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Muscles of the vertebral column
Muscles of the vertebral column Chapter 10 Part 2
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Anatomy
03/02/2012

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Term
What is the overview of the muscles of the vertebral column?
Definition

-Covered by more superficial back muscle such as the trapezius and latissimus dorsi.

- Arranged in 3 distinct layers

Term
What are the three arranged distinct layers?
Definition

• Superficial- position the pectoral girdle and upper limb

• Intermediate- assists in rib cage movement

• Deep

Term
What do the first two layers form on the distinct layers?
Definition
- Extrinsic back Muscles
Term
What does the the deeper layer consists of on the dintinct layers?
Definition
- It consists of the intrinsic (true) back muscles
Term
What do the Intricnsic back Muscles do?
Definition

• Interconnect and stabilize the vertebrae.

• Found lateral to the vertebral column.

          - Within the space between the spinous                        processes and transverse processes.

• Also arranged in superficial, intermediate and deep layers.

Term
What muscles make up the Intrinsic Muscles-superificial layer?
Definition

• Splenius (capitis and cervicis)

• Erector spinae(Naming criteria,Insertion point)

Term

What is the Splenius(capitis and cervicis)

Origin?

Insertion?

Action?

Definition

• Origin- spinous processes of the lower cervical and upper four thoracic vertebrae

• Insertion- mastoid process, occipital bone and the superior cervical vertebrae

• Action-

                                       -The two sides act together      to extend the neck

                                        - Alone- rotates and laterally flexes the neck to that side

Term
What is the Erector spinae?
Definition

• Largest muscle group of the back forming a prominent bulge on either side of the vertebral column.

• Frequently strained through improper lifting.

Term
What are the two muscles that make up the Eretor spinae?
Definition

- Naming criteria

- Insertion point

Term
What are the three muscles that (Naming criteria) proximity to the vertebral column(1st word)?
Definition

• Spinalis group- closest to the vertebral column.

• Longissimus group- between the other two groups.

• Iliocostalis group- furthest from the vertebral column.

Term
What are the three insertionpionts points (2nd word)?  
Definition

• Capitis- skull

• Cervicis- upper cervical vertebrae

• Thoracis- lower cervical and upper thoracic vertebrae

Term

What is the Erector spinae 

Funcions?

Definition

• Acting together- extend the vertebral column

              - Maintain erect posture of the vertebral column of theirrespective regions

• One side only- lateral flexion of the vertebral column

Term
 What is the Intrinsic Muscles Deep layer?
Definition

• Also called transversospinalis muscles.

• Interconnect and stabilize the vertebrae.

• Short muscles that work in various combinations to produce slight extension or rotation of the vertebral column.

•Warmup and stretching exercises recommended before athletic events is meant to prepare these muscles.

Term
What does the Flexors versus Extensors muscles?
Definition

• The muscles of the vertebral column include many extensors but few flexors.

• The vertebral column does not a massive series of flexors because:

         -Many of the large trunk muscles flex the vertebral column when they contract.

     - Most of the body weight lies anterior to the vertebral column and gravity tends to flex the spine.

Term
Spinal Flexors has what muscles in it?
Definition
Quadratus Lumborum.
Term

What is Quadratus lumborum:

Origin?

Insertion?

Action?

Definition

• Origin- iliac crest and iliolumbar ligament

• Insertion- last rib and transverse process of the lumbar verebrae 

• Action

                               - Together- depress the ribs

                                - One side- lateral flexion of

                           the vertebral column

Term
What is the overview of the obligue and Rectus muscles? 
Definition

• Lie between the vertebral column and the ventral midline.

• Oblique and rectus muscles form the anterior abdominal wall.

• Abdominal wall muscles are thin but layered in such a way that they provide strength.

Term
What is the Oblique Muscles?
Definition

• Can compress underlying structure or rotate the spinal

column, depending on whether both sides or one side is contracting

• Fibers run diagonal to the midline

• External- its fibers run in the direction your fingers would if you put your hands in your pockets

• Internal- fibers run approximately perpendicular to external fibers

      -Fibers run in the direction your fingers would if you reached across to put your hand in the opposite pocket

Term
What makes up the Obligue Muscles?
Definition

- Externail intercostals

- Internal intercostals 

- External abdominal obliques 

- Internal abdominal obliques

- Transverus abdominis

Term

What is the external intercostals:

Origin?

Insertion?

Action?

 

Definition

• Origin- inferior border of each rib

• Insertion- superior border of the next rib (more inferior rib)

• Action- elevates the ribs (involved in inspiration)

Term

What is the Internal intercostals:

Origin?

Insertion?

Action?

Definition

• Origin- superior border of each rib

• Insertion- inferior border of the more superior rib

• Action- depress ribs (involved in expiration)

Term

What is the External abdominal obliques:

Origin?

Insertion?

Action?

Definition

• Origin- external and inferior borders of ribs 5-12

• Insertion- external oblique aponeurosis extending to the linea alba and the iliac crest

• Action- compresses the abdomen, depresses the ribs, flexes, laterally flexes, or rotates the vertebral column to the opposite side

Term

What is the Internal abdominal obliques:

Origin?

Insertion?

Action?

Definition

• Origin-thoracolumbar fascia and the iliac crest.

• Insertion- inferior surfaces of ribs 9-12, costal cartilages of ribs 8-10, linea alba, pubis.

• Action- same as the external abdominal obliques but rotates the vertebral column to the same side.

Term

What is the transverus abdominis:

Origin?

Insertion?

Action?

Definition

• Origin- cartilages of ribs 6-12, iliac crest, thoracolumbar fascia

• Insertion- linea alba and pubis

• Action- compresses the abdomen

Term
What forms the external to internal abdominal muscles?
Definition

• External abdominal oblique

• Internal abdominal oblique

• Transversus abdominis

Term

Aponeuroses if the extermnal obliquie, internal oblique and transversus abdominis to form what to separate?

This also tie to form what?

Definition

- Rectus Sheath.

- These muscle tie into the linea alba.

Term
What muscles form the Rectus?
Definition

- Diaphragm

- Rectus abdominis

Term

What is the Diaphragm?:

Origin?

Insertion?

Action?

What is the three openings in the diaphragm?

Definition

• Separates the thoracic and abdominopelvic cavities

• Origin- xiphoid process, ribs 7-12 and their associated cartilages and surfaces of lumbar vertebrae

• Insertion- central tendinous sheet (fuses with the inferior surfaces of the fibrous pericardium)

• Action- contraction expands the thoracic cavity,

compresses the abdominopelvic cavity (inspiration)

 

• Thoracic aorta, esophagus, inferior vena cava

Term

What is the Rectus abdominis?:

Origin?

Insertion?

Action?

 

Definition

• Fibers run parallel to the midline

• Origin- superior surface of the pubis around the symphysis.

• Insertion- inferior surfaces of costal cartilages (ribs 5 7) and the xiphoid process of the sternum.

• Action- depresses the ribs, flexes the vertebral column

(opposes the action of the erector spinae).

• Muscles of the “six pack”.

• Tendinous inscriptions.

Term
What is the Tendinous inscriptons on the Rectus abdominis?
Definition

- Bands of fibrous tissue that divide

the muscle into four repeated segments.

Term
What is the Pelvic Floor (Pelvic Diaphragm) overview?
Definition

• Three layers of muscle that extend from the sacrum and

coccyx to the ischium and pubis

• Functions

- Support the organs of the pelvic cavity

  - Flex the joints of the sacrum and coccyx

          - Control movement of the material through the urethra and anus

Term
What is the Lecator ani in the Pelvic Diaphram?
Definition

• Largest and most important muscles of the pelvic floor.

• Supports pelvic viscera and resists inferior thrust that

accompanies increases in intra-abdominal pressure during forced expiration, coughing, vomiting, urination and defecation.

• During childbirth, the levator ani supports the head of the fetus.

- May be injured during a difficult childbirth or an episiotomy.

             - May cause urinary stress incontinence in   which there is a leakage of urine when there is an increase in intraabdominal pressure.

Term
What is the Coccygeus of the pelvic Diaphragm?
Definition

• Assists the levator ani.

• Pulls the coccyx anteriorly after it has been pushed

posteriorly following defecation or childbirth.

Term
What is the Perineum?
Definition

• Includes the pelvic floor (diaphragm) and its associated structures.

• Area that extends from the pubic symphysis anteriorly to the coccyx posteriorly and to the ischial tuberosities laterally.

• Does not enclose the pelvic outlet completely

        - Has openings for the urethra, anus and vagina

• A transverse line drawn between the two ischial tuberosities forms two triangles:

 - Urogenital triangle (anterior)

- Anal triangle (posterior)

Term
What is the Urogenital Triangle in the perineum?
Definition

• Contains the external genitals

• Superficial muscles- muscles of the external genitalia

- Example- bulbospongiosus

    - Males- eject sperm or urine

                     - Females- constricts the vaginal opening

• Deep muscles- strengthen the pelvic floor and encircle the urethra

           - Example- urethra sphincter- closes the urethra

• Anal triangle- formed from the muscular foundation of the pelvic diaphragm

- Examples- levator ani, coccygeus, external anal sphinter