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Milady's Standard Cosmetology
Chapter 5 Diamond Oaks 2009-2010 Infection Control
121
Cosmetology
09/25/2009

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Term
OSHA
Definition
The Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA). Created to regulate and enforce safety and health standards to protect employees in the workplace. Regulating employee exposure to potentially toxic substances and informing employees about possible hazards of materials used in the workplace.
Term
Hazard Communication Act
Definition
requires that chemical manufacturers and importers assess the hazards associated with their products.
Term
Material Safety Data Sheets (MSDS)
Definition
created as a result of the Hazard Communication Act.
Term
Why is OSHA important to the cosmetology industry?
Definition
Because of the products used in salons. The OSHA standards address issues relating to handling, mixing, storing, and disposing of products, general safety in the workplace, and, most importantly, your right to know the hazardous ingredients in the products you use.
Term
What does the law require from manufacturers regarding products sold?
Definition
Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS)
Term
What does a MSDS form include?
Definition
Information about hazardous ingredients, safe use and handling procedures, precautions to reduce the risk of harm and overexposure, flammability and data in case of fire, proper disposal guidelines, and medical information should anyone have a reaction to the product. When necesary , the MSDS can be sent to a docor, so that any reaction can be properly treated
Term
What are the two types of disinfectants used in salons?
Definition
1. Hospital
2. Tuberculocidal
Term
Tuberculocidal
Definition
Tuberculocidal disinfectants are proven to kill the bacteria that causes tuberculosis, which is more difficult to kill. (these products are also hospital products)
Term
Why do State Regulatory Agencies exist?
Definition
State regulatory agencies exist to protect the consumers health, safety and welfare while receiving services in the salon These include licensing agencies, state boards of cosmetology, commissions, and health departments.
Term
What type of penalties can be issued from an agency?
Definition
Penalties against both the salon owner and the operator's license ranging from warnings to fines, probation and suspension or revocation of licenses.
Term
What are three types of potentially infectious microorganisms that are important in the practice of cosmetology?
Definition
1. Bacteria
2. Fungus
3. Virus
Term
What disinfectants are used in a salon?
Definition
1. Bactericidal
2. Fungicidal
3. Viruscidal
meaning that when these are mixed and used according to the instructions on the label, these will kill potentially infectious bacteris, fungi and viruses.
Term
Bacteria
Definition
are one-celled microorganisms with both plant and animal characteristics. Bacteria are small they can only be seen with a microscope.
Term
What are the two primary types of Bacteria?
Definition
1. Nonpathogenic
2. Pathogenic
Term
Define nonpathogenic
Definition
completely harmless; do not cause disease
Term
Define Pathogenic
Definition
Pathogenic are considered harmful because they may cause disease or infection when they invade the body.
Term
What are the classifications of Pathogenic Bacteria?
Definition

 

 

1. Cocci

2. Bacilli

3. Spirilla

Term
Define Cocci
Definition

Cocci are rounded-shaped bacteria that appear singly (alone) or in the following groups.

 

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Term
Define Staphylococci
Definition

Staphylococci Pus-forming bacteria that grow in clusters like a bunch of grapes. They cause abscesses, pustules, and boils.

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Term
Define Streptococci
Definition

Streptococci - Pus-forming bacteria arranged in curved lines resibling a string of beads. They cause infections such as strep throat and blood poisoning.

[image]

Term
Define Diplococci
Definition

Diplococci - spherical bacteria that grow in pairsand cause diseases such as pneumonia.

[image]

Term
Define Bacilli
Definition

Bacilli are short rod-shaped bacteria. They are the most common bacteris and produce diseases such as tetanus (lockjaw), typhoid fever, tuberculosis, and diphtheria.

[image]

Term
Define Spirilla
Definition

Spirilla are spiral or corkscrew-shaped bacteris. They are subdivided into subgroups, such a Treponema papillida, which causes syphilis, a sexually transmitted disease (STD) or Borrelia burgdorferi, whch causes Lyme disease

[image]

Term
Cocci rarely show _____________
Definition
active motility (self movement)
Term
What type of movement is seen with Bacilli and Spirilla
Definition
Bacilli and spirilla are both motile and use slender, hairlike extensions, known as flagella or cilia, for locomotion. A whiplike motion of these hairs moves the bacteria in liquid.
Term
Define Bacteria (singular bacterium)
Definition
One-celled microorganisms with both plant and animal characteristics.  Some are harmful, som are harmless.  Also known as microbes or germs.
Term
Define Infectious
Definition
Communicable by infection from one person to another person or from one infected body part to another
Term
Define Mircobes/germs
Definition
Nonscientific synonyms for disease-producing bacteria.
Term
Define Microorganism
Definition
Any organism of microscopic to submicroscopic size.
Term
Define -ology
Definition
Suffix meaning "study of" (e.g., microbiology)
Term
Define parasite
Definition
an oganism that grows, feeds, and shelters on or in another organism, while contributing nothing to the survival of that organism
Term
Define Toxin
Definition
Any of various poisonous substances produced by some microorganisms.
Term
Define Virus (plural viruses)
Definition
A parasitic submicroscopic particle that infects cells of biological organisms.  A virus is capable of replication only through taking over the host cell's reproduction machinery.
Term
What are the two distinct phases of the life cycle of bacteria?
Definition

1.  Active Stage

2. Inactive or Spore-forming stage

Term
Describe the active stage of Bacteria
Definition
During the active stage, bacteria grow and reproduce.  Bacteria multiply best in warm, dark, damp, or dirty places where food is available.  Then conditions are favorable, bacteria grow and reproduce. 
Term
What happens when a Bacteria in the active stage reaches its largest size?
Definition
The cell divide into two new cells.
Term
What are the characteristics of the bacteria Anthrax and Tetanus Bacilli in an Inactive or Spore-forming stage?
Definition
Certain bacteria, such as the anthrax and tetanus bacilli, coat themselves with waxy outer shells that are able to withstand long periods of famine, dryness, and unsuitable temperatures. 
Term
What are the characteristics of the bacteria Anthrax and Tetanus Bacilli in an active stage?
Definition
Favorable conditions are restred, the spores change into the active form and begin to grow and reproduce.  Although spores are dangerous if they enter the body during a surgical procedure and become active, they pose little to no risk to clients in a salon.
Term
Define Allergy
Definition
Reaction due to extreme sensitivity to certain foods, chemicals, or other normally harmless substances.
Term
Define Contagious Disease
Definition
Disease that is communicable or transmittable by contact.
Term
Define contamination
Definition
The presence, or the reasonably anticipated presence, of blood or other potentially infectious materials on an item surface or visible debris/residues such as dust, hair, skin, etc.
Term
Define Diagnosis
Definition
Determination of the nature of a disease from its symptoms.
Term
Define Disease
Definition
Abnormal condition of all or part of the body, organ, or mind that makes it incapable of carrying on normal function.
Term
Define Exposure Incident
Definition
Contact with non-intact skin, blood, body fluid or other potentially infectious materials that results from performance of an employees duties (previously called blood spill)
Term
Define Infectious Disease
Definition
Disease caused by pathogenic microorganisms that are easily spread.
Term
Define inflammation
Definition
Condition in which a part of the body reacts to protect itself from injury, irritation, or infection, characterized by redness, heat, pain, and swelling.
Term
Define Occupational Disease
Definition
Illnesses resulting from conditions associated with employment, such as prolonged and repeated overexposure to certain products or ingredients.
Term
DEfine Parasitic Disease
Definition
Disease is caused by parasites, such as lice and ringworm.
Term
Define Pathogenic Disease
Definition
Disease produced by disease-causing organisms, including bacteria, virus, and fungi.
Term
Define Systemic Disease
Definition
Disease that affects the body generally, often due to under or over-functioning of internal glands/organs.
Term
Define Parasite
Definition
Parasites are plant or animal organisms that live in, or on, another living organism and draw their nourishment from that organism (referred to as a host)  They must have a host to survive.
Term
When does an infection occur?
Definition
An infection occurs when body tissues are invaded by disease-causing or pathogenic bacteria.
Term
Define Pus
Definition
Pus is a fluid created by tissue inflammation, and contains white blood cells, bacteria, and dead cells.  The presence of pus if a sign of a bacterial infection.
Term
What type of bacteria is one of the most common human bacteria?
Definition
Staphylococci
Term
What are some examples of how Staphylococi can be transmitted?
Definition
Staph can be picked up on doorknobs, countertops, and other surfaces, but is more frequently spread through skin-to-skin contact, such as shaking hands or using unclean implements. 
Term
What type of bacteria is responsible for food poisoning and a wide range of diseases like toxic shock synfrome?
Definition
Staph
Term
What are the symptoms of a Staph Infection?
Definition
Symptoms ususally appear as skin infections, such as pimples and boils that can be very difficult to cure and have resulted in death.
Term
Define a local infection
Definition
A local infection, such as a pimple or abscess, is one that is confined to a particular part of the body and is indicated by a lesion containing the pus. 
Term
Define General Infection
Definition
A general infections results when the bloodstream carries the bacteria or virus and their toxins (poison) to all parts of the body.
Term
Provide an example of a contagious or communicalbe disease
Definition
Syphilis
Term
List some of the more common contagious diseases that will prevent a salon profession from servicing a client
Definition

1.  Common Cold

2. Ringworm

3. Conjunctivitis (pinkeye)

4. Viral Infections

Term
What is the chief source for spreading infections?
Definition
Dirty hand and implements; open sores, pus, mouth and nose discharges; and shared drinking cups, telephone receivers, and towels.  Uncovered coughing or sneezing and spitting in public also spread germs.
Term
What does a virus cause?
Definition

1.  Common colds

2. Respiratory infections

3. Gastrointestinal infection

4.  Measles

5. Mumps

6. Chicken pox

7. Small poxs

8. Rabies

9. Yellow Fever

10. Hepatitis

11. Polio

12. Influenza

13. HIV

Term
What causes Hepatitis?
Definition
Bloodborne virus
Term
What organ does hepatitis damage?
Definition
Liver
Term
Which disease is easier to contract? Hepatitis or HIV
Definition
Hepatitus, because it is present in all body fluids of infected individuals.
Term
What are the three types of Hepatitis that would cause concern in a salon?
Definition

1. Hepatitis A

2. Hepatitis B

3. Hepatitis C

Term
Which form of Hepatitis is the most difficult to kill?
Definition
Hepatitis B is the most difficult to kill on a surface, so check your label of the disinfectant you use to be sure that the product is effective against it.
Term
What does HIV stand for?
Definition
Human Immunodeficiency Virus
Term
What does AIDS mean?
Definition
Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome
Term
What does AIDS do to the Human body?
Definition
Breaks down the body's immune system
Term
How is HIV spread from person to person?
Definition
Through blood and through other body fluids, such as semen and vaginal secretions.
Term
True or False
People who are HIV positive are always tested so they know if they would infect another person?
Definition

False

Some people have never been tested and do not know they are infecting other people.

Term
How is the HIV virus spread?
Definition
mainly through the sharing of needles by intravenous (IV) drug users, and less often by unprotected sexual contact or accidents with needles in healthcare settings.
Term
How is HIV not spread?
Definition
Holding hands, hugging, kissing, sharing food or household items like the telephone, or even toilet seats.   There ae no documented cases of the virus being spread by food handlers, insects, or casual contact, or hair, skin and nail salon services.
Term
Provide examples of bloodborne pathogens.
Definition

Hepatitis

HIV

Term
True or False
A bloodborne pathogen can be spread by shaving, nipping, clipping, facial treatments, waxing or tweezing any time the skin is broken. Use great care to avoid damaging clients' skin during any type of service.
Definition
True
Term
True or False
Does a parasite need a host to survive?
Definition
True
Term
How do pathogens enter the body?
Definition

1. Broken skin, such as a cut or scratch - intact skin is an effective barrier to infection

2. the mouth (contaminated water, food or fingers)

3.  the nose (inhaling dust)

4. the eyes or ears (less likely, but possible)

5. unprotected sex

Term
How does the body prevent and control infections?
Definition

1.  healthy, unbroken skin - the body's first line of defense

2. body secretions, such as perspiration and digestive juices

3. white blood cells within the blood that destroy bacteria

4.  antitoxins that counteract the toxins procuded by bacteria and viruses.

Term
List examples of fungi
Definition

1.  Molds

2. Mildews

3. Yeast

 

Fungi produces contagious diseases, such as ringworm.

Term
What is the most common type of infection encountered?
Definition
Tinea Barbae (Barber's itch)
Term
How should you clean clippers?
Definition
Cleaning clippers of all visible hair, then disinfecting properly reduces the risk of spreading skin and scalp infections.  Using compressed air to clean clipper blades is very effecive and saves time.
Term
How is nail fungus spread?
Definition
Nail fungus can be spread by using dirty implements or by not properly preparing the surface of the naural nail before enhancement procedures are applied.
Term
What has the FDA determined is not effective in the eliminating fugal infections?
Definition
 The FDA has determined that topical treatments applied directly to the fingernails, skin, and toenails are not effective in eliminating fungal infections.
Term
What is the skin disease caused by an infestation of head lice?
Definition

Pediculosis Capitis.

 

Head lice are another type of parasite responsible for contagious disease and conditions

Term
What is Scabies?
Definition
Scabies is another contagious skin disease that is caused by the itch mite, which burrows under the skin.
Term
True or False
Contagious diseases and conditions caused by parasites should only be treated by a cosmetoligist.
Definition
False - they should only be treated by a doctor.
Term
Contaminated countertops, tools and equipment should be thoroughly cleaned and then disinfected for ______ minutes with a EPA registered disinfectant or bleach solution.

How many minutes?
Definition
10 minutes
Term
Define Immunity
Definition

Immunity is the ability of the body to destroy and resist infection.  Immunity against disease can be either natural or acquired, and is a sign of good health.

 

Natural Immunity - is partly inherited and partly developed through helathy living.

 

Acquired immunity - is immunity that the body develops after overcoming a disease, or through inoculation (such as flu vaccinations)

Term
What are the three steps to decontamination?
Definition

1. Sanitation

2. Disinfection

3. Sterilization

Term
What is Sanitation or Sanitizing?
Definition

Cleaning.

 

Using a disinfectant without cleaning first is like using mouthwash without brushing your teeth - it does not work properly. 

 

Cleaned surfaces can still harbor pathogens, but they are much less likely to spread infections.

Term
List the methods of cleaning
Definition

1. Scrubbing with a brush

2.  Using an ultrosonic unit

3. Using a solvent (i.e. on metal bits for electric files)

Term
What is Disinfection?
Definition
Disinfection is the process that kills most, but not necessarily all, microorganisms on non living surfaces. 
Term
Define Disinfectants
Definition

Disinfectants are chemical agents that destroy all bacteria, fungi, and viruses, but not spores, on surfaces.  Disinfectants are not for use on human skin, hair or nails.

 

Do not put your fingers directly into any disinfecting solution - these are pesticides and can be harmful to the skin if absorbed through the skin.  If yo mix a disinfectant in a container that is not labeled by the manufacturer, it must be labeled with the contents and the date mixed.

Term
Define Exposure incident
Definition
Contact with non-intact skin, blood, body fluid or other potentially infectious materials that results from peerformance of an employees duties.
Term
What is sterilization?
Definition
Sterilization is the complete elimination of all microbial life, including spores, and is necessary only when surgical instruments cut into the vascular layers of the ody (this does not mean an accidental cut)
Term
What of the methods sterilization?
Definition

1. High-pressure steam

2. Dry Heat Autoclaves

3. Some Chemicals

 

Simply exposing instruments to steam, is not enough.  To be effective against disease-causing pathogens, the steam must be pressurized  (i.e. autoclave.  Dry Heat forms of sterilization are less efficient and require longer times at higher temperatures. 

Term
Describe the proper use of an autoclave.
Definition
An autoclave requires cleaning, sterile rinse, and disinfection for 10 minutes in an EPA-registered Hospital germicide before sterilizing.
Term
True or False
All EPA Disinfectants, even aerosol spray products for clippers, require 5 minute contact on precleaned, hard, nonporous surfaces. Alcohol (70% or higher) is also used to disinfect abrasive nail files and buffers used on healthy nails.
Definition

False.

Requies 10 minutes of contact

Term
What required for clean-up of blood or body fluids?
Definition
Hospital infection control guidelines now include the use of an EPA-registered hospital liquid disinfectant or bleach solution for clean-up of blood or body fluids.
Term
List Disinfectant Tips (Hint:there are 7)
Definition

1. Use only on pre-cleaned, hard non-porous surfaces - not abrasive files or buffers.

2. Dilute according to the label of the product.

3.  Immerse and soak according to the label of the product.

4. If a solution is sprayed on a clean surface, the solution must remain there for the time required by the product label.  (Merely spraying and wiping is cleaning - NOT considered proper disinfection)

5.  If the product label states "complete immersion", this product can not be used to disinfect by spraying.

6.  Any use other that that on the label is a violation of Federal Law.

7.  If using an EPA-registered disinfectant in a whirlpool pedicure spa, the solution MUST be circulated for the time required by the label (the solution must go where the water was and remain there for the specified time), especially if the label states to disinfect by complete immersion.

NOTE: Absorbent nail files must be disposed of if they accidentally break the client's skin or contact unhealthy skin or nails.

Term
True or False
Quaternary ammonium compounds, commonly called "quats" are very safe and useful disinfectants.
Definition

True

The most advanced type of these formulations are called "dual quats" because they contain sophisticated blends of quats that work together to dramatically increase the effectiveness of these disinfectants.  Quat solution disinfect implements usually in 10 minutes

Term
What are Phenolics?
Definition
Phenolics are powerful tuberculocidal disinfectants.  Phenolics have a very high pH and can cause damage to the skin and eyes; and some can be harmful to the invironment.  Avoid skin contact with phenolics.
Term
What are the two types of alcohol used as disinfectants in the salon?
Definition

1.  Ethyl Alcohol (ethanol or graiin alcohol)

2. Isopropyl Alcohol (isopropanol or rubbing alcohol)

Term
What is another name for household bleach.
Definition

Household bleach =sodium hypochlorite

Household bleach is an effective disinfectant for all uses in the salon.  Bleach has been used extensively as a disinfectant, long before the EPA existed, so it is not required to have an EPA registration number.

Term
Fumigants Facts
Definition
Years ago formalin tablets were used as fumigants in dry cabinet "sanitizers".  This was before EPA disinfectants came to market and before it was known that formaldehyde vapors may cause cancer
Term
Why are fumigants no longer necessary in the salon?
Definition
First, the label clearly requires that these be kept in an airtight container, and it takes 24 hours to kill one fungus (remember that liquid disinfectants kill all fungi in 10 minutes).  Second, the vapors are poisonous, and are extremely irritating to the eyes, nose, throat, and lungs, and can cause skin allergies, irritation, dryness, and rash.  Third, using the product without following the lable instructions is against federal law; and lastly, long-term exposure to formaldehyde vapors can aggravate existing lung problems, and may crate other symptoms similar to those seen in people with chronic bronchitis or asthma.
Term
List the safety tips for Disinfectants (HINT: there are 9)
Definition

1.  Always wear gloves and safety glasses when mixing disinfectants.

2. Always add disinfectant to water, not water to disinfectant.  Disinfectants contain detergents and will foam when water is added to them; this can result in an incorrect mixing ratio.

3.  Use tongs, gloves, or a drainging basket to remove implements from disinfectants.

4.  Always keep disinfectants out of reach of children

5. Never pour quats, phenols, alcohol, or any other disinfectant over your hands.  If you get disinfectants on your skin, immediately wash your hands with soap and warm water and dry them thoroughly.

6.  Carefully weigh and measure all products according to label instructions.

7.  Never place any disinfectant or other product in an unmarked container.

8. Always follow the manufacturer's instructions for mixing, using and disposal of disinfectants.

9.  Change disinfectants wvery day, or more often if the solution becomes soiled or contaminated.

Term
Disinfect or Dispose

There are two types of items used in salons - these are multi-use or reusable and single-use or disposable items.

Define multi-use
Definition

Multi-use items can be cleaned, disinfected, and used on more than one person, even if the item is exposed to blood or body fluid.

Ex:  nippers, shears, combs, puchers, some nail files and buffers

 

Another name for these items is disinfectable.

Term
What should you do if a porous item come in contact with broken skin, blood body fluid and any unhealthy conditions.
Definition
Disregard the item immediately - do not try to disinfect it.  IF you are not sure if an item can be safely cleaned, disinfected and used again - throw it out.  Remember, when in doubt throw it out?
Term
True or False
Tools and equipment must be cleaned and disinfected after each use and before they may be used on another client.
Definition
True.
Term
True or False
clean towels and linens must be used for each client. Once a towel or linen has been used on a client, it must not be used again until it has been properly laundered.
Definition
True
Term
True or False
Before beginning service for each client, all work surfaces )manicure tables, workstations, facial chairs, etc) must be cleaned by wiping with a clean disposable towel.
Definition
True
Term
What type of soap is used to sequester debris, is very important for removing the residue from pedicure products like scrubs, salts, and masques
Definition
Chelating surfactant
Term
True or False
There is an additive, powder, or tablet that eliminates the need for you to clean and disinfect.
Definition

False.

You connot replace proper cleaning and disinfection with a shortdut.  These products cannot be used instead of EPA-registered, liquid disinfectant solutions.

Term
Why is handwashing important?
Definition
Hand washing is one of the most important actions to prevent spreading herms from pone peson to another.  Hand washiing removes germs from the folds and grooves of the skin and from under the free edge of the nail plate by lifting and rinsing them from the surface
Term
Define Antiseptics
Definition
Antiseptics are agents formulated for use on skin.  Antiseptics can contain either alcohol or bgenzalkonium chloride (less drying to the skin than alcohol)
Term
What is the universal precautions?
Definition
Universal Precautions are a set of guidelines published by OSHA that require the employer and the employee to assume that all human blood and body fluids are infectious for bloodborne pathogens.
Term
What does asymptomatic mean?
Definition
Asymptomatic means that people show no symptoms or signs of infection..
Term
Are bloodborne pathogens more or less difficult to kill than germs that live outside the body?
Definition
More difficult.