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motor learning
gagag
26
Anatomy
12/11/2009

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Cards

Term

 

 

 

 

what is motor learning?

Definition

 

 

 

premanent change in the performance level of a work tat as the result of practrice

Term

 

 

 

 

what is motor skills?

Definition

 

 

 

denotes an act or tast that has a goal to achieve -- need voluntary movement to be performed.

 

this is not a reflex

Term

 

 

 

 

what are characteristics of skillful motor performance?

Definition

 

 

1. production of fast output of hight quality

2. appearance of ease and smoothness of movement

3. aniticipation of variations in the stimulus before it arrives

4. reduces time to make a choice in response

Term

 

 

 

 

what are the types of variables that affect the learning of a motor skill?

Definition

 

 

1. input variables --- understanding stuff--- jim thrope coudnt hit a curve ball for shit

 

2. state of the performer - maturation, tension, motives

 

3. nature of the pratice - mastrured or disrupted?

Term

 

 

 

 

what is gross motor skills?

Definition

 

 

 

 

large musclature as the primary basis of movement -- walking, throwing, jumping..

Term

 

 

 

 

what is the important component that is essential to skilled performance? what is not?

Definition

 

 

 

is not - - percision

is -- smooth coordination

Term

 

 

 

 

what are fine motor skills?

Definition

 

 

 

 

skills that require the ability to control small muscles of the body to acieve the succesful execution of the skill

 

hand eye coordination?

 

 

Term

 

 

 

 

what do physical therapis and occupational therapis usually work with?

Definition

 

 

 

 

pt - gross motor skills

ot - fine motor skills

Term

 

 

 

 

what is the difference b/w dicrete motor skills and continuous motor skills?

Definition

 

 

d- clearly defined beginings and ends points

--- serial motor skills

 

c- arbitrary beginnings and end points

--- swimming..

Term

 

 

 

 

what is the difference between closed and open skills?

Definition

 

 

closed -- environment is stable and predictable

 

 

open -- environment is constantly changing

Term

 

 

 

what are the stages of skill acquisition?

Definition

 

 

 

 

cognitive stage

associative stage

autnomous stage

Term

 

 

 

exaplain the cognitive stage

Definition


- performers needs to understand what needs to be done.

- concered with organization of which movements to make and how to make them


- attempt a mental plan


errors are made frequently and large

Term

 

 

 

 

explain the associative stage

Definition

performers ..

able to reproduce a reasonable approx of the desired movement

 

able to recognize errors

 

use proprioceptives rather than visual information

Term

 

 

 

 

expalin what happens during the autonomous stage

Definition

 

 

 

advanced performers

motor response

practice

very good

variability is small

continuum occurs

Term

 

 

 

 

what is knowledge of results?

Definition

 

 

it is information about the performer by an external source.

 

important for learning in the early stages. because the performer has not develop internal standar of correct performance

Term

 

 

 

 

 

what are the 3 important functions in KR learning?

Definition

 

 

1. guide to error correction

2. reinfoce correct performance

3. motivate the individual towards achieving a performance goal

Term

 

 

 

what does KR need to provide?

Definition

 

 

information that will direct attention to the skill that must be corrected. must give info aout how the learner can correct the error

 

it should not be given for every trial

Term

 

 

 

 

 

what are the three intervals that are associated with KR?

Definition

 

 

1. KR-dely interval -- completion of a response and preceeds presentation (critical time period)

 

2. post KR interval -- follows presentation of KR and to the next response (less critical)

 

3. inter-response interval -- total time between two responses

Term

 

 

 

 

 

explain videotaping as a method of KR.

Definition

 

 

 

 

important for atleast 5 weeks

meaningful information must be presented

its the same as verbal Kr

Term

 

 

 

 

what is the transfer of learning?

how many are there?

Definition

- previously practiced skill on to learning a new skill.

 handball vs squash

 

positive transfer

negative transfer

zero transfer

bilateral transfer

Term

 

 

 

 

what is the differnce betwen positive and negative transfer?

Definition

 

 

 

positive - when previous skill aids the new skills

 

negative -- when previous skills interferes with the new skill -- like forhand shots with badminton and tennis

 

 

Term

 

 

 

 

zero vs bilater transfering

Definition

 

 

zero - previous skills has no influence on the new skill

swimming and driving

 

bilateral -- improvements in performance of one limb as a result of practicing the other. .

 

basketball, soccer, kicking..

Term

 

 

 

 

bilater transfers effets are the result of what?

Definition

 

 

 

cognitive and motor factors

Term

 

 

 

 

what is the purpose of practicing?

Definition

 

 

 

 

to learn to prfrom that skill in situations where you are being tested... in some way

 

if you establish practice conditions . max test will be performed at best

 

Term

 

 

 

 

 

what is mental practice?

Definition

 

 

 

the cognitive rehearsal of a physical skill in the absece of overt physical practice.

 

imaging the actual correct performance of the movement

 

helps with acquisition performance, retention of motor skills,

Term

 

 

 

 

what is the assesment of learning?

Definition

 

 

1. trial performance

2. retention test

3. transfer test.