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Module 13 Terms (Chapter 16) (AIDS Supplement Not Included)
Terms
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Biology
04/07/2010

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Term
Acrosome
Definition
Cap at the anterior end of a sperm that partially covers the nucleus and contains enzymes to help the sperm penetrate the egg.
Term
Birth Control Method
Definition
Prevents either fertilization or implantation of an embryo in the uterine lining.
Term
Birth Control Pill
Definition
Oral contraceptive containing estrogen and progesterone.
Term
Bulbourethral Gland
Definition
Either of two small structures located below the prostate gland in males; each adds secretion to semen.
Term
Cervix
Definition
Narrow end of the uterus, which projects into the vagina.
Term
Chancre
Definition
Sore that appears on the skin; first sign of syphilis.
Term
Circumcision
Definition
Removal of the prepuce (foreskin) of the penis.
Term
Contraceptive
Definition
Medication or device used to decrease the chance of pregnancy.
Term
Contraceptive Implant
Definition
Birth control method utilizing synthetic progesterone; prevents ovulation by disrupting the ovarian cycle.
Term
Contraceptive Injection
Definition
Birth control method utilizing progesterone or estrogen and progesterone together; prevents ovulation by disrupting the ovarian cycle.
Term
Contraceptive Vaccine
Definition
Under development, this birth control method immunizes against the hormone HCG, crucial to maintaining implantation of the embryo.
Term
Corpus Luteum
Definition
Yellow body that forms in the ovary from a follicle that has discharged its secondary oocyte; it secretes progesterone and some estrogen.
Term
Diaphragm
Definition
A birth control device consisting of a soft rubber or latex cup that fits over the cervix.
Term
Egg
Definition
Female gamete having the haploid number of chromosomes that is fertilized by a sperm, the male gamete.
Term
Endometrium
Definition
Mucous membrane lining the interior surface of the uterus.
Term
Epididymis
Definition
Coiled tubule next to the testes where sperm mature and may be stored for a short time.
Term
Erectile Dysfunction
Definition
Failure of the penis to achieve or maintain an erection.
Term
Estrogen
Definition
Female sex hormone that helps maintain sex organs and secondary sex characteristics.
Term
Female Condom
Definition
Large polyurethane tube with a flexible ring that fits onto the cervix. Functions as a contraceptive and helps minimize the risk of transmitting infection.
Term
Fimbria
Definition
Singular of fimbriae (Similar, but not to be confused with fimbriae from the module 12 notes which are specific to bactera). The fimbriae in terms of the reproductive system are the finger-like projections at the ends of the oviducts that sweep over the ovaries. When an egg bursts from an ovary during ovulation, it is usually swept into an oviduct by the combination of the frimbriae and cilia that line the oviducts.
Term
Follicle
Definition
Structure in the ovary that produces a secondary oocyte and the hormones estrogen and progesterone.
Term
Follicle-Stimulating Hormone (FSH)
Definition
Hormone secreted by the anterior pituitary gland that stimulates the development of an ovarian follicle in a female or the production of sperm in a male.
Term
Gamete
Definition
Haploid sex cell; the egg or a sperm, which join in fertilization to form a zygote.
Term
Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone (GnRH)
Definition
Hormone secreted by the hypothalamus that stimulates the anterior pituitary to secrete follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH).
Term
Human Chorionic Gonadotropin (HCG)
Definition
Hormone produced by the chorion that functions to maintain the uterine lining.
Term
Implantation
Definition
Attachment and penetration of the embryo into the lining of the uterus.
Term
Infertility
Definition
Inability to have as many children as desired.
Term
Interstitial Cell
Definition
Hormone-secreting cell located between the seminiferous tubules of the testes.
Term
Intrauterine Device (IUD)
Definition
Birth control device consisting of a small piece of molded plastic inserted into the uterus; believed to alter the uterine environment so that fertilization does not occur.
Term
Luteinizing Hormone (LH)
Definition
Hormone that controls the production of testosterone by interstitial cells in males and promotes the development of the corpus luteum in females.
Term
Male Condom
Definition
Sheath used to cover the penis during sexual intercourse; used as a contraceptive and, if latex, to minimize the risk of transmitting infection.
Term
Menopause
Definition
Termination of the ovarian and uterine cycles in older women.
Term
Menstruation
Definition
Loss of blood and tissue from the uterus at the end of the ovarian cycle.
Term
Oogenesis
Definition
Production of an egg in females by the process of meiosis and maturation.
Term
Ovarian Cycle
Definition
Monthly follicle changes occuring in the ovary that control the level of sex hormones in the blood and the uterine cycle.
Term
Ovary
Definition
Female gonad that produces eggs and the female sex hormones.
Term
Oviduct
Definition
Tube that transports eggs to the uterus. Also called uterine tube.
Term
Ovulation
Definition
Release of a secondary oocyte from the ovary; if fertilization occurs, the secondary oocyte becomes an egg.
Term
Pap Test
Definition
Analysis done on cervical cells for detection of cancer.
Term
Penis
Definition
External organ in males thorugh which the urethra passes; also serves as the organ of sexual intercourse.
Term
Placenta
Definition
Structure that forms from the chorion and the uterine wall and allows the embryo, and then the fetus, to acquire nutrients and rid itself of wastes.
Term
Progesterone
Definition
Female sex hormone that helps maintain sex organs and secondary sex characteristics.
Term
Prostate Gland
Definition
Gland located around the male urethra below the urinary bladder; adds secretions to semen.
Term
Scrotum
Definition
Pouch of skin that encloses the testes.
Term
Semen
Definition
Thick, whitish fluid consisting of sperm and secretions from several glands of the male reproductive tract.
Term
Seminal Vesicle
Definition
Convoluted structure attached to the vas deferens near the base of the urinary bladder in males; adds secretions to semen.
Term
Seminiferous Tubule
Definition
Long, coiled structure contained within chambers of the testis; where sperm are produced.
Term
Sertoli Cell
Definition
Cell associated with developing germ cells in seminiferous tubule; secretes fluid into the seminiferous tubule and mediates hormonal effects on tubule.
Term
Sperm
Definition
Male gamete having haploid number of chromosomes and the ability to fertilize an egg, the female gamete.
Term
Spermatogenesis
Definition
Production of sperm in males by process of meiosis and maturation.
Term
Testes
Definition
Male gonads the produce sperm and the male sex hormones.
Term
Testosterone
Definition
Male sex hormone that helps maintain sexual organs and secondary sex characteristics.
Term
Tubal Ligation
Definition
Method for preventing pregnancy in which the uterine tubes are cut and sealed.
Term
Urethra
Definition
Tubular structure that receives urine from the bladder and carries it outside the body.
Term
Uterine Cycle
Definition
Monthly occuring changes in the characteristics of the uterine lining (endometrium).
Term
Vagina
Definition
Organ that leads from the uterus to the vestibule and serves as the birth canal and organ of sexual intercourse in females.
Term
Vas Deferens
Definition
Tube that leads from the epididymis to the urethra in males.
Term
Vasectomy
Definition
Method for preventing pregnancy in which the vas deferentia are cut and sealed.
Term
Vulva
Definition
External gentials of the female that surround the opening of the vagina.
Term
Zygote
Definition
Diploid cell formed by the union of sperm and egg; the product of fertilization.