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Mr. Wright - 10th Grade Earth Science
Earth Science Atmosphere
57
Science
03/19/2013

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Cards

Term
How does the atmosphere give evidence for divine design?
Definition
God has created the atmosphere to provide a proper ratio of gases for all living things for breathing and for protection from harmful rays and particles from space. The ozone layer, for instance, blocks much of the sun's ultraviolet radiation that cancause health complication for humans and other living things.
Term
What is the greenhouse effect and how does it happen?
Definition
The greenhouse effect is a process of heating the lower atmosphere by thermal energy radiated from the earth's surface. The process is similar in some ways to how an agricultural greenhouse is heated by the sun streaming through the glass roof and walls. Incoming solar radiation heats the earth's surface, and the outgoing thermal radiation from the earth's surface heats the atmosphere. The heating is helped by the presence of certain gases in the atmosphere, such as water vapor, methane, and carbon dioxide, which absorb thermal radiation more efficiently than oxygen and nitrogen alone.
Term
Describe the fate of solar energy that enters the earth's atmosphere. Provide approximate percentages for the ultimate destinations of this energy.
Definition
Of the solar energy that enters the earth's atmosphere, up to 32% can be reflected by clouds and dust, up to 18% of the incoming energy can be absorbed by water vapor, clouds, and dust, and more than 50% can be absorbed by land and water.
Term
What is the single most significant difference between the heterosphere and the homosphere?
Definition
In the heterosphere the gases separate into layers based on their atomic weights, while in the homosphere the gases stay uniformly mixed.
Term
What does the Haber-Bosch process accomplish, and how does it support the Creation mandate?
Definition
The Haber-Bosch process converts atmospheric nitrogen into ammonia fertilizer. The creation of this artificial form of fertilizer has greatly increased farming yields, feeding more people and supporting larger populations than would otherwise be possible. It maximizes the usefulness of the creation and enables us to multiple and fill the earth.
Term
How can technicians on the ground communicate with the International Space Station if radio waves reflect off the ionosphere?
Definition
They rely on microwaves, which pass through the ionosphere, to communicate.
Term
What is the relationship between America's first artificial satellite, Explorer 1, and the Van Allen Belts?
Definition
James Van Allen used Explorer 1 data on radioactive particles to identify the regions of intense radiation that were later named after him.
Term
Air pollution that comes from artificial sources in cities is called...
Definition
smog
Term

Which of the following gases was not present in the earth's earliest atmosphere according to naturalistic scientists?

-helium

-hydrogen

-oxygen

-nitrogen

Definition
oxygen
Term
The atmosphere was formed by...
Definition
a direct act of God during the Creation week
Term
Who was called the "father of chemistry"?
Definition
Antoine Lavoisier
Term

Of those listed, the most significant role for nitrogen in the atmosphere is to

-dilute oxygen to the appropriate level

-react with and neutralize other noxious gases

-regulate the temperature

-serve as fuel for cellular respiration

Definition
dilute oxygen to the appropriate level
Term
Definition
Term
The most abundant gas in the homosphere is...
Definition
nitrogen
Term
The outermost gas layer of the earth's atmosphere is composed of...
Definition
hydrogen (H2)
Term
Assuming that you could survive without a space suit at the altitude of the thermosphere, in the earth's shadow you would feel...
Definition
much cooler than at the earth's surface
Term
On the average, the coldest temperatures in the atmosphere occur...
Definition
at the mesopause
Term
The largest carbon reservoir in the carbon cycle is found in...
Definition
the atmosphere
Term
Which of these helps to convert atmospheric nitrogen to a usable organic form?
Definition
lightning
Term
The gas called ozone is composed of...
Definition
oxygen atoms
Term
Nearly every year, a thin spot in the ozone layer develops over...
Definition
Antarctica
Term
Which atmospheric layer directly affects radio communication on Earth?
Definition
ionosphere
Term
Which of the following layers would be most effective in protecting the earth from a solar flare?
Definition
magnetosphere
Term
The most concentrated form of solar energy at the earth's surface occurs when...
Definition
the rays come from straight overhead
Term

Excessive exposure to UV rays can cause which of the following in humans?

-eye damage

-skin cancer

-sunburn

Definition
All 3...eye damage, skin cancer, and sunburn
Term

Yes or No

 

If an atmosphere with 21% oxygen is good for us, then an atmosphere with 100% oxygen would be much better.

Definition
No
Term

Yes or No

 

Since warm air rises, the troposphere is the coolest layer of the atmosphere.

Definition
No
Term

Yes or No

 

Ammonia is a compound that contains nitrogen.

Definition
Yes
Term

Yes or No

 

The colors of the auroras depend on which composition layer of the atmosphere the auroras form in.

Definition
Yes
Term

Yes or No

 

The troposphere is the only atmospheric layer to have winds.

Definition
No
Term

Yes or No

 

Lightning is a natural source of fixed nitrogen.

Definition
Yes
Term

Yes or No

 

The discovery of radiation belts surrounding the earth in 1958 was completely unexpected.

Definition
Yes
Term

Yes or No

 

Most of the sun's energy makes it to the earth's surface.

Definition
No
Term

Yes or No

 

Infrared rays are a form of thermal radiation.

Definition
Yes
Term

Yes or No

 

Exposure to any kind of ultraviolet light in any amount is dangerous and should be avoided.

Definition
No
Term
The ionosphere extends upward from 75 km (47 mi) to a height of about 500 km (311 mi). Which two temperature layers are not contained within the ionosphere?
Definition
troposphere and stratosphere
Term
If the ozone layer extends from about 20 km (12 mi) to 50 km (31 mi) above the earth's suface, in which temperature layer does it fall?
Definition
stratosphere
Term
Which is the hottest layer of the atmosphere? Which is the coldest?
Definition

Hottest: exosphere

Coldest: mesosphere

Term
In which temperature layer do most people live?
Definition
troposphere
Term
Which temperature layersare included in the homosphere?
Definition
troposphere, stratosphere, and mesosphere
Term
What is the name of the mixture of gases that extends up to 80 km (50 mi)?
Definition
homosphere
Term
indirect warming of the atmosphere
Definition
greenhouse effect
Term
rate of solar energy flow that reaches the earth
Definition
solar constant
Term
fast winds that travel in paths in the stratosphere
Definition
jet streams
Term
the steady temperature change associated with altitude change
Definition
lapse rate
Term
the envelope of gases surrounding the earth
Definition
atmosphere
Term
The vitamin D that is produced in our skin is the result of a reaction caused by _________ light.
Definition
ultraviolet (or UV)
Term
The ____________ is a region extending thousands of kilometers into space that includes the Van Allen belts, where charged particles such as protons and electrons have been trapped in two donut-shaped zones around the earth.
Definition
magnetosphere
Term
The ionosphere does not reflect radio waves in the _______ band.
Definition
microwave
Term
Ozone in the atmosphere is made up of _______ oxygen atoms.
Definition
three
Term
Most plants in the world depend on ______ nitrogen produced by soil and marine bacteria.
Definition
fixed
Term
The coldest temperatures of the atmosphere are found at the top of the _______.
Definition
mesosphere
Term
Aircraft that travel long distances fly in the _______ to avoid storms and benefit from the jet streams.
Definition
stratosphere
Term
Joseph Priestley, Karl Scheele, and Antoine Lavoisier are credited with the discovery of _______.
Definition
oxygen
Term
Many creationists believe that the atmosphere is part of the _______, which God created between the waters below and the waters above.
Definition
firmament
Term
Evolutionists believe that the first life forms to appear would have been poisoned by the presence of _______ in the atmosphere.
Definition
oxygen
Term
An example of a greenhouse gas is ___________.
Definition
carbon dioxide or water vapor