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Motivation, Stress, and Emotion
Motivation, Stress, and Emotion. duh.
50
Psychology
12/10/2010

Additional Psychology Flashcards

 


 

Cards

Term

Unlike the use of algorithms or heuristics, insight does not involve

A. concepts

B. prototypes

C. cognition

D. strategy-based solutions

E. confirmation bias

Definition
D. strategy-based solutions
Term

AIDS is caused by a ________ infection spread primarily through ________.

A. viral; airborned molecules

B. bacterial; airborne molecules

C. viral; the exchange of bodily fluids

D. bacterial; the exchange of bodily fluids

E. viral; skin contact

Definition
C. viral; the exchange of bodily fluids
Term

The arousal theory of motivation would be most useful for explaining an infant's urge to

A. cry

B. sleep

C. eat

D. explore

E. smile

Definition
D. explore
Term

Anger is to rage as fear is to

A. guilt

B. shame

C. pain

D. disgust

E. terror

Definition
E. terror
Term

A small cluster of neurons, the nucleus accumbens, is highly active when people experience

A. pleasure

B. anger

C. fear

D. depression

E. disgust

Definition
A. pleasure
Term

Which of the following suggestions would be the WORST advice for a dieter?

A. "Minimize your exposure to tempting foods."

B. "Accompany your diet with a sustained exercise program."

C. "Avoid eating during the day so you can enjoy a big meal in the evening."

D. "Reduce your weight gradually over a period of many months."

E. "Eat simple meals with only a few different foods."

Definition
C. "Avoid eating during the day so you can enjoy a big meal in the evening."
Term

Type A is to _________ as Type B is to _________.

A. realistic; idealistic

B. introverted; extraverted

C. hard-driving; easygoing

D. optimistic; pessimistic

E. anxious; neurotic

Definition
C. hard-driving; easygoing
Term

By dramatically reducing her daily caloric intake, Marilyn plans to reduce her normal body weight by 10 to 15 percent.  Research suggests that after three or four weeks of sustained dieting, Marilyn will

A. have a lower fat cell count.

B. experience a decrease in her feelings of hunger.

C. have a lower resting metabolic rate.

D. have a loewr set point for body weight.

E. decrease her number of fat cells.

Definition
C. have a lower resting metabolic rate.
Term

In their dispute over the role of cognition in emotion, both Zajonc and Lazarus agree that

A. cognitive reactions always precede emotional reactions.

B. emotional reactions always precede cognitive reactions.

C. some emotional reactions involve no conscious thinking.

D. cognitive reactions and emotional reactions always occur simultaneously.

E. emotional responses are not perceivable without conscious thinking.

Definition
C. some emotional reactions involve no conscious thinking.
Term

The term catharsis refers to emotional

A. disturbance

B. inhibition

C. release

D. adaptation

E. stress

Definition
C. release
Term

Generating the single correct answer to an intelligence test question illustrates

A. factor analysis

B. convergent thinking

C. reliability

D. standardization

E. the availability heuristic

 

Definition
C. convergent thinking
Term

The suggestion that we share a friend's feelings of joy if we smile with him or her best illustrates the logic of

A. the Cannon-Bard theory

B. the adaptation-level phenomenon

C. the James-Lange theory

D. the catharsis hypothesis

E. the relative deprivation theory

Definition
C. the James-Lange theory
Term

Dean overestimates the proportion of family chores for which he takes sole responsibility because it's easier for him to recall what he has done than to recall what other family members have done.  This best illustrates the impact of

A. overconfidence

B. functional fixedness

C. the representativeness heuristic

D. confirmation bias

E. the availability heuristic

Definition
E. the availability heuristic
Term

Which of the following statements is the most accurate description of the relationship between genetics and eating disorders?

A. Eating disorders are not likely to be predisposed because they are caused by eating habits.

B. Identical twins are more likely to share the disorder than fraternal twins.

C. Body ideals in different cultures change the rates of eating disorders.

D. Fraternal twins are more likely to share the disorder than identical twins.

E. Higher rates of body dissatisfaction in women indicate a genetic predisposition for eating disorders.

Definition
B. Identical twins are more likely to share the disorder than fraternal twins.
Term

Jerome believes that his 4-year-old grandson is a hyperactive child because the boy's constant movement resembles Jerome's prototype of hyperactivity.  Jerome's thinking best illustrates

A. belief perseverance

B. the availability heuristic

C. the representativeness heuristic

D. functional fixedness

E. the framing effect

Definition
C. the representativeness heuristic
Term

Which theory can best explain the results of the experiment in which ocllege men were injected with epinephrine prior to spending time with either a euphoric or an irritated person?

A. Cannon-Bard theory

B. two-factor theory

C. James-Lange theory

D. adaptation-level theory

E. relative-deprivation theory

Definition
B. two-factor theory
Term

Students routinely underestimate how much time it will take them to complete assigned course projects.  This best illustrates the impact of

A. framing

B. functional fixedness

C. the availability heuristic

D. the representativeness heuristic

E. overconfidence

Definition
E. overconfidence
Term

Compared with men, women would probably be better at

A. detecting the emotions of two people having a discussion over lunch.

B. controlling their physiological responses on a guilty knowledge test.

C. interpreting the polygraph test of a suspected criminal.

D. avoiding the facial feedback effect.

E. going through a cathartic experience.

Definition
A. detecting the emotions of two people having a discussion over lunch.
Term

Research on the accuracy of lie detector tests suggests that they

A. are more accurate for men than women

B. are accurate only 50 percent of the time, even when administered by experts.

C. are more likely to declare the innocent guilty that to declare the guilty innocent.

D. are more likely to declare the guilty innocent than to declare the innocent guilty.

E. are most accurate when used by researchers than by law enforcement officials.

Definition
C. are more likely to declare the innocent guilty that to declare the guilty innocent.
Term

Some researchers prefer the term settling point to set point because the typical body weight of an adult is influenced by

A. basal metabolic rate

B. several appetite hormones

C. the lateral and ventromedial hypothalamus

D. environmental and biological factors

E. the brainstem and the cerebral cortex

Definition
D. environmental and biological factors
Term

One gene scan of 40,000 people worldwide identified a variant of a gene called FTO.  This gene nearly doubles the risk of

A. anorexia nervosa

B. a low set point

C. erotic plasticity

D. obesity

E. bulimia

Definition
D. obesity
Term

Twenty-two-year-old Tawana is slightly overweight and loves to eat, particularly snack foods and rich desserts.  Fearful of becoming overweight, she frequently takes a laxative following episodes of binge eating.  Tawana most clearly suffers from

A. bulimia nervosa

B. anorexia nervosa

C. excess PYY

D. an abnormally high set point

E. hypermetabolism

Definition
A. bulimia nervosa
Term

According to the Cannon-Bard theory, body arousal is related to the subjective awareness of emotion in the same way as the ________ is related to the ________.

A. parasympathetic nervous system; thalamus

B. sympathetic nervous system; cortex

C. thalamus; hypothalamus

D. cerebellum; cortex

E. parasympathetic nervous system; sympathetic nervous system

Definition
B. sympathetic nervous system; cortex
Term

Which brain structure  has been found to be especially important in learning to fear specific objects?

A. hypothalamus

B. amygdala

C. corpus callosum

D. hippocampus

E. thalamus

Definition
B. amygdala
Term

Which of the following is clearly NOT an example of an incentive?

A. $1000

B. threat of punishment

C. electric shock

D. smell of popcorn

E. dehydration

Definition
E. dehydration
Term

The term homeostasis literally means

A. "common to all."

B. "unique to humans."

C. "staying the same."

D. "motivational dynamics."

E. "constant stimulation."

Definition
C. "staying the same."
Term

It is very difficult to get someone to change his or her unrealistically negative self-image.  This best illustrates the importance of

A. functional fixedness.

B. belief perseverance.

C. the framing effect.

D. the representativeness heuristics.

E. overconfidence.

Definition
B. belief perseverance.
Term

Many people overestimate how long they actually remain awake during restless nights because their moments of wakefulness are easier to recall than their moments of sleep.  This best illustrates the impact of

A. the representativeness heuristic.

B. confirmation bias.

C. the availability heuristic.

D. functional fixedness.

E. overconfidence

Definition
C. the availability heuristic.
Term

Bulimia nervosa is characterized by

A. losses of 25 percent or more of normal weight.

B. episodes of overeating followed by vomiting.

C. the loss of regular menstrual periods.

D. lifelong obesity.

E. periods of unhealthy eating habits followed by starvation.

Definition
B. episodes of overeating followed by vomiting.
Term

Semantics refers to the

A. logical and methodical procedures for solving problems.

B. orderly arrangement of words into grammatically correct sentences.

C. simple thinking strategies that facilitate quick decision making.

D. rules by which we derive meaning from morphemes, words, and sentences.

E. typical schemes we use to form concepts.

Definition
D. rules by which we derive meaning from morphemes, words, and sentences.
Term

After receiving very bad news, people ________ the duration of their negative emotions.

A. overestimate

B. accurately estimate

C. slightly underestimate

D. radically underestimate

E. reduce

Definition
A. overestimate
Term

Who suggested that "we feel sorry because we cry....afraid because we tremble"?

A. Stanley Schachter

B. William James

C. Walter Cannon

D. Richard Lazarus

E. Charles Darwin

Definition
B. William James
Term

Which of the following is most clarly a form of ostracism?

A. drive reduction

B. self-transcendence

C. cluster migration

D. solitary confinement

E. homeostasis attainment

Definition
D. solitary confinement
Term

Campa Indians in Peru consider roasted ants a delicious delicacy, but this is not the case for most North Americans.  This best illustrates

A. the impact of unit bias on the foods we choose to eat.

B. the role our basal metabolic rate plays in food choices.

C. the influence of culture on food preferences.

D. the complex interaction of appetite hormones and brain activity.

E. our basic need to have our physiological needs met.

Definition
C. the influence of culture on food preferences.
Term

Which of the following is a common misconception about anorexia nervosa?

A. People with anorexia commonly drop 15 percent below normal body weight.

B. Anorexia is only a women's illness.

C. Those at risk for anorexia are not influenced by cultural factors.

D. People with anorexia are more likely to perceive themselves as overweight.

E. Families of people with anorexia tend to be overprotective.

Definition
B. Anorexia is only a women's illness.
Term

In their classic nine-year study, Friedman and Rosenman found that Type A men are especially susceptible to

A. stomach ulcers.

B. cancer.

C. heart attacks.

D. lupus.

E. depression.

Definition
C. heart attacks.
Term

As her professor distributed the mathematics test to the class, Blair's heart started to pound and her palms began to sweat.  These physiological reactions were activated by her _________ nervous system.

A. sympathetic

B. central

C. somatic

D. parasympathetic

E. endocrine

Definition
A. sympathetic
Term

In terms of the role of the family environment on eating disorders, research has discounted which of the following factors?

A. higher rates of childhood obesity

B. competitive, high-achieving families

C. childhood sexual abuse

D. mother's preoccupation with weight and appearance

E. higher-than-usual incidences of negative self-evaluation

Definition
C. childhood sexual abuse
Term

For a thirsty person, drinking water serves to reduce

A. homeostasis

B. a drive

C. an instinct

D. the set point

E. basal metabolic rate

Definition
B. a drive
Term

A drop in basal metabolic rate is most likely to result from

A. high testosterone levels

B. a semistarvation diet

C. erotic plasticity

D. excess leptin

E. decreased testosterone

Definition
B. a semistarvation diet
Term

Observers watching fearful faces show more brain activity in the ________ than do those watching angry faces.

A. cerebellum

B. thalamus

C. amygdala

D. hippocampus

E. medulla

Definition
C. amygdala
Term

The ecology of eating is best illustrated by

A. the set point

B. unit bias

C. homeostasis

D. refractory periods

E. basal metabolic rate

Definition
B. unit bias
Term

Research has demonstrated that in the presence of an authority figure, Japanese men are more likely than American men to mask negative expressions with a smile.  These differences in expressing emotion are best explained by

A. facial feedback

B. the spillover effect

C. display rules

D. the action of the amygdala

E. the feel-good, do-good phenomenon

Definition
C. display rules
Term

With the removal of the ovaries, a woman's natural _________ level drops.

A. testosterone

B. ghrelin

C. orexin

D. PYY

E. basal

Definition
A. testosterone
Term

Babies' first demonstration of productive language occurs

A. prior to the babbling stage

B. during the babbling stage

C. during the one-word stage

D. during the two-word stage

E. after the two-word stage

Definition
C. during the one-word stage
Term

Research on obesity and weight control indicates that

A. one pound is always lost for every 3500-calorie reduction in diet.

B. fat cells are lost when sustained dieting is combined with exercise.

C. once we become fat, we require less food to maintain our eight than we did to attain it.

D. it is easier for people to lose weight on the second or third attempt at dieting than on the first try.

E. obesity is related to learned patterns of behavior, not biological influences.

Definition
C. once we become fat, we require less food to maintain our eight than we did to attain it.
Term

Food deprivation is to _________ as hunger is to __________.

A. homeostasis; thirst

B. incentive; instinct

C. need; drive

D. motivation; emotion

E. anorexia; bulimia

Definition
C. need; drive
Term

During the last four decades, the buying power of Amerians has ________ and their self-reported personal happiness has ________.

A. remained almost unchanged; decreased

B. increased; remained almost unchanged

C. remained almost unchanged; increased

D. remained almost unchanged; remained almost unchanged

E. decreased; decreased

Definition
B. increased; remained almost unchanged
Term

Research on human fear indicates that

A. fear is more often a poisonous emotion than an adaptive one.

B. people but not animals may acquire fear through observational learning

C. people seem to be biologically predisposed to learn some fears more quickly than others

D. genetic factors are unimportant in understanding fearfulness

E. human fears are conditioned rather than predisposed

Definition
C. people seem to be biologically predisposed to learn some fears more quickly than others
Term

Brainstorming sessions that encourage people to spontaneously suggest new and unusual solutions to a problem are designed to avoid

A. heuristics

B. prototypes

C. semantics

D. fixations

E. framing

Definition
D. fixations