Shared Flashcard Set

Details

MIS exam
n/a
104
Management
05/02/2009

Additional Management Flashcards

 


 

Cards

Term
Information Technology (IT)
Definition
Any computer-based tool that people use to work with information and support the information and information-processing needs of an organization
Term
Management information systems (MIS)
Definition
the function that plans, for, develops, implements, and maintains IT hardware, software, and applications that people use to support the goals of an organization
Term
Data
Definition
raw facts that describe the characteristics of an event
Term
Information
Definition
data converted into meaningful and useful context
Term
Hardware
Definition
Consists of the physical devices associated with a computer system
Term
What are the 6 hardware components?
Definition

1. Central Processing Unit (CPU)

2. Primary Storage

3. Secondary Storage

4. Input Devices

5. Output devices

6. Communication Devices

Term
Central processing unit
Definition
The actual hardware that interprets and executes the software instructions and coordinates how all the other hardware devices work together
Term
Primary storage
Definition
The computer's main memory, which consists of the random access memory (RAM), cache memory, and the read-only memory that is directly accessible to the central processing unit (CPU)
Term
Secondary storage
Definition
Equipment designed to store large volumes of data for long-term storage
Term
Input devices
Definition
equipment used to capture information and commands. Example: keyboard, scanner
Term
Output devices
Definition
Equipment used to see, hear, or otherwise accept the results of the information processing requests. Example: monitor, printer
Term
Communication devices
Definition
Equipment used to send information and receive it from one location to another
Term
Random Access Memory (RAM)
Definition
The computer's primary working memory in which program instructions and data are stored so that they can be accessed directly by the CPU via the processor's high-speed external data bus
Term
Software
Definition
The set of instructions that the hardware executes to carry out specific tasks
Term
What helps determine the relative attractiveness of an industry?
Definition
Porter's Five Forces Model
Term
What are the components of Porter's Five Forces Model?
Definition

1. Buyer power

2. Supplier power

3. Threat of substitute products or services

4. Threat of new entrants

5. Rivalry among existing competitors

Term
Business process reengineering (BPR)
Definition
The analysis and redesign of work flow in and between enterprises
Term
Artificial intelligence
Definition
Simulates human intelligence such as the ability to reason and learn
Term
What are the four categories of AI systems?
Definition

1. Expert systems

2. Neural networks

3. Genetic algorithm

4. Intelligent agents

Term
Genetic algorithm
Definition
Mimics the evolutionary, survival-of-the-fittest process to generate increasingly better solutions to a problem. (used when there are thousands of decisions possible)
Term
Intelligent agents
Definition
A special-purpose, knowledge-based information system that accomplishes specific tasks on behalf of its users
Term
Expert systems
Definition
Computerized advisory programs that initiate the reasoning processes of experts in solving difficult problems
Term
Neural networks
Definition
Attempts to emulate the way the human brain works
Term
Supervised machine learning
Definition
Requires previous pattern to compare with
Term
Unsupervised machine learning
Definition
Can find things that are similar in data (doesn't need a pattern)
Term
Internet service provider (ISP)
Definition
A company that provides individuals and other companies access to the Internet along with additional related services, such as Web site building
Term
E-commerce
Definition
The buying and selling of goods over the Internet
Term
E-business
Definition
The conducting of business over the Internet, not only buying and selling, but also serving customers and collaborating with business partners
Term
Encryption
Definition
Scrambles information into an alternative form that requires a key or password to decrypt the information
Term
Public key encryption (PKE)
Definition
An encryption system that uses 2 keys: a public key that everyone can see and a private key for only the recepient
Term
Authorization
Definition
The process of giving someone permission to do or have something
Term
Authentication
Definition
A method for confirming users identities
Term
Enterprises can implement information security lines of defense through ________ first and __________ second.
Definition
People; technology
Term
List the ePolicies
Definition

1. Ethical computer use policy

2. Information privacy policy

3. Acceptable use policy

4. E-mail privacy policy

5. Internet use policy

6. Anti-spam policy

Term
Decision support system (DSS)
Definition
Models information to support managers and business professionals during the decision-making process
Term
What are the characteristics of high-quality information?
Definition

1. Accurate

2. Completeness

3. Consistency

4. Uniqueness

5. Timeliness

6. Relevant

Term
Database
Definition
Maintains information about various types of objects, events, people, places, and transactions
Term
Database management system (DBMS)
Definition
Software through which users and application programs interact with a database
Term
What is the primary task of a DBMS?
Definition
To allow users to create, access, and use information stored in a database
Term
What are the components of a DBMS?
Definition

1. Data definition

2. Data manipulation

3. Application generation and data administration

Term
Data definition component
Definition
Helps create and maintain the data dictionary and the structure of the database
Term
Data manipulation component
Definition
Allows users to create, read, update, and debate information in a database
Term
Application generation component
Definition
Includes tools for creating visually appealing and easy-to-use applications
Term
Data administration component
Definition
Provides tools for managing the overall database environment by providing facilities for backup, recovery, security, and performance
Term
Relational database model
Definition
A type of database model that stores information in the form of logically related two-dimensional tables
Term
Tuple
Definition
A row in a database table; associates a distinct name with each component
Term
Relation
Definition
Consists of a heading and a body. A heading is a set of attributes; a body is a set of tuples
Term
Attribute
Definition
Characteristics or properties of an entity class
Term
First normal form
Definition
Used in database normalization; a relational database model that adheres to 1NFis one that meets a certain minimum set of criteria
Term
Second normal form
Definition
A table in 1NF must meet additional criteria to qualify for 2NF if, and only if, given any candidate key, the non-key attribute depends upon the whole of the candidate key rather than just a part of it
Term
Data dictionary
Definition
A file that stores definitions of information types, identifies the primary and foreign keys, and maintains the relationship among the tables
Term
Primary key
Definition
A field (or group of fields)that uniquely identifies a given entity in a table
Term
Foreign key
Definition
A primary key of one table that appears as an attribute in another table and acts to provide a logical relationship between the 2 tables
Term
Data warehouse
Definition
A logical collection of information--gathered from many different operational databases--that supports business analysis activities and decision-making tasks
Term
Data cleaning
Definition
The act of detecting and correcting (or removing) corrupt or inaccurate records from a record set, table, or database
Term
Data mining
Definition
The process of analyzing data to extract information not offered by the raw data alone
Term
What are the types of data mining analysis?
Definition

1. Cluster analysis

2. Association detection (analysis)

3. Statistical analysis

Term
Cluster analysis
Definition
A technique used to divide an information set into mutually exclusive groups such that the members of each group are as close together as possible to one another and the different groups are as far apart as possible
Term
Association detection (analysis)
Definition
Reveals the degree to which variables are related and the nature and frequency of these relationships in the information
Term
Market-basket analysis
Definition
Analyzes such items such as Web sites and scanner information to detect customer's buying behavior and predict future behavior by identifying affinities among customer's choices of products and services. Example: placing beer and diapers near one another in a grocery store
Term
Statistical analysis
Definition
Performs such functions such as information correlations, distributions, calculations, and variance analysis, just to name a few
Term
Wide area network (WAN)
Definition
A computer network that provides data communication across the country or around the world (the Internet is a WAN that spans the world)
Term
Local area network
Definition
A computer network that uses cable or radio signals to link 2 or more computers within a geographically limited area (a building, school, or home usually contains one LAN)
Term
Network topology
Definition
The geometric arrangement of the actual physical organization of the computers in a network
Term
Bus topology
Definition
All devices are connected to a central cable, called a bus or backbone; relatively inexpensive and easy to install
Term
Star topology
Definition
All devices are connected to a central device called a hub
Term
Ring topology
Definition
A devices are connected to one another in the shape of a closed loop, so that each device is connected directly yo two other devices; relative expensive and difficult to install but can offer high bandwidth and can span large distances
Term
Protocol
Definition
A standard that specifies the format of data as well as the rules to be followed during transmission
Term
Transmission control protocol/Internet protocol (TCP/IP)
Definition
Provides the technical foundation for the public Internet as well as for large numbers of private networks
Term
TCP/IP model
Definition

1. Application

2. Transport

3. Internet

4. Network interface

Term
OSI Model
Definition

7. Application

6. Presentation

5. Session

4. Transport

3. Network

2. Data link

1. Physical

Term
Client/server network
Definition
A model for applications in which the bulk of the back-end processing takes place on a server, while the front-end processing is handled by the clients
Term
Network operating systems (NOS)
Definition
The operating system that runs a network, steering information between computers and managing security and users
Term
Router
Definition
An intelligent connecting device that examines each packet of data it receives and then decides which way to sent it on and its direction
Term
Radio frequency identification (RFID)
Definition
Use active or passive tags in the form of chips or smart labels that can store unique identifiers and relay this information to unique identifiers
Term
Supply chain management (SCM)
Definition
Involves the management of information flows between and among stages in a supply chain to maximize total supply chain to maximize total supply chain effectiveness and profitability
Term
What are the four basic components of SCM?
Definition

1. Supply chin strategy

2. Supply china partners

3. Supply chain operation

4. Supply chain logistics

Term
Bullwhip effect
Definition
When distorted product demand information passes from one entity to the next throughout the supply chain
Term
What factors drive the SCM?
Definition
Visibility, consumer behavior, competition, and speed
Term
Cycle inventory
Definition
The average amount of inventory held to satisfy customer demands between inventory deliveries
Term
Safety inventory
Definition
Extra inventory held in the event demand exceeds supply
Term
Enterprise resource planning (ERP)
Definition
Integrates all departments and functions throughout an organization into a single IT system so that employees can make decisions by viewing enterprisewide information on all business operations
Term
What are the core ERP components?
Definition

1. Accounting and finance

2. Production and materials management

3. Human resources

Term
What are the extended ERP components?
Definition

1. Business intelligence

2. CRM

3. SCM

4. e-business

Term
Collaboration system
Definition
An IT-based set of tools that supports the work of teams by facilitating the sharing and flow of information
Term
Knowledge management
Definition
Involves capturing, classifying, evaluating, retrieving, and sharing information assets in a way the provides context for effective decisions and actions
Term
Tacit knowledge
Definition
The knowledge contained in people's heads
Term
Explicit knowledge
Definition
Consists of anything that can be documented, archived, and codified, often with the help of IT
Term
Systems development life cycle (SDLC)
Definition
The overall process for developing information systems from planning and analysis through implementation and maintenance
Term
What are the phases of the SDLC?
Definition

1. Planning

2. Analysis

3. Design

4. Development

5. Testing

6. Implementation

7. Maintenance
Term
Waterfall methodology
Definition
A sequential, activity-based process in which each phase in the SDLC is performed sequentially from planning through implementation and maintenance; the output of each phase becomes the input for the next phase
Term
Extreme planning (XP) methodology
Definition
Breaks a project into tiny phases, and developers cannot continue onto the next phase until the first one is complete
Term
Object-oriented development
Definition
Emphasizes the benefits of modular and reusable computer code and modeling real-world objects
Term
Implementation phase (of SDLC)
Definition
Involves placing the system into production so users can begin to perform actual business operations with the system
Term
Parallel implementation method
Definition
Using both the old and new systems until it is evident that the new system performs correctly
Term
Phased implementation method
Definition
Implementing the new system in phases until it is evident that the new system performs correctly and then implementing the remaining phase of the system
Term
Cut over (plunge) implementation method
Definition
Discarding the old system completely and immediately using the new system
Term
Project management
Definition
The application of knowledge, skills, tools, and techniques to project activities in order to meet or exceed stakeholder needs and expectations from a project
Term
What are the three primary variables in any project?
Definition
Time, cost, and scope
Term
Insourcing
Definition
A common approach using the profesional expertise within an organization to develop and maintain the organization's IT systems
Term
Outsourcing
Definition
An arrangement by which the organization provides a service or services from another organization that chooses not to perform them in-house
Term
Project risk
Definition
An uncertain event or condition that, if it occurs, has a positive or negative effect on a project objectives
Term
Risk management
Definition
The process of proactive and ongoing identification analysis and response and risk factors
Term
What are the elements of risk management?
Definition

1. Risk identification

2. Qualitative risk analysis

3. Quantitative risk analysis

4. Risk response planning