromin and spine of scapula, and lateral third of Clavicle

action:
Extend Head; elevate, retracts and rotates the Scapula
Term
Rhomboids Major and Minor
Definition
origin:
Spinous processes of vetebrae (C7 and T1 for minor; T2-T5 for major)

insertion:
Medial Border of Scapula

action:
Adducts Scapula (squaring shoulders)
Term
Levator Scapulae
Definition
origin:
Transverse Processes of C1-C4 Vetebrae

insertion:
Medial Border of Scapula and superior to the spine

action:
Elevates and adducts the Scapula
Term
Pectoralis Major
Definition
origin:
Sternal end of Clavicle, Sternum, 1-6 Ribs

insertion:
Intertubercular sulcus and greater tubercle of Humerus

action:
Prime mover of arm flexion; rotates arm medially; adducts arm
Term
Deltoid Muscles
Definition
origin:
Lateral third of Clavicle and Acromion and spine of Scapula

insertion:
Deltoid tuberosity of Humerus

action:
Abduction of the Shoulder
Term
Latssimus Dorsi Muscles
Definition
origin:
spine of lwoer 6 thoracic vertebrae, Lower 3-4 Ribs, Iliac crest

insertion:
Intertubercular sulcus of Humerus

action:
Agonist for Shoulder extension; arm adductor; medially rotates arm at shoulder
Term
Subscapularis
Definition
origin:
Subscapula fossa of scapula

insertion:
Lesser tubercle of humerus

action:
Chief medial rotator of humerus
Term
Supraspinatus Muscles
Definition
origin:
Supraspinatus fossa of scapula

insertion:
Greater tubercle of humerus

action:
Initiate abduction of humerus
Term
Infraspinatus Muscles
Definition
origin:
Infraspinatus fossa of scapula

insertion:
Greater tubercle of humerus

action:
Rotates humerus laterally
Term
Teres Minor Muscles
Definition
origin:
Lateral border of dorsal scapula surface

insertion:
Greater tubercle of humerus

action:
Rotates humerus laterally
Term
Teres Major
Definition
origin:
Posterior surface of scapula at inferior angle

insertion:
Lesser tubercle of humerus

action:
Extends, medially rotates, and adducts the humerus; synergistic to latissimus dorsi
Term
Coracobrachialis
Definition
origin:
Coracoid process of scapula

insertion:
Medial surface of humerus shaft

action:
Flexion and adduction of humerus
Term
Triceps Brachii muscle
Definition
origin:
Infraglenoid tubercle of Scapula, posterior shaft of Humerus

insertion:
Olecranon Process of Ulna

action:
Agonist for Extension of the Forearm
Term
Biceps Brachii Muscle
Definition
origin:
Coracoid Process of Scapula, Supraglenoid tubercle of Scapula

insertion:
Radial Tuberosity of Radius

action:
Agonist for Flexion of the Elbow and Supinates the forearm
Term
Brachialis
Definition
origin:
Distal Humerus

insertion:
Coronoid Process of Ulna

action:
Flexes the forearm
Term
Brachioradialis
Definition
origin:
Lateral Supracondylar of Humerus

insertion:
Styloid Process of Radius

action:
Synergist for Flexion of the Forearm
Term
Pronator teres
Definition
origin:
Medial epicondyle of humerus; coronoid process of ulna

insertion:
Midshaft lateral radius

action:
Pronates forearm
Term
Flexor carpi radialis
Definition
origin:
Medial epicondyle of humerus

insertion:
Base of 2nd and 3rd metacarpals

action:
Flexor of wrist; abducts hand
Term
Palmaris longus
Definition
origin:
Medial epicondyle of humerus

insertion:
Palmar aponeurosis

action:
Tenses skin and fascia of palm during hand movements; weak wrist flexor
Term
Flexor carpi ulnaris
Definition
origin:
Medial epicondyle of humerus; olecranon process of ulna

insertion:
Pisiform, hamate, and base of 5th metacarpal

action:
Flexor of wrist; adducts hand
Term
Flexor digitorum superficialis
Definition
origin:
Medial epicondyle of humerus; coronoid process of ulna; shaft of radius

insertion:
Middle phalanges of fingers 2-5

action:
Flexes wrist and middle phalanges of fingers 2-5
Term
Flexor pollicis longus
Definition
origin:
Anterior surface of radius

insertion:
Distal phalanx of thumb

action:
Flexes distal phalanx of thumb
Term
Pronator quadratus
Definition
origin:
Distal portion of anterior ulnar shaft

insertion:
Distal surface of anterior radius

action:
Prime mover of forearm pronation
Term
Brachioradialis
Definition
origin:
Lateral Supracondylar of Humerus

insertion:
Styloid Process of Radius

action:
Synergist for Flexion of the Forearm
Term
Extensor carpi radialis longus
Definition
origin:
Lateral supracondylar ridge of Humerus

insertion:
Base of 2nd Metacarpal

action:
Extends wrist; abducts wrist
Term
Extensor carpi radialis brevis
Definition
origin:
Lateral epicondyle of Humerus

insertion:
Base of 3rd Metacarpal

action:
Extends and abducts wrist
Term
Extensor digitorum
Definition
origin:
Lateral epicondyle of Humerus

insertion:
Distal Phalanges of Fingers 2-5

action:
Prime mover of finger extension
Term
Extensor carpi ulnaris
Definition
origin:
Lateral epicondyle of Humerus and posterior border of ulna

insertion:
Base of 5th Metacarpal

action:
Extends wrist; adducts wrist
Term
Iliopsoas
Definition
Term
Iliacus
Definition
origin:
Iliac fossa, iliac crest, and ala of sacrum

insertion:
Lesser trochanter of femur

action:
Prime mover of flexing thigh; helps in flexing trunk on thigh
Term
Psoas major
Definition
origin:
Transverse processes of lumbar and T12 vertebrae

insertion:
Lesser trochanter of femur

action:
Prime mover of flexing thigh; helps in flexing laterally vertebral column
Term
Sartorius
Definition
origin:
Anterior superior iliac spine

insertion:
Medial aspect of proximal tibia

action:
Flexes, abducts, and laterally rotates thigh; flexes knee; produces the cross-legged position
Term
Adductor magnus
Definition
origin:
Ischial and pubic rami; and ischial tuberosity

insertion:
Linea aspera and adductor tubercle of femur

action:
Adducts, medially rotates, and flexes thigh; also synergistic to hamstrings in thigh extension
Term
Adductor longus
Definition
origin:
Pubis near pubic symphysis

insertion:
Linea aspera

action:
Adducts, medially rotates, and flexes thigh
Term
Adductor brevis
Definition
origin:
Body and inferior ramus of pubis

insertion:
Linea aspera and adductor tubercle of femur

action:
Adducts and medially rotates thigh
Term
Pectineus
Definition
origin:
Superior ramus of pubis

insertion:
Lesser trochanter and linea aspera

action:
Adducts, medially rotates, and flexes thigh
Term
Gracilis
Definition
origin:
Inferior ramus and body of pubis; and adjacent ischial ramus

insertion:
Medial surface of tibia, just inferior to its medial condyle

action:
Adducts, medially rotates, and flexes leg during walking
Term
Quadriceps femoris
Definition
Term
Rectus femoris
Definition
origin:
Anterior inferior iliac spine and superior margin of acetabulum

insertion:
Patella and tibial tuberosity of tibia

action:
Term
Vastus lateralis
Definition
origin:
Greater trochanter, intertrochanteric line, linea aspera

insertion:
Patella and tibial tuberosity of tibia

action:
Extends and stabilizes knee
Term
Vastus medialis
Definition
origin:
Linea aspera, intertrochanteric and medial supracondylar lines

insertion:
Patella and tibial tuberosity of tibia

action:
Extends knee
Term
Vastus intermedius
Definition
origin:
Anterior and lateral surfaces of proximal femur shaft

insertion:
Patella and tibial tuberosity of tibia

action:
Extends knee
Term
Tensor fasciae latae
Definition
origin:
Anterior aspect of iliac crest and anterior superiror iliac spine

insertion:
Iliotibial tract

action:
Steadies the knee and trunk on thigh by making iliotibial tract taut; flexes and abducts thigh; rotates thigh medially
Term
Gluteus maximus
Definition
origin:
Dorsal ilium, sacrum and coccyx

insertion:
Gluteal tuberosity of femur; iliotibial tract

action:
Major extensor of thigh
Term
Gluteus medius
Definition
origin:
Between anterior and posterior gluteal lines on lateral surface of ilium

insertion:
Greater trochanter of femur

action:
Abducts and medially rotates thigh
Term
Gluteus minimus
Definition
origin:
Between anterior and inferior gluteal lines on external surface of ilium

insertion:
Greater trochanter of femur

action:
Abducts and medially rotates thigh
Term
Hamstrings
Definition

Term
Biceps femoris
Definition
origin:
Ischil tuberosity, linea aspera, lateral supracondylar line, and distal femur

insertion:
Head of fibula and lateral condyle of tibia

action:
Extends thigh and flexes knee
Term
Semitendinosus
Definition
origin:
Ischial tuberosity

insertion:
Medial aspect of upper tibial shaft

action:
Extends thigh and flexes knee
Term
Semimembranosus
Definition
origin:
Ischial tuberosity

insertion:
Medial condyle of tibia and lateral condyle of femur

action:
Extends thigh and flexes knee
Term
Tibialis anterior
Definition
origin:
Lateral condyle and upper 2/3 of tibial shaft

insertion:
Inferior surface of medial cuneiform and first metatarsal

action:
Prime mover of dorsiflexion
Term
Extensor digitorum longus
Definition
origin:
Lateral condyle and upper 3/4 of fibula shaft

insertion:
Medial and distal phalanges of toes 2-5

action:
Prime mover of extension
Term
Fibularis (peroneus) longus
Definition
origin:
Head and upper portion of lateral fibula

insertion:
First metatarsal and medial cuneiform

action:
Plantar flexes and everts foot
Term
Triceps surae
Definition
origin:
Infraglenoid tubercle of Scapula, posterior shaft of Humerus

insertion:
Olecranon Process of Ulna

action:
Agonist for Extension of the Forearm
Term
Gastrocnemius
Definition
origin:
Medial and lateral condyle of femur

insertion:
Posterior calcaneus

action:
Plantar flexes foot
Term
Soleus
Definition
origin:
Superior tibia and fibula

insertion:
Posterior calcaneus

action:
Plantar flexes foot