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Midterm Exam
Chapters 1-7
163
Criminology
06/13/2011

Additional Criminology Flashcards

 


 

Cards

Term
Criminology
Definition
the scientific study of the nature, extent, cause and control of criminal behavior
Term
Psychosocial theory of crime causation
Definition
crime is viewed as a function of personality, development, social learning or cognition
Term
biological theory of crime causation
Definition
correlates of antisocial behavior such as biochemical, genetic and neurological links to come
Term
sociological theory of crime causation
Definition
social forces producing criminal behavior such as neighborhood condition, poverty, socialization and group interaction
Term
penology
Definition
punishment, sanctions and corrections
Term
Cesare Beccaria
Definition
  • Creator of classic criminology
  • First scholar to develop a systematic understanding of why people commit crimes
  • Believed in utilitarianism - people want to achieve pleasure and avoid pain
  • Crimes occur when the potential pleasure and reward from illegal acts outweigh the likely pains and punishment
  • Punishment must be public, prompt, necessary, proportionate and dictated by law
Term
Auguste Comte
Definition
  • Founder of sociology
  • Associated with positive criminology
  • Stated that societies change and go through stages that can be grouped on the basis of how people try to understand the world they live in
  • People in later social stages embrace rational, scientific world views
Term
J.K. Lavater
Definition
  • Physiognomist
  • Studied the facial features of criminals and found that the shape of the ears, nose and eyes and the distances between them were associated with antisocial behavior
Term
Franz Joseph Gall & Johann Spurzheim
Definition
  • Phrenologists
  • Studied the shape of the skull and bumps on the head
  • Concluded that these physical attributes were linked to criminal behavior
  • Believed that the size of the brain area could be determined by inspecting the contours of the skull and, further, that the relative size of brain areas could be increased or decreased through exercise and self-discipline
  • Their theories are no longer applied or taken seriously but they were an early attempt to use a scientific method to study human behaviors
Term
Phillipe Pinel
Definition
  • Associated with positive criminology
  • One of the founders of French psychiatry
  • Coined the phrase manie sas delire to denote what eventually was referred to as a psychopathic personality
Term
Benjamin Rush
Definition
  • Positive criminology
  • described patients with an "innate preternatural moral depravity"
Term
Henry Maudsley
Definition

English physician believed that insanity and criminal behavior were strongly linked

Term
Cesare Lombroso
Definition
  • Biological determinism
  • Father of criminology
  • Studied cadavers of executed criminals to determine scientifically how criminals differed from non-criminals
  • Criminals suffered from atavistic anomalies (head and jaw shapes)
Term
L.A.J. (Adolphe) Quetelet
Definition
  • Sociological criminology
  • Used social statistics to investigate the influence of social factors on the propensity of crime
  • Discovered that season, climate, population composition and poverty were linked to draw
  • First to link crime rates to alcohol consumption
Term
(David) Emile Durkheim
Definition
  • Sociological criminology
  • Crime=normal because the absence of crime is impossible
  • Believed that crime was inevitable because people are so different from one another and use a wide variety of ethods and types of behavior to meet their needs
  • Even if "real" crimes were eliminated, human weaknesses and petty vies would be elevated to the status of crimes
  • Suggested that crime can be useful and occasionally even healthful for society because it paves the way for social change
    • To illustrate: offered the example of Socrates, who was considered a criminal and was put to death for corrupting the morals of youth simply because he expressed ideas that were different from what people believed at that time
  • Anomie: norm and role confusion
Term

Robert Ezra Park
Earnest W. Burgess

Louis Wirth 

Definition
  • Sociologists that examined neighborhood conditions and poverty levels that influenced crime rates
  • Challenged biological/psychological theories that held reasons for criminal activity
Term
Karl Marx
Definition

Conflict theory

Critical criminoloy

Term
Conflict Theory
Definition
View that human behavior is shaped by interpersonal conflict and that those who maintain social power will use it to further their own ends
Term
Critical Criminology
Definition

View that crime is a product of a capitalist system

 

The economic system produces conditions that support a high crime rate

Term
Deviance
Definition
behavior that departs from social norm but not necessarily criminal
Term
Crime
Definition

an act deemed dangerous and socially harmful that is specifically defined, prohibited and punished under law

 

Term
Decriminalization
Definition
Penalties are reduced rather than eliminated
Term
Consensus View
Definition
belief that majority of citizens in a society share common values and agree on what behaviors should be defined as crime
Term
Conflict View
Definition

(remember Karl Marx) depicts society as a collection of diverse groups (such as owners, workers, professionals, and students) who are in constant and continuing conflict. Groups able t assert their political power use the law and criminal justice system to advance their economic and social position

Term
Interactionist View
Definition

the definition of crime reflects the preferences and opinions of people who hold social power in a particular legal jurisdiction. These people use their influence to impose their definition of right and wrong on the rest of the population.

Term
Misdemeanor
Definition
Minor crime or petty offense (short jail time or fine)
Term
Felony
Definition
Serious offense that carries penalty of imprisonment, usually for one year or more
Term
Surveys and Official Records
Definition
Primary source of crime data
Term
Uniform Crime Report
Definition
Information from law enforcement agencies used by the FBI
Term
Part 1 Crimes (ALL FELONIES)
Definition
  • Murder
  • Non-negligent murder
  • Forcible rape
  • Robbery
  • Aggravated assault
  • Burglary
  • Larceny
  • Motor vehicle theft
  • Arson
Term
Part 1 Crimes are reported by
Definition
  • Victims
  • Officers who discover the infractions
  • Other sources
Term
Part 2 Crimes
Definition
  • Sex crimes
  • drug trafficking
  • Vandalism
Term
National Crime Victimization Survey
Definition
  • Collects information from victims through survey about their experiences with law enforcement
  • Asks victims about their experiences with the CJ system
  • Discusses crimes that victims did not report to the police
  • Problem: relies on victim's memory and honesty and that it omits substance abuse
Term
Strengths of Self-Reporting Surveys
Definition

 include non-reported crimes, substance abuse and offenders' personal information

Term
Weaknesses of Self-Reporting Surveys
Definition

relies on the honesty of offenders and omits offenders who refuse or are unavailable (because of incarceration) to participate (and who therefore may be the most deviant)

Term
The Ecology of Crime
Definition

Most crimes are reported during July & August because of the following:

 

  • Teenagers are out of school, greater opportunity to commit crimes
  • People spend more time outdoors, become easy targets
  • Vacant homes during summer are vulnerable to burglary
Term
Instrument Crimes
Definition

Offenses designed to improve the financial or social position of the criminal

  • Theft
  • Selling narcotics
Term
Expressive Crimes
Definition
Offenses committed not for profit or gain but to vent rage, anger or frustration against society (alcohol, rape, assault)
Term
Reasons why serious crime is more prevalent in socially disorganized lower-class areas
Definition
  • Deteriorating neighborhoods
  • Lack of informal social control
  • Income inequality
  • Presence of youth gangs
  • Resource deprivation
  • Homicide
  • Assault
Term
Age and Crime
Definition
Younger people commit crimes more than older people
Term
Aging Out
Definition
People commit less crime as they mature
Term

Gender and Crime:

Trait Differences

Definition
Females were weaker and more passive, less likely to commit crimes
Term

Gender and Crime:

Socialization Differences

Definition
Males are taught to be more aggressive and assertive and are less likely to form attachments to others
Term

Gender and Crime:

Cognitive Differences

Definition
  • Girls are superior to boys in verbal ability
  • Boys test higher in visual-spatial performance
  • Girls acquire language faster, learn to speak earlier
  • Boys do better on standardized math tests
Term

Gender and Crime:

Social/Political Differences

Definition

Feminist view in criminality

Girls joining gangs

More women getting arrested 

Term
Racial Threat Theory
Definition
As the size of the black population increases, the perceived threat to the white population increases, resulting in a greater amount of social control imposed on black 
Term
Minority Crime Linked To...
Definition
  • Poverty
  • Racism
  • Hopelessness
  • Lack of opportunity
Term
Chronic Offenders
Definition
Small group of persistent offenders who account for a majority of all criminal offenses (career criminals)
Term
Early Onset
Definition
The view that repeat offenders begin their criminal careers  at a very young age; youth who are exposed to a variety of personal and social problems
Term
Three Strikes
Definition
Laws that require offenders to serve life in prison after they are convicted of a third felony
Term
Victimology
Definition
The study of the victim's role in criminal events
Term
Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD)
Definition
Psychological reaction to a highly stressful event
Term
PTSD Symptoms
Definition
  • Depression
  • Anxiety
  • Flashbacks
  • Reoccurring nightmares
Term
Adolescent Stress
Definition
Undergone traumatic sexual experiences
Term
Relationship Stress
Definition
Victims of spousal abuse
Term
Relationship Stress Symptoms
Definition
  • Depression
  • Anxiety disorder
  • Panic disorder
  • Substance abuse disorders
  • Obsessive-compulsive disorder
Term
Cycle of Violence
Definition

Victims of crime, especially victims of childhood abuse are more likely to commit crimes themselves

 

(Victims commit crimes, create victims, in turn they commit crimes, create victims)

Term
Crime in schools
Definition
  • Adult supervision is minimal before, during and after class
  • Kids leave valuables in lockers
  • Kids congregate in unguarded places, making them attractive to predators who come on school grounds
Term
Victim's Household
Definition

African-American, western and urban homes most vulnerable to crime

 

Home owners less likely to be victims of crime than renters

Term

Victim Characteristics:

Gender

Definition
  • Males are more likely to be victims of violent crime than females (except rape/assault)
  • Females more likely to be victimized by someone they know
Term

Victim's Characteristics:

Age

Definition
Younger people face greater risk of victimization than older people
Term
Victim Precipitation Theory
Definition
The view that victims may initiate, either actively or passively, the confrontation that leads to their victimization
Term

Victim Participation Theory:

Active Participation

Definition
Aggressive or provocative behavior or victims that results in their victimization (ex: running your mouth)
Term

Victim Participation Theory:

Passive Participation

Definition
Personal or social characteristics of victims that make them attractive target for criminals
Term
Deviant Place Theory
Definition
The view that victimization is primarily a function of where people live
Term
Routine Activities Theory
Definition

The view that victimization results from the interaction of three everyday factors:

 

  1. availability of suitable targets
  2. absences of capable guardians
  3. presence of motivated offenders
Term
Victims Services Programs
Definition
  • Victim compensation
  • Victim-witness assistance programs
  • Victim advocates
  • Victim impact statements
  • Crisis intervention
  • Victim-offender Reconciliation Program
Term
Victim's Rights
Definition
  • To be notified of proceedings and the status of the offender
  • To be preset at criminal justice proceedings
  • To make a statement at sentencing and to receive restitution from a convicted offender
  • To be consulted before a case is dismissed or a plea agreement entered
  • To a speedy trial
  • To keep the victim's contact information confidential
Term
Classic Criminology
Definition
a theory of crime suggesting that criminal behavior is a matter of personal choice
Term
Criminality (according to Gary Becker)
Definition
A rational behavior controllable by increasing the cost of crime and reducing the potential for gain
Term
19th Century Positive Criminologists focus
Definition
Internal and external factors rather than personal choice and decision making (i.e. IQ, poverty, education)
Term
Gary Becker
Definition
  • 1960s economist
  • criminals=rational actors
  • They behave in a predictable or rational way
  • they examine gain of crime vs cost of going to jail
Term
James Q. Wilson
Definition
  • Political activist
  • People who commit crimes
    • Unafraid of breaking the law
    • value the excitement and thrills of crime
    • have a low stake in conformity
    • are willing to take greater chances
Term
Rational Choice Theory
Definition
The view that crime is a function of a decision-making process in which the potential offender weighs the potential costs and benefits of an illegal act
Term
Rational Choice Theory: Personal Factors
Definition
Money, revenge, thrills, entertainment
Term
Rational Choice Theory: Situational Factors
Definition
Target availability, security measures, police presence
Term
The decision to commit a crime
Definition
  • Choice of target
  • Ability to move products for high net gain
  • Low risk of being caught
Term
Th decision to not commit a crime
Definition
  • Stand good chance of getting caught and  being punished
  • Fear the consequences of punishment
  • Risk losing the respect of peers, damaging their reputations, and experiencing feelings of guilt or shame
  • Risk of apprehension outweighs the profit and/or pleasure of crime
Term
Offense-specific crime
Definition
A crime in which the offender reacts selectivity to the characteristics of a particular criminal act
Term
Offender-specific crime
Definition
A crime in which offenders evaluate their skills, motives, needs and fears before deciding to commit the criminal act
Term
Edgework
Definition

the excitement or exhilaration of successfully executing illegal activities in dangerous situations

Term
Seductions of crime
Definition

the situation inducements of immediate benefits that draw offenders into law violations

Term
Situational Crime Prevention
Definition

a method of crime prevention that seeks to eliminate of reduce particular crimes in specific settings

Term
Defensible space
Definition

the principle that crime can  be prevented o displaced by modifying the physical environment to reduce the opportunity that individuals have to commit crime

Term
General deterrence
Definition

a crime control policy that depends on the fear of criminal penalties, convincing the potential law violator that the pains associated with crime outweigh its benefits

Term
General deterrence involves
Definition
  • Certainty of punishment
  • Severity of punishment
  • Swiftness of punishment
Term
Specific deterrence
Definition

view that criminal sanctions should be so powerful that offenders will never repeat their criminal acts

Term
Incarceration
Definition

confinement in jail or prison

Term
Recidivism
Definition

repetition of criminal behavior

Term
Deterrence is not effective when
Definition

Suspect is not given appropriate punishment

Case is dismissed or charges are dropped by victims

Term
Incapacitation effect
Definition

the view that placing offenders behind bars during their prime crime years reduces their opportunity to commit crimes and helps lower crime rate

Term
Death penalty
Definition
  • A deterrent to murder
  • Criminal will never commit crimes again
  • Murder rate has dropped since the return of capital punishment
  • There are issues associated with capital punishment
Term
Trait Theory
Definition

the view that criminality is a product of abnormal biological or psychological traits

Term
Sociobiology
Definition

 the view that human behavior is motivated by inborn biological urges to survive and preserve the species

Term
Principles of sociobiology
Definition
  • Behavior traits are inherited
  • Inherited behavior traits have been formed by natural selection
  • Behavioral traits evolve and are shaped by the environment
  • Biological and genetic conditions affect how social behaviors are learned and perceived
  • Behavior is determined by the need to ensure survival of offspring and replenishment of the gene pool
  • Biology, environment, and learning are mutually interdependent factors
Term
Rimland (2008)
Definition
  • Personal traits and biological conditions explain behavior choices
  • Crime producing interactions involve personal traits and environmental factors
Term
Personal traits (Rimland)
Definition

defective intelligence, impulsive personality, abnormal brain chemistry

Term
Environmental factors (Rimland)
Definition

family life, educational attainment, socioeconomic status, neighborhood condition

Term
Hormonal influence
Definition

abnormal levels of androgens produce aggressive behavior in males

Term
Premenstrual syndrome (PMS)
Definition

abnormal levels of female sex hormones produce antisocial, aggressive behavior

Term
Neurophysiology
Definition

the study of brain activity

Term
Conduct Disorder
Definition

 a pattern of repetitive behavior in which the rights of others or social norms are violated

Term

Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)

Definition

a developmentally inappropriate lack of attention, along with impulsivity and hyperactivity

Term
ADHD: Lack of Attention
Definition
  • Frequently fail to finish projects
  • Doesn't seem to pay attention
  • Doesn’t sustain interests in play activities
  • Cannot sustain concentration on schoolwork or related tasks
  • Is easily distracted
Term
ADHD: Impulsivity
Definition
  • Frequently acts without thinking
  • Often "calls out" in class
  • Doesn’t want to wait his or her turn in lines or games
  • Shifts from activity to activity
Term
Parental Deviance
Definition

if criminal tendencies are inherited, then children are most likely to violate the law

Term
Contagion effect
Definition

people become deviant when they are influenced by others with whom they are in close contact

Term
Psychodynamic theory
Definition

Freud stated that human personality is controlled by unconscious mental processes that develop early in childhood

Term
Id
Definition
  • primitive part of people's mental makeup, unconscious biological drive
    • Seeks instant gratification without concerns for others
Term
Ego
Definition
  • personality developed in early childhood that helps control the Id and keep's peoples actions within the boundaries of social convention
    • Compensation for the demands of the Id
Term
Superego
Definition

incorporation within the personality of the moral standards and values of parents

Term
Attachment Theory (John Bowlby)
Definition

The ability to form an emotional bond to another person

Failure to develop proper attachments cause people to fall prey to psychological disorders

Term
Behavior Theory
Definition

human behavior is learned through a process of social reinforcement (rewards and punishment)

Term
Social learning theory
Definition

people learn to be aggressive by observing others act aggressively to achieve some goal or being rewarded for violent acts

Term
Behavior modeling
Definition

the process of learning behavior by observing others

 

Term
Cognitive Theory
Definition

the psychological perspective that focuses on the mental processes by which people perceive and represent the world around them and solve problems

Term
Information-processing theory
Definition

theory that focuses on how people process, store, encode, retrieve, and manipulate information to make decisions and solve problem

Term
Personality
Definition

reasonably stable patterns of behavior, including thoughts and emotions that distinguish one person from another

Term
Antisocial personality (sociopathic or psychopathic personality)
Definition
  • Combination of traits, such as
    • Hyperactivity
    • Impulsivity
    • Hedonism
    • Inability to empathize with others
Term
Nature Theory
Definition
  • Intelligence is genetic
  • Ancestry determines IQ
  • Low Q is linked to criminal behavior
Term
Nurture Theory
Definition
  • Intelligence is not inherited
  • Low IQ parents do not necessarily produce-low IQ children
  • Intelligence is viewed as partly biological but primarily sociological
Term
Mood disorder
Definition

a condition in which the prevailing emotional mood is distorted or inappropriate to the circumstance

Term
Opposition defiant disorder (ODD)
Definition
  • a pattern of negativistic, hostile and defiant behavior
    • Child often loses their temper
    • Argues with parents
    • Actively defies or refuses to comply with adult's requests or rules
Term
Schizophrenia
Definition
  • Hears nonexistence voices
  • Sees hallucinations
  • Exhibit inappropriate responses
Term
Bipolar disorder
Definition
  • Affects a person's ability to
    • Understand reality
    • Think clearly
    • Respond emotionally
    • Communicate effectively
    • Behave appropriately
Term
Culture of poverty (Oscar Lewis)
Definition
  • This culture is characterized by
    • Apathy
    • Cynicism
    • Helplessness
    • Mistrust of social institutions
Term
Social class
Definition

Segments of the population whose members are at a relatively similar economic level and who share

Term
Stratified society
Definition
  • People who are grouped according to economic or social class; characterized by the unequal distribution of wealth, power and prestige
Term
Social structure theory
Definition

disadvantaged economic class position is a primary cause of crime

Term
Gunnar Myrdal
Definition

Swedish economist

  • Described a worldwide underclass that was cut off from society
    • Lowest social stratum in any country
    • Members lack the education and skills needed to function successfully in modern society
Term
Child poverty
Definition

 

those who grow up in low-income homes

  • Less likely to achieve in school
  • Less likely to complete schooling that affluent children
  • Suffer from health problems
  • Receive inadequate health care
    • Likely to have health problems that impede long-term development

 

Term
Social disorganization theory
Definition

focuses on the breakdown in inner-city neighborhoods of institutions such as the family, school  or employment

Term
Strain theory
Definition

sees crime as a function of the conflict between people's goals and the means available to obtain them

Term
Strain
Definition

anger, frustration, and resentment experienced by people who believe they cannot achieve their goals through legitimate means

Term
Culture Deviance Theory
Definition

sees strain and social disorganization together resulting in a unique lower-class culture that conflicts wit social norms

Term
Subculture
Definition

set of values, beliefs and traditions unique to a particular social class or group within a larger society

Term
Cultural transmission
Definition

values, beliefs and traditions are handed down from one generation to the next

Term
Clifford Shaw & Henry McKay
Definition
  • Chicago sociologists
  • Linked life in transitional slums to the inclination of crime
  • Saw that Chicago had developed into distinct neighborhoods
    • Some affluent
    • Some racked by poverty
Term
Transitional neighborhood (Shaw & McKay)
Definition

area undergoing a shift in population and structure, usually from middle class residential to lower class mixed use

Term
Concentric zones
Definition
  • 9 distinct ecological areas tat developed in the city
  • Zones in the transitional inner-city had most crime (large numbers of poor people settled)
  • Zones farthest from the city's center had lower crime rates
  • Found that multiple cultures and diverse values, both conventional and deviant, coexisted in the transitional neighborhoods
    • Children observed grown-ups with deviant lifestyle were financially successful (pimps, gamblers, drug dealers)
    • Children were force to chose deviant behavior
Term
Community disorder
Definition
  • crime rates associated with
    • Community deterioration
    • Disorder
    • Poverty
    • Alienation
    • Disassociation
    • Fear of crime
    • Deserted homes and abandoned building buildings serve as amgnet for crime
    • Slumlords
    • Boarded up buildings
    • Burned out buildings
Term
Community fear
Definition
  • comes from
    • Rowdy youths
    • Trash and litter
    • Graffiti
    • Abandoned storefronts
    • Drunks
    • Vagabonds
    • Loiterers
    • Prostitution
    • Incivilities
    • High crime rates
Term
Poverty (strain theory)
Definition
  • Relative deprivation
  • Feelings of inadequacy
  • Siege mentality (sense of powerlessness)
Term

Theory of Anomie (Robert Merton)

Definition
  • Social inequality leads to perceptions of anomie
  • Found that two elements of culture interact to produce potential anomic conditions
    • Culturally defined goals
    • Socially approved means for obtaining them
Term

Social adaptations (way of coping with inadequate means of attaining success) according to Robert Merton

Definition
  • Conformity
  • Innovation
  • Ritualism
  • Retreatism
  • Rebellion
Term
Conformity
Definition

embrace social goals, have means to obtain them

Term
Innovation
Definition

accept goals of society, but unable or unwilling to attain them by legitimate means; start selling rugs or stealing

Term
Ritualism
Definition

gain pleasure from practicing traditional ceremonies, regardless if they have a real goal or purpose (religious orders, feudal societies, clubs)

Term
Retreatism
Definition

reject the goals and means of society; escape lack of success by withdrawing mentally or physically through drugs or becoming drifters

Term
Rebellion
Definition

substitute alternative set of goals and means for conventional ones (seek radical change in society, call for alternative lifestyles, goals, and beliefs)

Term
Relative deprivation theory
Definition

envy, mistrust and aggression resulting from perceptions of economic and social inequality

Term
General strain theory (GST)
Definition

view that multiple sources of strain interact with an individual's emotional traits and responses to produce criminality

Term
Negative affective states
Definition

Anger frustration and adverse emotions produced by a variety of sources of strain

Term
Consequences of strain
Definition
  • Disappointment
  • Depression
  • Dear
  • Anger
  • Revenge
Term
Social learning theory
Definition

suggests that people learn the techniques and attitudes of crime from close relationships with criminal peers; that crime is a learned behavior

Term
Social control theory
Definition

maintains that everyone has the potential to become a criminal but most people are controlled by their bonds to society; crime occurs when these bonds are broken or weakened

Term
Social reaction (labeling) theory
Definition
process of human development and enculturalization; it is influenced by key social processes and institutions

Term
Family relations
Definition
  • Considered a major determinant in behavior
  • Parenting factors play critical role in determining whether people misbehave as children and later as adults
    • Proper discipline
Term
Parental efficacy
Definition

suggest that parents who support and control their children in a non-coercive way are more likely to raise children who refrain from delinquency

Term
Differential association theory
Definition

the view that people commit crime when their social learning needs leads them to perceive more definitions favoring crime than favoring conventional behavior

Term
Neutralization theory - justifications
Definition

Criminals must learn and master techniques that enable them to neutralize conventional values and attitudes

Term
Neutralization techniques that contribute to criminality
Definition
  • Denial of responsibility
  • Denial of injury
  • Denial of victim
  • Condemnation of the condemners (world is corrupt, dog-eat-dog world)
  • Appeal to higher loyalties (loyalty to peer group)
Term
Hirschi's social control theory
Definition

Argues that the social bond a person maintains with society is divided into four main elements tat aid in controlling delinquent behavior:

  1. Attachment
  2. Commitment
  3. Belief
  4. Involvement