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Muscle terminology
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34
Anatomy
11/05/2008

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Term
atrophy
Definition
partial or complete wasting away of muscle. causes of atrophy include poor nourishment, poor circulation, loss of hormonal support, loss of nerve supple to muscle disuse or lack or exercise.
Term
hypertrophy
Definition
an increase in mass or girth, of a muscle can be induced by a number of stimuli. the most familiar is exercise.
Term
rigor mortis
Definition
(latin "mors, mortis") is caused by a chemical change in the muscles after death, causing the limbs of the corpse to become stiff(latin "rigor") and difficult to move or manipulate.
Term
hypotonia
Definition
decrease or lost of muscle tone. such muscle are said to be flaccid
Term
flaccid paralysis
Definition
loss of muscle tone, loss or reduction of tendon, and muscle atrophy due to nerve disorders or damage.
Term
hypertonia
Definition
increase in muscle tone that results in spasticity or rigidity.
Term
spasticity
Definition
abnormal muscular hyperactivity with increased in muscle tone(rigidity), and sustained muscle contraction(spasm), usually caused by damaged to the center nervous system.
Term
rigidity
Definition
increased muscle tone without reflex hyperactivity.
Term
spasticity paralysis
Definition
partial paralysis in which the muscle exhibit spasticity.
Term
myalgia
Definition
muscle pain(greek "myos" means muscle, and "algia means pain.
Term
myoma
Definition
tumor staring in muscle tissue( greek, oma means tumor)
Term
myomalacia
Definition
softening of a muscle
Term
myositis
Definition
inflammation of muscle(greek means inflammation.
Term
myotonia
Definition
increased muscular excitability and contraction with decreased power of relaxation.
Term
volksmann's contracture
Definition
permanent shortening of a muscle due to replacement of destroyed muscle fibers by connective tissue.
Term
Muscular dystrophy
Definition
inherited muscle-destroying disease characterized by degeneration of muscle fibers, leading to progressive atrophy.
Term
Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy
Definition
is sex-linked(X) disease that strikes boys almost exclusively, usually between the age of 3 and 5.
Term
Myasthenia gravis
Definition
myo(muscle)asthenia(weak)gravis( grave or serious)
an autoimmune disorder caused by antibody attack against axh receptors in the neuromuscular junction. accurs most often in females between ages 20 and 50.
Term
Polio
Definition
a viral disease that can damage the nervous system and cause paralysis. the polio virus enters the body through the mouth, usually from hands contaminated with stool of an infected person.
Term
Fibromyalgia
Definition
a very common condition of widespread muscular pain and fatigue...It affects women much more than men in an approximate ration of 9:1. It is seen in all age groups from young children through old age, although in most paients the problem begins during their 20s or 30s.
Term
Spasm
Definition
sudden involuntary contraction of a muscle.
Term
cramp
Definition
painful spasmodic contraction of a muscle, usually resulting in complete tetany.
Term
Tremor
Definition
rhythmic, involuntary brief twitch of a muscle visible under skin.
Term
Fasciculation
Definition
an involuntary brief twitch of a muscle no visible under the skin, as of the heart.
Term
Carpal tunnel syndrome
Definition
painful progressive condition by compression of the median nerve in the wrist.. symptoms usually start gradually, with pain, weakness, or numbness in the hand and wrist, radiating up the arm.
Term
Compartment syndrome
Definition
a condition in which increased pressure within a muscle compartment causes a decrease in blood supply to the affected muscles. The so-called compartments are groups of muscles surrounde by inelstic fascia and thus any swelling of muscles leaves no room for expansion of blood supply is progressively cut-off.
Term
Diaphragmatic hernia
Definition
a defect or hole in the diaphragm that allows the abdominal content to more into the chest cavity. treatment is usually surgical.
Term
Inguinal hernia
Definition
protrussion of abdominal cavity contents throug a weakened abdominal muscle of the inguinal area.
Term
Fibrosis
Definition
the formation or development of excess fibrous connective tissue in an organ or tissue
Term
Ischemia
Definition
(isch-is restriction, hema or haema is blood)
a restriction in blood supply to tissue such as cardiac muscle.
Term
Impingement syndrome
Definition
occurs when the rotator cuff tendons(supraspinatus, infraspinatus, teres minor and subscapularis)becomes trapped in the shoulder joint.
Term
Plantar fasciitis
Definition
which may cause the heel to hurt, fell hot or swell, is an inflammation or the plantar fascia, a thin layer of tough tissue supporting the arch of the foot.
Term
shin splints
Definition
represent one member of a group of injuries called "overuse injuries"
shin splints occur most commonly in runners or aggressive walkers. shin splints cause pain in the front of the outer edge of the mid region of the leg next to the shin bone(tibia)
Term
Delayed onset muscle soreness(DOM)
Definition
also sometimes called muscle fever, is the pain or discomfort often felt 24 to 72 hours after exercising and subsides generally within 2 to 3 days. It is frequently said to be caused by lactic acid buildup;