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Microbiology HARR
microbiology
231
Microbiology
10/31/2011

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Term
Blood culture collection , clean with
Definition
2% iodine and then 70% alcohol
Term
When cleansing the skin with alcohol and then iodine for the collection of a blood culture , the iodine must stay on skin for:
Definition
60 seconds
Term
The purpose of adding 0.025%-0.050% sodium polyanethol sulfonate (SPS) to the nutrient broth is:
Definition
It inhibits phagocytosis and complement.
Term
A flexable calcium alganite nasophrangeal swab is the collection device of choice for the recovery of which organism?
Definition
C diphtheriae
Term
Semisolid transport media such as amies , Stuart, or Cary Blair are suitable for the transport of swabs for culture of most pathogens except:
Definition
Neisseria gonorrhoeae
Term
Select the method of choice for recovery of bacteria from a deep abcess:
Definition
Needle aspirate after surface decontamination
Term
Primary and differential media of choice for the recovery of most fecal pathogens:
Definition
Hektoen. MacConkey and Colistin nalidixic acid (CNA) agars.
Term
Media for vibrio from stool:
Definition
TCBS
Term
CNA agar is used for:
Definition
S. aureus
Term
BAP plates
Definition
5% or 10% sheep blood agar
Term
To isolate N gonorrhea:
Definition
Charcoal transport, MTM media, New york or Martin Lewis.
Term
Chocolate agar and MTM are for
Definition
Hemophilus spp. and Neisseria spp.
Term
CCFA is used for
Definition
Clostridium difficile
Term
Deoxycholate agar (DCA) is used for :
Definition
Enterobacteriacae
Term
Xylose, lisine, Deoxycholateis a highly selective media for the recovery of
Definition
Enterobacteriacae from gastrointestinal specimens.
Term
A sheep blood agar plate is used for the primary isolation medium when all of the following organisms are to be recovered from a wound EXCEPT:
Definition
Hemophilus influenzia and Hemophilus para influenzia
Term
Prereduced vitamine K supplimented blood agar plates are recommended media for
Definition
Bacteroids, peptostreptococcus, and Clostridium spp. think anaerobic
Term
Procedure for recovery of chlamydia:
Definition
Inoculate cyclohexide treated Mccoy cells.
Term
Virus should be transported in media containing:
Definition
Antibiotics and nutrient
Term
Cerebrospinal fluid should be cultured immediately , but if delayed , specimen should be:
Definition
Incubated at 37 and cultured as soon as possible.
Term
How to detect B-lactamase in bacteria Most sensitive.
Definition
Chromogenic cephalosporin.
Term
The breakpoint of an antimicrobial drug refers to:
Definition
The level of drug that is acheivable in serum.
Term
Varibles that change the results of the MIC:
Definition
Inoculun size, incubation time, Growth rate of bacteria.
Term
According to the kirby bauer standard antimicrobial susceptibility testing method, what should be done when interpreting the zone size of a motle swarming organism such as proteus.
Definition
The swarming area should be ignored.
Term
Which class of antibiotics is used for the treatment of serious gram negative infections as well as infections with Mycoplasm tuberculosis.
Definition
Aminoglycosides
Term
Biochemically the Enterobacteriaceae are gram negative rods that:
Definition
Ferment glugose, Reduce nitrate to nitrite, and are oxidase negative.
Term
The ortho-notriphenol-B- galactopyoanoside (ONPG) test is most useful when differentiting :
Definition
Shigella from some strains of e-coli. The ONPG detects B-galactosidase activity and is most useful in distinguishing late lactose fermenters from nonfermentesrs.
Term
The volkes-proskauer (VP) test which end product of glucose fermentation.
Definition
ACETOIN or carbinol ... turns red to pink.
Term
At which Ph does the Methyl red test become positive.
Definition

4.5

MR and VP detect acid

Term
A positive simmons citrate is seen as a
Definition
Blue color in the medium. ..............alkaline.................
Term
In the test for urease production, ammonia reacts to form which product?
Definition
Ammonium carbonate. This turns the indicator pink at Ph 8.0
Term
Which reagent is added to detect the production of indole.
Definition
p-Dimethylaminobenzaldehyde
Term
Decarboxylation of the amino acids lusine, ornathene and arginine results in the formation of
Definition
Amines... decarboxylases split dibasic amino acids, forming alkaline amines.
Term
Lysine iron agar (LIA) showing a purple slant and a blackned butt indicates:
Definition
Salmonella spp. Salmonella =black butt LIA=salmonella.
Term
Putrisine is an alkaline amine product of which bacterial enzyme?
Definition
Oranithine decarboxylase.
Term
Which genera are positive for phenlalanine deaminase? PAD
Definition
Morganella providencia and proteus.
Term
Kligler iron agar (KIA) differs from triple sugar iron agar (TSI) in the
Definition
use of sucrose in the medium.
Term
The malonate test is useful in differentiating which members of enterobacteriaceae?
Definition

Salmonella subgroups 2,2

(the former arizona)

Term
Which genera of the enterobacteriaceae are known to cause diarrhea and are considered enteric pathogens?
Definition
Eschericia, salmonella, shigella and yersinia
Term
An isolate of e-coli recovered from the stool of a patient with severe bloody diarrhea should be tested for which sugar before sending it to a reference laboratory for serologic testing?
Definition
Sorbitol fermentation
Term
Care must be taken before identifying biochemical isolates of shigella because serological cross reactions occur :
Definition

e-coli,

 shigella and e-coli are alot alike

Term
Which species of shigela is most commonly associated with diarrheal disease in the united states.
Definition

S. sonnei

Most active of the lot, orinthene decarboxylase and B-dgalactose activity

Term
Which of the following test best differentiates shigella species from e-coli.
Definition
Lactose, indole, ONPG and motility (ecoli)are, shigella isnt
Term
Which genera of enterobacteriaceae are usually non-motile at 36C.
Definition
Shigella , Klebsiella and Yersinia. But dont forget...Yersinia can be motile at 22C.
Term
Fever , abdominal cramping , watery stools, and fluid and electrolyte loss preceeded by bloody stools 2-3 days before is charateristic of shigallosis but may also result form infection with
Definition
Campylobacter...
Term
Cold enrichment of feces (incubation at 4 C) in a phosphate buffered saline prior to subculture onto enteric media enhances the recovery of
Definition

Yersinia enterocolitica.

this is the one that can live in the red blood cell bag

Term
Which group of test along with clonial morphology on primary media aids most in the rapid identification of the enterobacteriaceae
Definition
indole , oxydase, MacConkey and Blood agar plates
Term
A routein complete stool culture procedure should include media for the isolation of e-coli O157 H7 as well as:
Definition
Salmonella, Shigella, Yersinia, Campylobacter and S. aureus.
Term
Which group of test best identifies Morganella and proteus?
Definition
Motility, urease and PAD.
Term
Which group of test best identifies enterobacter aerogenes from Edwardsella tarda?
Definition

Hydrogen sulfied (H2S) production, sucriose fermentation, indole, and VP.

 H2s and indole= Tarda

sucrose and VP and citrate= E. aerogene

Term
Enterobacter sakazakii can best be differentiated from enterobacter cloacae by its,
Definition
Yellow pigmentation and negative sorbitol fermentation.
Term
Members of the genus Cedecea are best differentiated from serratia spp. by which test result?
Definition
Negative Dnase. Serratia is Dnase positive.
Term
a gram negative rod is recovered from a catherized urine sample from a nursing home patient, The lactose negative isolate tested postive for indole, urease, ornithine decarboxylase , and PAD and negative for H2S the most probable identificatin is :
Definition

Morganella.

(Indole, PAD and ornithine decarboxylase positive) not proteus tho.

Term
Which single test best separates Klebsiella Oxytoca from K. pneumonia,
Definition
indole...
Term
What organism found in normal fecal flora may be mistaken , biochemically for the genus Yersinia?
Definition
Proteus spp. are urease positive lactose negative and motile, remember yersinia is motle at 22C tho...
Term
WHY might it be necessary for both pink (lactose positive) colonies and colorless (lactose negative) colonies from an initial stool culture on MacConkey agar to be subcultured and tested further for possible pathogens.
Definition
Pathogenic e-coli can be both pink and colorless on MacConkey agar.
Term
Which agar that is used for routien stool culture is the medium of choice for the isolation of Yersinia strains from stool specimens?
Definition
MacConkey agar. Although CIN is the best for the isolation of yersinia..
Term
Which organism is sometimes mistaken for salmonella and will agglutinate in salmonella polyvalent antisera.
Definition
C, freundii both are H2S, indole, VP and PAD NEGATIVE also
Term
A bloody stool from a 26 year old woman with 3 days of diarrhea showed the following results at 48 hours after plated on the following media: MacConkey: little normal flora with many non-lactose fermenting colonies. Hektoen enteric agar: Many blue green colonies. Campylobacter blood agar and C difficile agar: no growth Clear colonies from MacConkey tested negative for oxidase indole, urease, motility, and H2S. The most likely identificaion is:
Definition
Shigella. Shigella and campylobacter cause bloody diarrhea but Campy does not grow on MacConkey.
Term
What organisms are generraly positive for B-galactosidase?
Definition
E-coli.
Term
In the Kauffamn White Schema, the combined antigens used for serological identification for salmonella spp. are?
Definition

O, VI, and H antigens.

 O= heat stabile

VI or (K) = capsular polysaccharide

 H= Flageller (heat labile)

Term
The drugs of choice for treatment of Enterobacteriaceae are
Definition
Aminoglycosides, trimethoprim-sulfamathoxazole, third generation cephalosporins.
Term
A shiga like toxin (verotoxin) is produced mainly by which Enterobacteriaceae
Definition
E-coli. O157H7 is the toxin most often associated with bloody diarrhea.
Term
Infections caused by Yersinia Pestis are rare in the united states. Those cases that do occur are most frequently located in which region?
Definition
New mexico, california and arizona.
Term
A leg culture from a nursing home patient grew gram negative rods on MacConkey Agar as pink to dark pink oxidase negative colonies. Given the following results, which is the most likely organism? TSI=A/A Indole=Neg MR=Neg Citrate= + VP = + H2S= Neg Urease = Neg Motility = Neg.Resisant to carbenicillin and ampicillin. IMVC ==++
Definition
Klebsiela pneumonia. are ==++ while e-coli are ++==.
Term
Four blood cultures were taken over a 24 hour period from a twenty year old woman with severe diarrhea. the cultures grew motile (room temperture)_ gram negative rods. A urine specimen obtained by catherterization also showed gram negative rods, 100,000 col/mL. Given the following results, which is the most likely organism : TSI=A/A gas Indole= + VP= neg MR=+ H2S=neg Citrate =Neg Urease=Neg Lysine= + (++==)
Definition
E=coli. E-coli ++== S typhi =+== Y enterocolitica V+== P vulgaris ++== (just like e-coli)
Term
A stool culture form a 30 year old man suffeing from bloody mucoid diarrhea gave the following results on differential enteric media: Mac agar= clear colonies XLD agar= clear colonies Salmonella shigella agar+ small clear colonies. Which test are most appopriate for identification of this enteric pathogen?
Definition
TSI, Moility, indole, urease, Shigella typing with polyvalent sera.
Term
A leg culture from a hospitalized 70 year old diabetic man grew motile, lactose negative colonies on MacConkey agar, Given the following biochemical reactions at 24 hours what is the most probable organism? H2S, TSI=Neg Indole=Neg MR=Neg VP=+ PAD= Neg Dnase=+ Citrate=+ Urease=Neg
Definition
Serratia marcescens remember this is Dnase positive...
Term
Three blood cultures taken from a 30 year old cancer patient recieving chemo therapy and admitted with a urinary tract infection grew lactose negative, motile, gram negative rods prior to antibiotic therapy. Given the followig biochemical reactions, which is the most likely organism? H2S, TSI= neg Indole= + MR=+ Dnase=+ VP=neg Citrate=Neg Urease=+ Gelatin hydrolase =+ Ornithine decarboxylase=Neg.
Definition
Proteus vulgaris ..... look for this in immunocompromised patients.
Term
Three consecutive stool cultures from a 25 year old patient produced scant normal fecal flora on MacConkey and Hektoen agars. However colonies on CIN agar (cefsoledin-irgasan novobiocin) displayed bulls eye colonies after 48 hours incubation. The patient had been suffering from entercolitis with fever, diarrhea, and abdominal pain for 2 days. What is the most likely identification of this gram negative rod.
Definition
Yersinia entercolitica. CIN + yersinia = bulls eye colonies.
Term
A 6 year old female patient was admitted to the hospital following two days of severe diarrhea. Cultures from three consecutive stool samples contained blood and mucus. Patient history revealed a hamburgar lunch at a fast food restuant 3 days earlier . Which pathogen is most likely responsible for the following results Growth on XLD agar= yellow colonies. HE agar= yellow colonies Mac agar= light pink and dark pink and many colonies. Mac with sorbitol, few dark pink and many colorless colonies.
Definition
E-coli O157 H7.
Term
Following a two week camping trip in the southwest a 65 year old male patient was hospitalized with a high fever and inflammatory swelling of the axilla and groin lymph nodes, several blood cultures were obtained, resulting in growth of gram negative rods resembling closed saftey pins. The organism grew on MacConkey agar showing nonlactose fermenting colonies. testing demonstrated a non-motile rod that was chemically inert. The most likely identification is
Definition
YERSINIA PESTIS.
Term
The majority of clinical laboratories with a microbiology department should have the capability of serotyping which pathogenic Enterobacteriaceae
Definition
E-coli O157 H7, Salmonella spp. and Shigella spp.
Term
Direct spread of pneumonic plague disease occurs by which route.
Definition
Inhalation of contaminated airborne droplets.
Term
What are the most appropriate screening test to presumtivaly differentiate and identify the nonfermentative gram negative bacilli (NFB) from the enterobacteriaceae?
Definition
Oxidase TSI, nitrate reduction, growth on MacConkey agar.
Term
Presumptive test used for the pseudomonas spp. are:
Definition
Oxidase, oxidaton fermentation (OF) glucose (OPEN), OF glucose (sealed), motility, pigment production.
Term
Which test are most appropriate to differentiate between Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Pseudomonas putida?
Definition
Mannitol, nitrate reduction and growth at 42C.
Term
Which group best differentiates Acinetobacter baumanni from P. aeruginosa
Definition
Oxidase, motility, nitrate reduction.
Term
In addition to motility, which test best differentiates Acinetobacter spp. and Alcalienes spp.
Definition
Oxidase. Acinetobacter is non motile and oxidase negative.
Term
The most noted differences between P. aeruginosa and S. maltophillia are:
Definition
Oxidase, 42C growth and polor tuft of flagella. S. maltophillia is oxidase neative, does not grow at 42 and is motile by a polor tuft of flagella.
Term
Which pseudomonas is usually associated with a lung infection related to cystic fibrosis?
Definition
P. aeruginosa
Term
A nonfermenter recovered from an eye wound is oxidase positive , motile with polor monotricious flagella and grows at 42. colonies are dry wrinkled or smooth , buff to light brown in color and are difficult to remove from the agar. In which DNA homology group shoould this organism be placed?
Definition
Pseudomnas stutzeri
Term
Which organisms is associated with immunodeficency syndrome and meliodosis (a gladers like disease in south east asia and northern australia.
Definition

Burkholderia (P.) pseudomallei

 Vietnameese time bomb

Term
Which biochemical test are needed to differentiate Burkholderei (P.) cepatia from S. (X) maltophilia
Definition
Pigment on blood agar, oxidase and DNase
Term
The following results were obtained from a pure culture of gram negative rods recovered from the pulmonary secreations of a 10 year old cystic fibrosis patient with pneumonia. Oxidase pos motility pos glucose OF open pos Gelatin hydrolysis pos pigment red Arginine dihydrolase pos growth at 42 pos flagella polor and monotricious.
Definition
Pseudomonas aeruginosa
Term
Alcaligenes fecalis (formerly A. ordrans) is distinguished from bordatella bronchioseptica with which test?
Definition

Urase rapid.

 Alcaligenes fecalis is negative and bordatella bronchioseptica is urease positive.

Term
Flavobacterium spp. are easily distinguished from acinetobacter sppp. by which two test?
Definition
Oxidase and growth on Macconkey agar.
Term
A gram negative cocobacillus was recovered on chocolate agar from the CSF of an immunocompromised patient. The organism was non motile and positive for indophenonoxidase but failed to grow on macconkey agar. The organism was highly susceptible to pennicillin. The most probable identification is.
Definition

Moraxella lacunata.

involved in infections with immunosuppressed. highly susceptible to pennicillin.

Term
Centramede agar is used as a selective isolation agar for:
Definition
Pseudomonas aeruginosa
Term
A specimen form a 15 year old female burn patient was cultured after debridement, and the following results were obtained. Oxidase positive Lysine decarboxylase negative Catalase positive motility positive Ornithene decarboxylase negative Glucose positive for oxidation (open tube) Arginine dihydrolase positive Maltose negative for open tube pennicillin resistant Aminoglycosides susceptible \ colitan susceptible
Definition
Pseudomonas aeruginosa
Term
A yellow pigment producing organism that is oxidase positive, nonmotile and does not grow on macConkey is
Definition
Flavobacterium menenigiosepticum
Term
Which reagent is used to develop a red color indicative of a positive reaction in the nitrate test?
Definition
Sulfanillic acid and alpha- napthylamine
Term
A culture from an intra abdominal abcess produced orange tan colonies on blood agar that gave the following results Oxidase positive Nitrate reduction positive KIA alk/alk H2S pos Motility single polor flagellum DNase positive Ornithene decarboxylase positive The most likely identification is
Definition
Shewanella (pseudomonas ) putrifaciens
Term
Flavobacteriun spp. and B. cepacia are easily differentiated by:
Definition
Motility. cepacia are motile flavobacterium are nonmotile
Term
A 15 year old female complained of severe eye irritation after removing her soft contact lenses. A swab of the infected right eye was obtained by a opthamologist who ordered a culture and sensitivities. the culture was plated on blood agar and macconkey agar . At 24 hours the growth of a gram negative rod that test cytochrome oxidase positive was noted . The muller hinton sensitivity plate showed a bluish green lawn of growth that proved highly resistant to most antibiotics tested except amikacin , tobramycin and ciprofloxacin. the most likely identification is
Definition
Pseudmonas aeruginosa.
Term
What pseudomonas spp. is associated with the following virulence factors. enterotoxin A, endotoxins, proetolytic enzymes, antimicrobial resistance and production of alginate?
Definition
P. aeruginosa
Term
A 20 year old horse groomer exhibited a glanders like infection. His history indicated he had suffered open wounds on his hands two weeks before the swelling of his lymph nodes. A gram negative rod was recovered from a blood culture that grew well on blood and macconkey agars. Most of the biochemical test were negative, including the cytochrome oxidase test. What is the most likely identification?
Definition
Burkholderia mallorii
Term
A vietmnam war veteran presented with a glanders like infection (meliodosis). Several blood culters produced gram negative rods that were cytochrome oxidase positive, oxidized glucose and xylose, and grew at 42. the most likely organism is
Definition
Burkholderia pseudomallei
Term
Cytochrome oxidase positive, nonfermentive gram negative bacilli were recovered from the stool of a cystic fibrosis patient. The isolates produced wet(mucoidy) colonies on blood aagar. Which identification is most likely?
Definition
Pseudomonas aeruginosa.
Term
A visitor to south america who returned with diarrhea is suspected with being infected with V. cholerae. Select the best medium for the recovery and identification of this organism.
Definition
TCBS agar. The growth of yellow colonies on TCBS agar, citrate utilization and acid from sucrose is diagnostic for V.C
Term
A curved gram negative rod producing oxidase positive colonies on blood agar was recovered from a stool culture. Given the following results what is the most likely identification?, VP NEG TCBS AGAR GREEN COLONIES, UREASE NEGATIVE LYSINE POS, ARGININE NEGATIVE, INDOLE POSITIVE LACTOSE NEGATIVE, KIA ALK/ACID STRING TEST NEGATIVE,
Definition

TCBS AGAR GREEN COLONIES,

VIBRIO PARAHEMOLYTICUS

Term
A gram negative S shaped rod recovered from selective media for Cappylobacter species gave the following results.CAt pos, Oxidase pos, motility pos, hippurate hydrolysis pos, Growth at 42C pos, Nalidixic acid susceptible, grape order negative.
Definition
Campylobacter jujeni are the ones that hydrolyze hippurate
Term
What atmospheric condition is needed to recover Campylobacter spp. from specimens inoculated onto a Campy-selective agar at 35C and 42C
Definition
5% O2, 10%CO2, and 85% N2.
Term
Which group of test best differentiates Helicobacteer pylori from C.jejuni
Definition
Urease, nitrate and HIPPURATE HYDROLYSIS.(jejuni)
Term
Which of the following test test should be done first in order to differentiate Pleasiomonas shigellosis from Shigella species on selective enteric agar?
Definition

Oxidase... P. shigellosis is a lactose nonfermenter that will resemble Shigella spp. on macconkey agar

P. shigellosis is the only enterobacteriacae that is oxidase positive

Term
What is the best two test to differentiate A. hydrophillia from P. shigellosis
Definition
DNase and VP. Both of these bacteria cause diarreah grow well on enteric agar , and may be confused with enterobacteriaceae, Both organisms are positive for oxidase, motility, indole, and lysine decarboxylase. A. hydrophillia is beta hemolytic on blood agar.
Term
Which genus ( in which most species are oxidase and catalase positive) of small gram negative cocobacillus is mainly associated with animals but may cause endocarditus, bacteremia and wound and dental infections in humans.
Definition
Actinobacillus ( its main habitat is the mouth)
Term
Which of the following test may be used to differentiate Cardiobacterum hominus from Actinobacillus spp.
Definition
Indole. Cardiobacterum hominus is a gram negative cocobacillus similar to Actinobacillus it is a cause of endocarditus. c. hominus are oxidase positive and negative for nitrate reduction.
Term
A mixture of slender gram negative rods and cocbacilli with rounded ends was recovered from blood culture following a patients root canal surgery. Given the following results after 48 hours what is the most llikely organism. cat neg, Ornithine pos, urease neg, lysine pos, oxidase pos, X and V requirement Neg, Indole neg, growth on blood and chocolate agar pos ( with PITTING) of the agar, Carbohydrate neg, growth on Macconkey agar neg.
Definition
Eikenella corrodens
Term
Kingella Kingae is usually associated with which type of infection?
Definition
Endocarditus. \ King the big one...
Term
Cultures obtained from a dog bite wound produced yellow, tan and slightly pink colonies on blood and chocolate agar with a margin of finger like projections. appearing as a film around the colonies. Given the following results at 24 hours, which is the most likely organism? oxidase pos, cat pos, growth on macconkey neg, motility neg.
Definition
Capnophaga. normal flora in humans , however infectious from a dog bite.
Term
Smooth gray colonies showing no hemolysis are recovered from an infected cat scratch on blood agar and chocolate agar. The organisma are gram negative pleomorphic rods that are both catalase positive and oxidase positive. The most likely organism is
Definition
Pasturella...cat scratch
Term
Which media should be used to recover bordetella pertusis from nasopharangel specimens,
Definition
Bordet gengou agar
Term
Which media is recommended for the recovery of brucella spp from blood and bone marrow.
Definition
Biphasic castenega bottles with brucella broth.
Term
In addition to CO2 requirements and biochemical characeristics, brucella melitensis and brucella abortus are differential by growth on media containing which two dyes.
Definition

Basic fusion and thionin

Abortus is negative for thionin.

Term
Which of the following amino acids are required for the growth of francisella tularensis
Definition
Cystiene and cystine
Term
Which medium is best for recovery of legionella pneumophilia from clinical specimens.
Definition

Buffered charcoal yeast extract agar.

 CYE agar

Term
Haemophilus influenza, which requires X and V factors for growth, can be differentiated from subspecies Haemophilus aegyptis by which two test?
Definition
Indole and xylose.
Term
Haemophilus spp. that requires the V factor (NAD) are easily recovered from which agar plate.
Definition

Chocolate, the V factor is NAD must be released from RBCS before it can be assimilated by Haemophilus sp.

the RBCs are lysed in chocolate agar.

Term
Which of the folowing products is resopnsible for satellite growth of heamophylilus spp. around colonies of staphylococcus and Neisseria spp. on sheep blood agar.
Definition

NAD.

Beta hemolysins lyse the RBCs and release the NAD

Term
Which of the following plates should be used in order to identify Haemophilus haemolyticus.and Haemophilus parahaemolyticus?
Definition

Horse blood agar and muller hinton agar with X and V factor added.

you need something with hemolysis to tell the two apart. haemolyticus is hemolytic.

Term
The majority of Haemophilus influinza infections are caused by which of the following capsular serotypes?
Definition
b
Term
Which Haemophilus species is generally associated with endocarditus.
Definition
Haemophilus aphrophilus.
Term
Which Haemophilus species is difficult to isolate and recover form genital ulcers and swollen lymph nodes.
Definition
H. ducreyi
Term
Which of the following is characteristic of strains of haemophilus influenza that are resistant to ampicillin?
Definition
Production of beta lactamase enzyme. Roughly 20% of h. flu strains produce B-Lactamase, which hydrolyses and inactivates the beta lactam ring of ampicillin and penicillin.
Term
A small gram negative cocobacilla recovered from a CSF of a two year old. gave the following results indole pos, Glucose acid, X requirement positive, V requirement positive, Urease positive, lactose neg, sucrose neg, hemolysis neg,
Definition
not hemolyticus.... because not hemolyzed... INFLUENZA
Term
The delta ALA test (for porphyrins) is a confirmatory procedure for which test used for the identification of haemophylus species.
Definition
X factor.... you could make a mistake because you could have picked a hemolytic bacteria or scooped up some agar..
Term
The test used most often to separate the Micrococcaceae family from the streptococcus family is
Definition
Catalase. 3%
Term
Micrococcus and staphylococcus species are differentiated by which test?
Definition
Fermentation of glucose (OF)tube Miicrococcus dont ferment. (closed tube)
Term
Lysostaphin is used to differentiate staphylococcus from which other genus
Definition

Micrococcus.

staphylococcus is susceptible to lysostaphin

Term
Which of the following is used to identify Staphylococcus aureus?
Definition
Slide coagulase, tube coagulase and latex agglutination.
Term
Which of the following enzymes contribute to the virulence of staph auerus
Definition
Haluronidase and beta lactamase.
Term
Which staphylococcus species in addition to staph aureus also produces coagualse
Definition
S intermedius
Term
Staphyococcus epidermidis (coagulase negative) is recovered from which of the following sources.
Definition
Prostetic heart valves, Intervenous catheters , Urinary tract. 50-80% of all coagulase negative staph.
Term
Slime production is associated wiith which staphylococcus species.
Definition
S. epidermidis. produces extracellular slime that enhaces the adheasion
Term
Strains of staphylococcus species resistant to the beta lactam antibiotics by standardized disc diffusion and broth microdilution susceptibility methods are called
Definition
Heteroresistant.
Term
Staphylococcus saprophyticus is best differentiated from staphylococcus epidermidis by resistance to
Definition
5 micrograms of novobiocin.
Term
The following results were observed by using a tube coagulase test coagulase at 4 hours positive. Coagulase at 18 hours negative. Novobiacin sensitive Hemolysis on blood agar positive. Mannitol salt positive DNase positive
Definition
Staphylococcus aureus can produce fibrinolysins that dissolve the clot formed by the coagulase enzyme. it is still positive.
Term
Staphylococcus aureus recovered from a wound culture gave the following antibiotic sensitivity pattern by the standardized kirby bauer method Pennicillin R, Ampicillin S, Cephalothin R, cefoxitin R, Vancoumycin S, Methcillin R, What is the drug of choice for treating this patient
Definition
Vancoumycin
Term
Which of the following test should be used to differentiate Staphylococcus aureus from Staphylococcus intermedius
Definition
Acetoin
Term
A gram positive coccus recovered from a wound ulcer from a 31 year old diabetic patient showed pale yellow creamy. beat hemolytic colonies on blood agar. given the following results what is the most likely identification. Cat pos, Glucose OF positive open tube, negative sealed tube. Mannitol salt Neg slide coagulase neg.
Definition
Micrococcus is sealed tube NEGATIVE remember that.
Term
Urine culture from a catheter from an 18 year old female patient produced more than 100,000 col/mL on a CNA plate. Colonies were catalase pos. coagulase neg by the latex agglutination slide method as well as the tube coagulation test . The best singular test for identification is.
Definition
Novobiocin susceptibiity.
Term
A staphylococcus spp. recovered from a wound (cellulitus) was negative for the slide coagulase test (clumping factor) and negative for novobiocin resistance. The next test needed for identification is
Definition
tube coagulase, Beta hemolysis on blood agar, Mannitol salt agar plate,
Term
Furazolidone susceptibility is a test used to differentiate
Definition
Staphylococcus from micrococcus spp. Staphylococcus are susceptible giving zones of inhibition that are 15 mm or greater.
Term
Bacitracin resistance (0.04 unit) is used to differentiate:
Definition
Planococcus from micrococcus.
Term
Which of the following test will rapidly differentiate micrococci from staphylococci?
Definition
Modified Oxidase.
Term
Streptococcus species exhibit the following properties.
Definition
Facultative anaerobe, oxidase negative, catalase negative.
Term
Which group of streptococci is associated with erythrogenic toxin prodction?
Definition

Group A

A RED FACE,

Term
A four fold rise in titer of which antibodies is the best indicator of a recent infection with group A beta hemolytic streptoocci?
Definition
Anti-streptolysin O
Term
Bacitracin A disks (0.04 unit) are used for the presumptive identification of which grop of beta hemolytic streptococci.
Definition
Group A
Term
Trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (SXT) disks are used along with bacitracin disks to differentiate which streptococci
Definition

beta hemolytic streptococci.

ONLY

Term
Beta hemolytic streptococci not of group A or B usually exhibit which of the following reactions.
Definition

SXT Susceptible

bacitracin is variable

Term
A false positive camp test for the pesumptive identifivcation of group B strep may occur if the plate is incubated in
Definition
a candle jar or CO2 incubator. It must be incubated in ambieant air. CAMP in air,
Term
Which test is used to differentiate the viridans strep from the group D strep. and enterococci?
Definition
Bile esculin test. can they grow in the presence of bile. group D can and cause a blackened butte. Viridans strep are negative.
Term
The bile soluability test causes the lysis of
Definition
Strep pneumo
Term
S. pneumoniae and the viridans strep can be differentiated by which test
Definition
Optichin. inhibits s pneumo but NOT the viridans.
Term
The salt tolerance test (6.5% salt broth ) is used to presumptivily identify
Definition
Enterococcus fecalis
Term
In addition to Enterococcus feacalis, which other strep will grow in 6.5% salt broth
Definition
B... salty Balls
Term
The quelling test is used to identify which streptococcus spp.
Definition
S. pneumoniaea
Term
The L-pyrrolidonyl B-napthylamide (PYR) hydrolysis test is a presumptive test for which streptococcus.
Definition
Group A and group D enterococcus.
Term
A pure culture of beta hemolytic strep recovered from a leg wound ulcer gaqve the following reactions. CAMP neg Hippurate hydrolysis negative Bile esculin negative 6.5% salt negative PYR neg Bacitracin R Optichin R SXT sensitive
Definition
Non-grp A, non-grp B, Non-grp D.
Term

Beta hemolytic streptococci, more than 50,000 col/mL were isolated from a urinary tract catheter. given the following reactions, what is the most likely identification?

CAMP neg

Hippurate hydrolysis pos/neg

Bile soluability neg

  6.5% pos 

PYR pos

bile esculin pos 

SXT R  Bacitracin R  Optichin R

Definition
Enterococcus fecalis
Term
Nutritionally variant streptococcus (NVS) require specific thiol compoundsn cysteine, or the active form of vitamine B6, Which test supplies these requirements?
Definition
Staphlococcus cross streak accross the NVS innoculum, provides the nutrients needed, Very small colonies of NVS can be seen growing adjacent to the staphylococci streak on the blood agar plate in a manner similar to the satellite phenomenon of haemophylus spp. around S. aureus
Term

Many alpha hemolytic strep recovered from a wound were found to be pennicillin resistant Given the following results What is the most likely identification? Bile esculin pos PYR pos 6.5% salt pos Hippurate hydrol pos

 Bile solubility neg

 SXT resistant

Definition
E. faecalis the key is the penicillin resistance...
Term
Which two test best differentiates S. bovis (group D streptococcus , enterococcus) from strep salivarius
Definition
Starch hydrolysis and acid production from mannitol. S. bovis and S. salivarius are similar... only S. bovis is positive for mannitol and starch reactions.
Term

Two blood cultures on a newborn grew beta hemolytic strep with the following reactions CAMP test pos Hippurate hydreol pos Bile solubility neg

Bacitracin R Bile esculin Neg PYR neg SXT R

Definition
Group B S. agalactiae are resistant to both bacitracin and SXT.
Term
MTM medium is used primarily for the selective ecovery of which organism from genital specimens?
Definition
N. gonorrheae
Term
Variaton in coloney types seen with fresh isolates of Niesseria gonorrhoeae and sometime with Niesseria meningitidis are the result of:
Definition
Multiple nutritional requirements, Pili on the cell surface, and use of a transparent meduim.
Term
Gram negative dipilococci recovered from an MTM plate and giving a positive oxidase test can be presumptively identified as:
Definition
Neisseria gonorrhea, Neisseria meningitidis, Neisseria lactamica.
Term
The superoxol test is used a a rapid presumptive test for
Definition
Neisseria gonorrheae
Term
Nonpathogenic Moraxella spp. capable of growing on selective media for Neisseria can be differentiated from Neisseria spp. by which test?
Definition
10-unit penicilin disk.
Term
A gram stain on a uretheral discharge from a man showing extracellular and intracellular gram-negative diplococci within segmeneted neutrophils is presumptive for
Definition
Neisseria gonorrheae. this is not true for weomen
Term
The beta-galactosidase test aides in the identifiation of which Neisseria
Definition
Neisseria lactamica.
Term
Cystine tryptic digest (CTA) media used for identification of Neisseria spp. should be inoculated and cultured in:
Definition
A non-CO2 incubater at 35C for up to 72 hours.
Term
Culture on MTM media of a vaginal swab produced several colonies of gram negative dipilococci that were catalase and oxidase positive and superoxol negative. Given the folowing reactions what is the most likely identification.? glocose pos sucrose neg lactose pos maltose pos fructose neg
Definition
Neisseria Lactamica is the only spp that grows on MTM and utilizes LACTOSE
Term
Sputum from a patient with pneumonia produced many colonies of gram negative diplococci on a chocolate plate that were also present in fewer numbers on MTM after 48 hours. What is the most likely identification? Cat pos oxi pos DNase pos tributyrin hydrolysis pos Glu neg suc neg Lac neg Mal neg Fru neg
Definition
Moraxella catarralis stunted growth on MTM, DNase pos.
Term

Anaerobes.

A large gram positive spore forming rod growing on blood agar as large raised beta hemolytic colonies that spread and appear frosted green gray glass is most likely a

Definition
Bacillus sp.
Term
Bacillus anthracis and Bacillus cereus can best be differentiated by which test
Definition
Motility and beta hemolysis on blood agar.
Term
What is the specimen of choice for proof of food poisoning by Bacillus cereus
Definition
Food
Term
Bacillus anthracis culture obtained from a wound specimen produced colonies that had many outgrowths (medusa-head appearance), but were not beta hemolytic on sheep blood agar. What test should be preformed next
Definition
penicillin 10unit susceptibility test Bacillus anthracis is susceptible but other Bacillus is not.
Term
Which of the following test should be performed for initial differentiation of listeria monocytogenes from group B streptococci.
Definition
Gram stain, motility at room temp, catalase.
Term
Culture of a finger wound specimen from a meat packer produced short gram positve bacilli on a blood agar plate with no hemolysis. Given the following test results at 48 hours, what is the most likely identification. cat neg H2S/TSI pos Motility wet prep neg Motility media neg bottle brush growth in stab culture.
Definition
E. rhusiopathiae
Term
A non-sporeforming slender gram positive rod froming palisades and chains was recovered from a vasginal culture grew well on tomato juice agar. The most likely identification is
Definition
Lactoacillis
Term
A corynebacterium secies recovered from a throat culture is considered a pathogen when it produces
Definition
A pseudomembrane in the nasopharynx, an exotoxin, Gray black colonies with a brown halo on tnisdale agar
Term
A presumptive diagnosis of gardnerella vaginalis can be made using which of the following findings.
Definition
Oxidase and catalase(neg), pleomorphic bacilli heavily colonized on vaginal epithelium Hippurate hydrolysis.
Term
A gram positive branching filimentatious organism recovered from a sputum specimen was recovered from a sputum and found to be positive with a modified acid fast stain method. what is most likely?
Definition
Nocardia
Term
Routein Laboratory testing for treponema pallidum involves:
Definition
Serological analysis
Term
Spirochetes often detected in the hemotology laboratory, even before the physician suspects the infection are.
Definition
Borrelia spp.
Term
Which of the following organisms is the cause of lyme disease
Definition
Borrelia Burgdorferi
Term
The diagnostic method most commonly used for the identification of lyme disease is
Definition
serology
Term
Primary atypical pneumonia is caused by
Definition
Mycoplasm pneumoniae
Term
Which organism typically prodices fried egg colonies on agar within 1-5 ays of culture from a genital specimen?
Definition
Mycoplasm Hominis
Term
The Manganous chloride-urea test is used for the identification of which organism?
Definition
Uroplasma urealyticum
Term
A gram positive gram variable, beaded organism with diabetic branching was recovered from the sputum fo a 20 year old patient with leukemia. the specimen produced orange glabrous , waxy colonies on middle brook agar that showed partial acid fast staining with the modified kenyoun stain. What is the most likely identification?
Definition
Nocardia
Term
A direct smear from a nasopharyngeal swab stained with loeffler methylene blue stain showed various letter shapes and deep blue, metachromatic granules,
Definition
Cory
Term
Which of the following is the best, rapid, noncultured test to preform when gardenerella vaginalis is suspected in a patient with vaginosis
Definition
10% KOH, Whiff test...
Term
ANAEROBIC BACTERIA. Obligate anaerobes, facultative anaerobes, and microaerophilic are terms referring to bacteria requireing:
Definition
Decreased O2
Term
Which of the following most affects the oxidation reduction potential (Eh or redox potential) of media for anaerobic bacteria.
Definition
PH, PH , PH, PH
Term
Which of the following is the medium of choice for the selective recovery of gram negative anaerobes?
Definition
Kanamycin-vancoumycin (KV agar)
Term
Anaerobic bacteria are routinely isolated from all of the following except:
Definition
Urinary tract infections
Term
Methods other than packaged microsystems used to identify Anaerobic bacteria include
Definition
GLC gas liquid chromotography
Term
Which broth is used for the cultivation of Anaerobic bacteria in order to detect the volitile fatty acids as an aide to identification?
Definition
Prereduced peptone yeast extract glucose
Term
A gram positive spore forming bacillus growing on sheep blood agar anaerobically produces a double zone of beta hemolysis and is positive for lecthinase what is ID?
Definition
C. perfringens
Term
Egg yolk agar is used to detect which enzyme produced by Clostridium?
Definition
Lecithinase
Term
Which of the following organisms will display lipase activity on egg yolk agar
Definition
C. botulism C. sporogenes C. novyi
Term
Which spore type and location is found on C. tetani.
Definition
Round terminal.
Term
Gram positive bacilli recovered from two blood cultures from a 60 year old diabetic gave the following results. Spores seen neg hemolysis + double zone Motility neg Lectithinase positive Volitile acids by GLC = acetic acid and butyric acid.
Definition
C. perfringenes
Term
What mechanism is responsible for botulism in infants caused by C. botulism
Definition
Ingestion of spores in food or liquid.
Term
The classic form of foodborne botulism is characteristic by the ingestion of
Definition
preformed toxin in food.
Term
Which test is performed in order to confirm an infection with C. botulinum
Definition
Toxin neutralization.
Term
Which Clostridium spp. causes pseudomembraneous colitis or antibiotic associated colitus?
Definition
C. difficile
Term
Identification of Clostridium tetani is based on
Definition
Clinical findings
Term
Obligate anaerobic gram negative bacilli that do not form spores grow well in 20% bile and are resistant to penicillin-2 unit disks are most likely:
Definition
Bacteroides
Term
Which Bacteroides spp. is noted for pitting of the agar and is sensitive to penicillin 2-unit disks
Definition
B. ureolyticus
Term
Which gram negative bacilli produce black pigment and brick red flouresence when exposed to an ultra violet light source?
Definition
Porphyromonas spp. and Prevotella
Term

The following characteristics of an obligate anaerobe gram negative bacilli best describe which genera :

 

Gram stain: long slender rods with pointed ends.

Clolnial appearance dry bread crumbs or fried egg appearace.

Penicillin 2-unit disks: susceptible

 

 

Definition
Fusobacterium
Term

Which one is not an anaerobic cocci that stains gram positive?

Peptococcus

Peptostreptococcus

streptococcus

Veillonella spp

Definition
Veillonella spp
Term
The gram positive non-spore forming anaerobic rods most frequently recovered from blood cultures as a contaminant are:
Definition
Proprionibacterium acnes
Term
Which Clostridium Spp. is most often recovered from a wound infection with gas gang green?
Definition
C. perfringenes
Term
Gram stain of a smaear taken from periodontal pockets of a 30 year old man with poor dental hygene showed sulfer granules containing gram positive rods (short diptheroids and some branched filiments). Colonies on blood agar resembled molor teeth in formation, The most likely organism is:
Definition
Actinomyces israelli
Term
Antimicrobial susceptibility testing of anaerobes is done by which of the following methods?
Definition
Micro-tube broth dilution
Term

MYCOBACTERIA 7.8 Harr

 

The best specimen for the recovery of mycobacteria from a sputum sample is:

 

Definition
First morning specimen
Term
What concentration of sodium hydroxyide (NaOH) is used to prepare a working decontamination solution for the processing of not normally sterile specimens for mycobacteria:
Definition
4% NaOH
Term
Which is the most appropriate non-selective medium for the recovery of mycobacteria from a heavily contamnated specimen?
Definition
Petragnanis agar
Term
Mycobacteria stained by Ziehl-Neelsen or Kinyoun methods with methylene blue counter stain are seen microscopically as:
Definition
Bright red rods against a blue background
Term
Acid fast of a smear prepared from a digested sputum showed slender, slightly curved, beaded red mycobacterial rods. Growth on middlebrook 7H10 slants produced buff colored microcolonies with a surpentine pattern after 14 days at 37C. Niacin and nitrate reduction test were positive. What is it?
Definition
M. tuberculosis
Term
Which organism associated with cattle, causes tuberculosis in humans, especially in regions where dairy farming is prevelent?
Definition
Mycobacterium bovis
Term
What organism are used as controls for rapid growers and slow growers?
Definition
Mycobacterium fortuitum and Mycobacterium tuberculosis
Term
What Mycobacterium is produced pigmented colonies in the dark (is a scotochromogen)?
Definition
M. szulgai
Term
What Mycobacterium is associated with a skin infection:
Definition

Mycobacterium marinum

Mycobacterium haemophilum

Mycobacterium ulcerans

 

not

 

Mycobacterium kansasii

 

Term
All of the following Mycobacterium spp. produce the enzyme to convert niacin to niacin ribonucleotide except:
Definition
M. tuberculosis