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Milady's Standard Cosmetology
Chapter 13 Diamond Oaks 2009-2010 Rinsing and Shampooing
126
Cosmetology
09/27/2009

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Cards

Term
While shampoos are primarily given to clean the hair and scalp. What other function does it serve?
Definition
Shampoo initiates the relaxing experience to which the patron has been looking forward with pleasant anticipation.  A patron is likely to make his/her visits to this salon a regular habit.  To be effective, a shampoo must remove all dirt, oils, cosmetics, and skin debris from the scalp and hair shaft.
Term
What are the two types of draping?
Definition

1.  Wet Haircut

2. Chemical services

Term
How often should hair be shampooed?
Definition
Hair should be shampooed as often as necessary, depending on how quickly the scalp and hair become soiled.  As a general rule, oily hair should be shampooed more often than normal or dry hair.
Term
Chemically, what is water composed of?
Definition
Hydrogen and oxygen
Term
Describe Soft Water
Definition
Soft water. Rain water, or water that has been chemically softened, contains very small amounts of minerals, and therefore, lathers freely.  For this reason, it is preferred for shampooing.
Term
Describe hard water.
Definition
Hard water contains certain minerals, and, as a result does not lather very freely.  However, it can be softened by a chemical process and made suitable for shampooing.  Hard water may also change the results of the haircoloring service.
Term
What is the acid balance for Shampoos?
Definition
4.5 to 5.5
Term
Hair is not considered normail if it has been what?
Definition
  • Lightened
  • Toned or Tinted
  • Permanently waved
  • Chemically relaxed
  • Sun bleached
  • Abused by the use of harsh shampoos
  • Damaged by improper care
  • Damaged by exposure to the elements
Term
Define Bleached
Definition
Lightening
Term
When shampooing lightened hair what type of shampoo will you use?
Definition

Mild or low in alkalinity.

Always work with the hands underneath the hair avoid matting the hair

Term
What safety precautions should be used when shampooing.
Definition
  • Do not permit the fingernails to scratch the patron's scalp
  • Do not turn the dryer to "hot" if the patron has high blood pressure.
  • Do not permit water to remain on the floor around the shampoo bowl
  • Clean Shampoo bowl, and sanitize the neck of the bowl after each use.
Term
What type of hairbrush is recommended for hair brushing?
Definition
Hairbrushes made of natural bristles.
Term
Thorough brushing of the hair always should be part of every shampoo and scalp treatment,with the what exceptions
Definition
  1. Do not brush before giving a lightening treatment.
  2. Do not brush before the application of a tint or toner. 
  3. Do not brush before giving a permanent wave.
  4. Do not brush before applying a chemical hair relaxer.
  5. Do not bursh if the scalp is irritated.

** Do not use the comb to loosen scales for the scalp

 

Term
Describe plain shampoo
Definition
Plain shampoos are usually clear and transparent, and may have a natural amber shade or colored a greenish yellow.
Term
If a liquid soap is used to shampoo the hair, what should follow?
Definition
Acid Rinse to counteract its alkaline reaction on the hair.
Term
What would happen if plain shampoo was used on lightened, toned, tinted or damaged hair
Definition
It will strip or fade the color, and may further damage the hair.
Term
What is a soapless oil shampoo?
Definition
Soapless oil shampoos are made from synthetic detergents in which the oils have been treated with sulfuric acid.
Term
What is Liquid Cream Shampoos
Definition
Liquid cream shampoos are usually semi-heavy white liquids and are used primarily on dry hair.  Magnesium stearate also is used as a whitening agent.  Cream shampoos are mostly emulsions.
Term
Describe Acid-Balanced (non-strip) shampoos
Definition
Hair and skin are considered to be slightly acide in nature, with a pH of about 5.5. Shampoos with the same pH (5.5) are considered to be acid balanced, and their use will not distrub or have any effect on the pH of the hair or skin.
Term
Acid-balance shampoos are formulated to prevent what?
Definition
Stripping of tints or toners from the hair.  They are mild in action, contact conditioners, and are low in alkaline content.
Term
What type of shampoo is recommended for brittle, dry, or damaged hair?
Definition
Acid-balanced shampoos.  Follow manufacturer's or instructor's instructions concerning their use.
Term
Anti-dandruff shampoo is used to control what?
Definition
Anti-dandruff shampoos are used to control a dandruff condition of the scalp.  It is important that manufacturer's or instructor's directions be followed when using this type of shampoo.l
Term
Describe Henna shampoo
Definition
The basic color produced by henna is reddish or auburn.  The shade achieved depends on the original color of the hair, the strength of the henna misture, and the length of time the mixture is left in the hair.
Term
Do not use a henna shampoo on what type of hair?
Definition
Blonde, white or grey hair, as it will give the hair an orange color.
Term
Describe liquid dry shampoos
Definition

Liquid dry shampoos are cosmetic products used for cleansing the scalp and hair when the patron is prevented by illness from having a regular wet shampoo.  These shampoos are made from benzene or gasoline.

 

*NOTE - be sure the room is well ventilated.

Term
Why is a powder dry shampoo given?
Definition
A powder dry shampoo is usually given when the patron's health will not permit the giving of a wet shampoo.  A commercial powder dry shampoo containing orris root powder is freely sprinkled into the hair and worked in, one section at a time.
Term
When is an egg shampoo recommended.
Definition
An egg shampoo is recommended for dry, brittle, over-lightened, or tinted hair.  Commercial egg shampoos, containing small amounts of egg, are available.  Apply as directed by manufacturer.  Rinse with cool water.
Term
What is the purposed of Medicated shampoos?
Definition
Medicated shampoos contain special chemicals or drugs which are very effective in reducing excessive dandruff.
Term
Describe Hair Rinse
Definition
A hair rinse consists of water alone or a mixture of water with a mild acid, coloring agent, or special ingredients.
Term
What is the cause of soap scum?
Definition
Minerals are present in all kinds of water; the more minerals, the harder the water.  In soaps, there are fatty acids.  The minerals and fatty acids combine to form a soap scum which dulls the hair and makes it difficult to comb.
Term
True or False
Special acid rinses are now on the market actually remove soap curds from the hair, thus making combing easier, and at the same time, adding brilliance to the hair.
Definition
True
Term
What are the main ingredients of prepared acid hair rinses?
Definition
  • Citric Acid - from the juice of the lime, orange, or lemon
  • Acetic Acid - present in vinegar
  • Lactice Acid - lactose, or sugar of milk

Acid rinses are used to dissolve soap curds, separate the hair, and make soft, pliable, and bright.  An acid rinse also may be used to counteract the alkilinity of hair after tine, lightener, or cold wave application.  Most acid rinses, whether solid or liquid, are dissolved in water before they are used.

Term
What is a cream rinse?
Definition

A cream rinse is a commercial product with a creamy appearance, and it is used as a last rinse.  It tends to soften the hair, add luster, and make tangled hair easier to comb.

A cream rinse does not have the same function as an acid rinse.  Cream rinses ae slightly acid in reaction as a result of the nature of the ingredients used.

Term
Describe Acid balance rinse
Definition
Acid-balanced (non-strip) rinses are formulated to prevent the stripping of color afer a tint or toner application. 
Term
Describe a reconditioning rinse
Definition
A reconditioning rinse is used afer a tint application.  Follow anufacturer's directions.  (ends of hair)
Term
Describe Medication rinse
Definition
Medicated rinses are formulated with some medicinal properties to control minor conditions of dandruff.  Follow manufacturer's instructions.
Term
Describe Color Rinse
Definition
Color rinse are used to highlight or add remporary color to the hair.  These rinses remain on the hair until the next shampoo.
Term
Describe Henna Rinse
Definition
A henna rinse is used as a final rinse to give an auburn tinge to the hair.  It can be used over darker shades, but not over blonde, grey, or white hair.
Term
When should you not use chemical services?
Definition
If you see any disorders.
Term
Preparation of Patron for scalp treatment

True or False

A good natural bristle brush helps to stimulate circulation to the scalp, it also will help to remove dust and dirt from the hair, and give it added luster and sheen
Definition
True
Term
When is scalp massage most effective?
Definition
Scalp massage is most effecte when applied as a series of treatments, once a week for normal scalp, and more frequently for scalp disorders, under the direction of a dermatologist.
Term
Scalp Anatomy, why is it important for a cosmetologist to be familiar with this?
Definition
Knowing the muscles, the location of blood vessels, and the nerve points of the scalp and neck will help guide the cosmetologist to those  areas in which massage movements are to be directed for the most beneficial results.
Term
Describe scalp manipulation technique
Definition
With each massage movement, place the hands under the hair so the length of the fingers, balls of the fingertips and cushions of the palms can stimulate the muscles, nerves, and blood vessels of the scalp area. 
Term
What is the purpose of a general scalp treatment?
Definition
The purpose of a general scalp treatment is to keep the scalp and hair in a clean and healthy condition.  Regular scalp treatments also are beneficial in preventing baldness.
Term
What is dandruff associated with?
with dry or oily scalp condition
Definition
Both.  The mor common causes of dandruff are poor circulation of blood to the scalp, improper diet, uncleanliness, and infection.  To prevent the spread of dandruff in the beauty salon, the cosmetologist must sanitize all implements and avoid the common use of combs, brushes, and scalp applicators.
Term
What is the procedure for Dandruff treatment?
Definition
Apply infra-red lamp for about 5 minutes and give scalp manipulations, using indirect high-frequency current.
Term
How do you treat dry scalp?
Definition
This treatment should be used when there is a deficiency of natural oil on the scalp and hair.  Procedure - give mild shampoo and stimulate the scalp with direct high-frequency current, using the glass rake electrode, for about 5 minutes.
Term
What causes oily hair and how would you treat it?
Definition

Excessive oiliness is caused by the over-activity of the sebaceous (oil) glands.  Any hardened sebum in the pores of the scalp will be removed with the correct degree of pressing and squeezing. 

Procedure:

  1. Apply a medicated scalp lotion to the scalp only with a cotton pledget.
  2. Apply infra-red lamp for abut 5 minutes
  3. Apply infr-red lamp for about 5 minutes
  4. Give scalp manipulations.
  5. Apply direct high-grequency currnt for 3-5 minutes.
Term
When do you apply Creams and ointments when using high-frequency current?
Definition
Creams or ointments may be applied before using high-frequency current .  Hair tonics or lotions with alcoholic contnent may be applied only after the application of high-frequency current.
Term
Describe a Corrective Hair treatment
Definition
A corrective hair treatment deals with the hair shaft, not the scalp.  Dry and damaged hair can be greatly imporved by conditioners.  Hair treatment are especially beneficial and extremely important when given approximately a week or 10 days before, and a week or 10 days after, a permanent wave, tint, lightener, toner, or chemical hair straightening treatment.
Term
How do you treat Alopecia?
Definition

Alopecia refers to a condition of premature baldness or excessive hair loss.  The chief causes of alopecia are poor circulation, lack of proper stimulation, improper nourishment, certain infectious skin diseases, such as ringworm, or constitutional disorders.  The treatment for alopecia is directed to stimulating the blood supply to the scalp and reviving the hair papillae involved in hair growth. 

Procedure:  apply a medicatedscalp ointment as directed by a physician. Apply infra-red light for about 5 minutes and give scalp manipulations  You may use the faradic or indirect high-frequency current.

Term
What is the treatment for Alopecia Areata
Definition

Alopecia areata is a disorder causing baldness in spots.  This condition may be treated under the direction of a physician.

Procedure:  Expose the scalp to ultra-violet rays for 5-10 minutes, especially the bald spots. Apply high-frequency current for about 5 minutes.  If an ointment is used, apply direct current; if a lotion is used, aply indirect current.

Term
What is the pH values of the following:
Citric Acid
Color Rinses
Neutralizer
Conditioners
Cream Rinse
Acid Balance Shampoo
Hair and Skin
Acid Perm
Definition
Citric Acid - 2
Color Rinses - 2 - 3
Neutralizer -3 - 4
Conditioners - 4
Cream Rinse - 4
Acid Balance Shampoo - 4.5 - 5.5
Hair and Skin - 5.5
Acid Perm - 6
Term
What is the pH value of Pure Water?
Definition
Pure Water pH value = 7
Term
What is the pH balance for:
plan shampoo
lighteners (bleaching)
Cold Wave solution (Perm) thio
Soaps
hair color
Depliatories (waxing)
Sodium Hydroxide (relaxer)
Definition
plan shampoo - 8.5 - 9.5
lighteners (bleaching) - 9.5 - 10.5
Cold Wave solution (Perm) thio - 9.5 - 10.5
Soaps - 9.5 - 10.5
hair color 9.5  10.5
Depliatories (waxing) - 10 - 14
Sodium Hydroxide (relaxer) - 10 - 14
Term
What are the three types of pH values?
Definition

1.  Acid

2. Neutral

3. Alkaline

Term
Names the parts of a strand of hair.
Definition
  1. Medulla
  2. cortex
  3. cuticle
  4. hair shaft or stem
  5. root
  6. sebaceous or glands
  7. arrector (Pilli)
  8. Bulb
  9. Papilla
  10. Hair Follicle
  11. Epidermis or Outer layer
Term
Create the layers of the hair.
Definition

1. Cuticle

2. Medulla

3. Cortex

Term
Define acid-balanced shampoo
Definition
Shampoos that are balanced to the pH of skin and hair (4.5 to 5.5)
Term
Define Balancing Shampoos
Definition
Shampoos that wash away excess oiliness from oily hair and scalp, while preventing the hair fromdrying out.
Term
Define clarifying shampooos
Definition
Shampoos containing an acidic ingredient such as cider vinegar to cut through product buildup that can flatten hair; also increase shine.
Term
Define Color-enhancing shampoos
Definition
Shampoos created by comving the surfactant base with basic color pigments.
Term
Define conditioners
Definition
Special chemical agents applied to the hair to deposit protein or moisturizer, to help restore its strength and give it body, or to protect it against possible breakage.
Term
Define conditioning or moisturizing shampoos
Definition
Shampoos designed to make the hair smooth and shiny, avoid damage to chemically treated hair, and improve manageability of the hair.
Term
Define deep-conditioning treatments
Definition
Chemical mixtures of concentrated protein and the heavy cream base of a moisturizer; used to provide treatments when an equal degree of moisturizing and protein treatment is required
Term
Define dry or powder shampoo
Definition
Shampoos that cleanse the hair without the use of soap and water.
Term
Define hard water
Definition
Water containing certain minerals that reduce the ability of saop or shampoo to lather.
Term
Define humectants
Definition
Substances that absorb moisture or promote the retention of moisture.
Term
Define hydrophilic
Definition
Capable of combining with or attracting water
Term
Define Instant Conditioners
Definition
Conditioners that wither remain on the hair for a very short period (1 to 5 minutes) or are left in the hair during styling (leave in conditioners)
Term
Define Lipophilic
Definition
Capable of attracting oil
Term
Define medicated scalp lotions
Definition
Conditioners that promote healing of the scalp.
Term
Define medicaited shampoos
Definition
Shampoos containing special chemicals or drugs for reducing excessive dandruff or relieving other scalp conditions.
Term
Define Moisturizers
Definition
Products formulated to add moisture to dry hair, with a heavier formulation than instant conditioners and a longer application time.
Term
Define nonstripping
Definition
Description of porducts that do not remove artificial color from the hair.
Term
Define protein conditioners
Definition
Porducts designed to slightly increase hair diameter with a coating action, thereby adding body to the hair.
Term
Define scalp astringent lotions
Definition
Products used to remove oil accumulation from the scalp; used after a scalp treatment and before styling.
Term
Define soft water
Definition
Rain water or chemically softened water that lathers easily with soap or shampoo.
Term
Define Spray-on thermal protectors
Definition
Products applied to hair prior to any thermal service to protect it from the harmful effects of blow-drying, thermal irons, or electric rollers.
Term
Define surfactants
Definition
Cleansing or surface active agent.
Term
Name the Eleven Bones on the Head
Definition
  • Parietal Bone
  • Occipital Bone
  • Temporal Bone
  • Frontal Bone
  • Spenoid Bone
  • Ethmoid Bone
  • Lacrimal Bone
  • Nasal Bone
  • Zygomatic Bone
  • Maxilla
  • Mandilla
Term
What is one of the most important esperiences a stylist provides to the customer?
Definition

A Shampoo, which can be heavenly

 

**Keep in mind a shampoo can also be forgettable or even a nightmare.

Term
What helps set the mood of a clients appointment?
Definition
Shampooing is an important preliminary step that prepares the hair for a variety of services, it can also be a soothing, pleasurable experience thtat sets the mood for the entire visit.  The shampoo is an opportunity to provide the cleint with quality relaxation time in the salon that is free froom the stresses of the day.  It can be burturing and, when done well, feel as good as an overall body massage.  Remember: If a client is happy with her shampoo, she is far more likely to be happy with her entire service.
Term
What opportunity does a shampoo provide to you as a stylist.
Definition
The shampoo provides a good opportunity to analyze the client's hair and scalp.  Always check for these conditions: (1) Dry, dehydrated hair; (2) dry, tight scalp; (3) Oily scalp, (4) abnormal flaking on the scalp, (5) open wounds or scalp irritations, (6) scalp disorders or diseases, (7) thinning, and (8) excessive hair left in the sink trap after shampooing.
Term
When should a salon assistants (shampoo person) alert the stylist?
Definition
A shampoo assistent should always alert the stylist about any hair or scalp conditions, including suspected diseases or disorders.
Term
What is the primary purpose of a shampoo?
Definition
To cleanse the hair and scalp prior to receiving a service.
Term
What does an effective shampoo remove from the hair?
Definition

Dirt

Oils

Cosmetics

Skin Debris

 

* Keep in mind you do not want to adversely affect with the scalp or hair.  The scalp and hair need to be cleansed regularly to combat the accumulation of oils and perspiration that mis with the natural scales and dirt to crate a bredding ground for disease producing bacteria.

Term
What is the meaning of the 1st and 2nd shampoo?
Definition

1st shampoo -  Cleanse hair and scalp

2nd shampoo - Relaxation

Term
How do you select a shampoo for your client?
Definition
Select a shampoo according to the condition of the client's hair and scalp.
Term
When is hair not considered normal or virgin?
Definition
If it has been lightened, colored, permed, chemically relaxed, abused by the use of harsh  shampoos, or damaged by improper care and exposure to the elements, such as wind, sun, cold or heat.
Term
True or False
Using the right hair care products at home can make all the difference in how your clients' hair looks, feels,and behaves. It is the stylist job to recommend and educate the client about which productus they should be using, as well as how and why.
Definition
True
Term
Understanding _____ Level will help you select the proper shampoo for your client.
Definition
pH Level
Term
What is the pH level range for a solution that is alkaline or acid based on the amount of hydrogen?
Definition
0 - 14
Term
A shampoo that is acidic can have a pH ranging from ____ to _____.
Definition
0 to 6.9
Term
A shampoo that is alkaline can have a pH rate of _____ or _______.
Definition
7.1 or higher
Term
True or False
The less alkaline the shampoo, the stronger and harster the shampoo.
Definition
False
Term
If your shampoo has a high pH level, what will it do to the hair?
Definition
Leaves the hair dry, brittle, and porous and cause fading in color-treated hair. 
Term
A slightly _________ shampoo more closely matches the ideal pH of hair.
Definition
Acidic
Term
What is water classified as?
Definition
It is classified as a "universal solvent" because it is capable of dissolving more substances than any other solvent known to science.
Term
Boiling water as what temperature will destroy most microbes?
Definition
212 degrees F
Term
Is it important when working in your salon to know if your water is hard or soft?
Definition
Yes it is important.  A water softener company can help detemine if you have hard or soft water and to what degree. (soft, slightly hard, moderately hard, hard, or extremely hard)
Term
An Acid-balanced shampoo is balanced to the pH of skin and hair. What is that pH balance range?
Definition
4.5 to 5.5
Term
What do you add to shampoo to make a shampoo acid balanced?
Definition
Addition of Citric, Lactic or Phosphoric acid.
Term
What do some experts believe that an acid pH of 4.5 to 5.5 is essential to prevent what?
Definition
Excessive dryness and hair damage during the cleansing process.  Acid balanced shampoos help to close tehe hair cuticle and are recommended for hair that has been color treated or lightened.
Term
What is the purpose of conditioning or moisturizing shampoos?
Definition
To make the hair smooth and shiny, avoid damage to chemically treated hair, and improve manageability of the hair. 
Term
What are two examples of conditioning agents that boost shampoos so that they can meet current gooming needs?
Definition
Protein and Biotin.
Term
What does Protein and Biotin do for the hair?
Definition
Restore moisture and elasticity, strengthen the hair shaft, and add volume.  They also are nonstripping, meaning that they do not remove artificial color from the hair.
Term
What type of shampoo do you use for hairpieces and wigs?
Definition
Prepared wig-cleaning solutions are available for these hair enhancements.
Term
What are the three basic types of Conditioners (Reconstructores, Hair Masks)
Definition
1. Rinse-Out
2. Treatment or repair
3. Leave-in
Term
Conditioners can build up on _____ _____ and make your hair heavy and oily, leadiing you to think that it is time to shampoo again.
Definition
Hair Shaft
Term
The cuticle, or outermost layer, is made up of _________ _________.
Definition
Overlapping scales.
Term
True or False
A healthy cuticle lies down smoothly and reflects light, giving the appearance of shiny hair.
Definition
True
Term
True or False
Conditioners smooth the cuticle and do not coat the hair shaft to achieve shiny hair.
Definition
False. It will coat the hair shaft.
Term
What makes up 90 percent of the hair strand?
Definition
Cortex
I can be penetrated with protein conditioners to temporarily reconstruct the hair. Moisturizing conditioners also contain humectants that attract moisture from the air and are absorbed into the cortex.
Term
What does an instant conditioners contain to improve the appearance of dry, brittle hair.
Definition
Humectants
Term
What is the pH range for most conditioners?
Definition
3.5 to 6.0
Term
What is the application time for moisturizers?
Definition
10 to 20 minutes. Moisturizers are formulated to penetrate and to have longer staying power.
Term
Define Scalp conditioners
Definition
Usually found in a cream base, are used to soften and improve the health of the scalp.  They contain moisturizing and emollient ingredients.
Term
Correct hair brushing stimulates ______ ________ tothe scalp; helps to remove dust, dirt and hair-spray buildup from the hair; and gives hair added shine
Definition
Blood Circulation
Term
What are the three exceptions to hair brushing?
Definition

1. Do not brush before giving a chemical service.

2. Do not brush if the scalp is irritated.

3. Never brush the scalp

Term
What are the Hair services that you should not be burshing, shampooing or massaging the scalp?
Definition

1.  Single-process and double-process haircolor

2. Highlighting

3. Most chemical relaxers (follow manufacturer's directions)

4. Some temporary and semipermanent haircolor (follow manufacturer's directions)

Term
What are the two basic requirements for a healthy scalp?
Definition

1. Cleaniness

2. Stimulation

Term
How often should you perform a scalp massage when there is a scalp disorder present?
Definition

Greater than once a week in conjuction with treatment by a dermatologist.

 

Do not massage or manipulaate a client's scalp if abrasions are present.

Term
True or False
Scalp massage is performed after the shampoo?
Definition
False, massage prior to the shampoo
Term
Clean up and Sanitation
Describe the process
Definition

1.  Discard used materials. Place unused supplies in proper place.

2. Dispose of soiled towels.  Place soiled towels in hamper.

3.  Remove hair from combs and brushes.  Disinfect for the required time.

4.  Sanitize shampoo bowl.  Disinfect shampoo bowl after each client.

5.  Wash hands.  Wash you own hands with soap and warm water. 

Term
Describe applying dry shampoo.
Definition
For the most part, you will be applying the powder directly to the hair from scalp to the ends, and then brushing through with a natural bristle brush to remove oil and dirt.