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Mod F, Unit 4, Chapter 9, S&T Study Guide
Mod F, Unit 4, Chapter 9, S&T Study Guide
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Medical
03/19/2013

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Term
Acromegaly
Definition
Overgrowth of bones & soft tissue of the hands, feet, & face in adults when excessive growth hormone is secreted. Overactive GH of the anterior pituitary gland.
Term
Addison Disease
Definition
Deficiency of adrenocortical hormones from the adrenal glands. Due to an underactive adrenal cortex.
Term
Adrenal Glands
Definition
Glands located above the kidney that secrete hormones to control metabolic rate & assist the body during stress.
Term
Adrenocorticotropic Hormone
Definition
AKA ACTH. Stimulates secretion of hormones from adrenal cortex.
Term
Cretinism
Definition
Underproduction of thyroid glands due to congenital reasons, causing low metabolic rate, slow growth, & mental retardation. Underactive thyroid in children.
Term
Cushing Syndrome
Definition
Adrenal cortex oversecretes hormones, resulting in obesity, weakness, hypertension, & hyperglycemia. Also results from ingesting chemicals. Due to an overactive adrenal gland.
Term
Diabetes Mellitus
Definition
Primary disease of the insulin-producing pancreas and the Islets of Langerhans.
Term
Dwarfism
Definition
Undergrowth of bone & body tissue in children. Underactive GH of the anterior pituitary gland.
Term
Follicle Stimulating Hormone
Definition
AKA FSH. Stimulates growth & hormone activity of testes & ovaries (stimulates development of an egg in the ovary).
Term
Gigantism
Definition
Overgrowth of body tissue before puberty; including long bones. Due to an overactive GH of the anterior pituitary gland in children.
Term
Graves Disease
Definition
Oversecretion of thyroid hormone in adults due to an overactive thyroid.
Term
Growth Hormone
Definition
Oversecretion of thyroid hormone in adults due to an overactive thyroid.
Term
Hyperglycemia
Definition
Increase of glucose in the blood.
Term
Hypoglycemia
Definition
Deficiency of glucose in the blood.
Term
Luteinizing Hormone
Definition
AKA LH. Promotes ovulation.
Term
Oxytocin
Definition
Hormone responsible for contractions of the uterus during labor & after childbirth; secreted by the posterior lobe of the pituitary gland.
Term
Pancreas
Definition
organ of the digestive system, but also with an endocrine glandular function because it secretes hormones. Is considered both an exocrine & endocrine gland.
Term
Parathyroid Glands
Definition
Glands located in connective tissue surrounding the thyroid gland. Responsible for regulating the circulation of calcium.
Term
Prolactin
Definition
Promotes growth of breast tissue & milk production.
Term
Prostoglandins
Definition
Large group of hormone-like substances responsible for the regulation of blood pressure, pain threshold, inflammation, & blood clotting. Are chemical mediators, considered steroid hormones, & are produced by cells all over the body.
Term
SAD
Definition
Due to an overactive pineal gland.
Term
Sella Turcica
Definition
Depression in the sphenoid bone in the cranial cavity that holds the pituitary gland.
Term
Target Organ
Definition
Organ containing receptors that cause it to react to certain hormones.
Term
Tetany
Definition
Continuous muscle spasms due to an underactive parathyroid gland.
Term
Thymus Gland
Definition
Endocrine gland & lymphatic organ important to the immune system. Atrophies as a person ages.
Term
Thyroid Function Tests
Definition
AKA TFTs. Blood test to assess the amount of T3, T4, & calcitonin circulating in the blood.
Term
Thyroid Gland
Definition
Gland located in the anterior neck on both sides of the trachea & larynx. Requires iodine to function properly.