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MIcrobiology Exam 2
Microbiology Exam 2
200
Microbiology
02/27/2013

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Cards

Term
Which bacterial identification method relies upon antibodies to identify bacterium?
Definition
Serology methods
Term
What is the point of a phage typing test?
Definition
To determine which phages (bacterial viruses) a bacteria is susceptible to
Term
What is the principle behind a G+C base composition bacterial identification method?
Definition
Overall % of G and C content compared to A and T content in DNA
Term
True or False:

PCR is one method used to identify bacteria
Definition
True
Term
True or False

rRNA sequencing is NOT a method used to identify bacteria
Definition
False
Term
True or False:

Spirochetes are associated with the use of axial filaments
Definition
True
Term
Which of the following is considered a spirochete:

Neisseria, treponema, Pseudomonas, H. pylori
Definition
Treponema
Term
What are the 3 spirochetes discussed during lecture?
Definition
treponema, borrelia, leptospira
Term
Describe the gram reaction and morphology of Campylobacter jejuni.
Definition
Gram negative curved/spiral rod
Term
Describe the gram reaction and morphology of Helicobacter pylori.
Definition
Gram negative curved rod
Term
True or False:

Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a gram-positive faculative anaerobe cocci.
Definition
False

P. aeruginosa is a gram negative aerobe rod
Term
Where is pseudomonas aeruginosa likely to be found?
Definition
In the soil
Term
True or False:

Pseudomonas aeruginosa is associated with an innate antibiotic resistance
Definition
true
Term
Describe the gram reaction and morphology of all Neisseria species.
Definition
Gram negative diplococcus
Term
What environment does an Enterobacteriaceae thrive in? What is its gram reaction and morphology?
Definition
Faculative anaerobe

Gram negative rod
Term
E. coli, salmonella, and shigella are all part of which bacterial family?
Definition
Enterobacteriaceae
Term
Which group of bacteria is associated with fermenting glucose and various other carbohydrates?
Definition
Enterobacteriaceae
Term
True or False:

Vibrio cholerae is a faculative anaerobic gram-negative rod
Definition
True
Term
What are the two requirements for culturing haemophilus?
Definition
Must have blood in the culture medium

Requires hemin
Term
Describe the gram reaction and morphology of haemophilus. What environment does it thrive in?
Definition
Gram negative rod

Faculative anaerobe
Term
What environment do bacteroides species thrive in and what is their gram reaction and morphology?
Definition
Anaerobic gram-negative rods
Term
What are the 3 likely locations one would find Bacteroides species?
Definition
Oral cavity, genital tract, respiratory tract
Term
True or False:

Bacteroides species are known for producing spores.
Definition
False

They are nonspore-forming
Term
What bacteria is associated with causing periodontitis?
Definition
Bacteroides species
Term
Describe the motility of bacteroides species?
Definition
Non-motile
Term
How does one acquire Rickettsia?
Definition
arthropod vector (louse, tick, mosquito)
Term
What two groups of bacteria are known as "obligate intracellular gram-negative coccobacillus?"
Definition
Rickettsia and Chlamydia trachomatis
Term
What are two common diseases associated with Rickettsia bacterial infections?
Definition
Typhus, Rocky Mountain spotted fever
Term
True or False:

Chlamydia trachomatis is associated with blindness
Definition
true
Term
Walking pneumonia (primary atypical pneumonia) is caused by what bacterial species?
Definition
Mycoplasma pneumoniae
Term
What is significant about the cell walls of Mycoplasma pneumoniae?
Definition
They DONT have cell walls
Term
What bacteria is associated with causing wound infections, toxic shock syndrome, and food poisoning?
Definition
Staphylococcus aureus
Term
Strep throat is caused by which specific species of Streptococcus?
Definition
Streptococcus pyogenes
Term
What is the major pathogenic species of the Staphylococcus family?
Definition
Staphylococcus aureus
Term
What is the gram reaction and morphology of Bacillus anthracis? What disease is associated with this species?
Definition
Gram-positive rod

anthrax
Term
True or False:

Bacillus anthracis can survive extreme conditions
Definition
True

Since it is endospore forming
Term
True or False:

Bacillus anthracis thrives in an anerobic environment
Definition
False

B. anthracis is an aerobic species
Term
What two diseases are associated with Clostridium perfringens?
Definition
food poisoning and gas gangrene
Term
Clostridium species thrive in what environment? Describe their gram reaction and morphology.
Definition
Anaerobic

Gram-positive rods
Term
What is the gram reaction and morphology of Corynebacterium diphtheriae?
Definition
gram positive rod

Pleomorphic morphology (irregular)
Term
What is the gram reaction and morphology of Listeria monocytogenes?
Definition
gram positive rods
Term
True or False:

Listeria monocytogenes and Corynebacterium diphtheriae are endospore forming bacteria.
Definition
False

Nonspore-forming gram positive rods
Term
Which bacteria is likely to cause stillbirth in pregnant women?
Definition
Listeria monocytogenes
Term
What type of person is likely to acquire Listeria monocytogenes?
Definition
Immunocomprimised
Term
Which genus of bacteria is associated with leprosy and tuberculosis?
Definition
Mycobacterium
Term
What is significant about the cell walls of Mycobacterium species?
Definition
Mycolic acid in cell walls
Term
What the the gram reaction and morphology of all Mycobacterium species?
Definition
Trick question, Mycobacterium do not stain via gram staining because their cell walls contain mycolic acid. Thus, they stain via acid fast staining. However, their morphology is rod-shaped
Term
What is the gram reaction and morphology of Bacillus anthracis? What disease is associated with this species?
Definition
Gram-positive rod

anthrax
Term
True or False:

Bacillus anthracis can survive extreme conditions
Definition
True

Since it is endospore forming
Term
True or False:

Bacillus anthracis thrives in an anerobic environment
Definition
False

B. anthracis is an aerobic species
Term
What two diseases are associated with Clostridium perfringens?
Definition
food poisoning and gas gangrene
Term
Clostridium species thrive in what environment? Describe their gram reaction and morphology.
Definition
Anaerobic

Gram-positive rods
Term
What is the gram reaction and morphology of Corynebacterium diphtheriae?
Definition
gram positive rod

Pleomorphic morphology (irregular)
Term
What is the gram reaction and morphology of Listeria monocytogenes?
Definition
gram positive rods
Term
True or False:

Listeria monocytogenes and Corynebacterium diphtheriae are endospore forming bacteria.
Definition
False

Nonspore-forming gram positive rods
Term
Which bacteria is likely to cause stillbirth in pregnant women?
Definition
Listeria monocytogenes
Term
What type of person is likely to acquire Listeria monocytogenes?
Definition
Immunocomprimised
Term
Which genus of bacteria is associated with leprosy and tuberculosis?
Definition
Mycobacterium
Term
What is significant about the cell walls of Mycobacterium species?
Definition
Mycolic acid in cell walls
Term
What the the gram reaction and morphology of all Mycobacterium species?
Definition
Trick question, Mycobacterium do not stain via gram staining because their cell walls contain mycolic acid. Thus, they stain via acid fast staining. However, their morphology is rod-shaped
Term
Whats the function of vegetative mycelium and aerial mycelium?
Definition
vegetative - nutrients

aerial - reproduction
Term
What does the term coenocytic mean?
Definition
No septae
Term
What term refers to fungal filaments?
Definition
Hyphae
Term
What does the term thallus mean?
Definition
fungal body of a filamentous fungi
Term
What makes this statement false:

Yeasts are filamentous multicellular fungi which have a spherical morphology and reproduce via binary fission.
Definition
Yeasts are NONFILAMENTOUS UNICELLULAR fungi which have spherical morphology and reproduce via BUDDING
Term
Describe a dimorphic fungi.
Definition
Fungi which exhibits two forms of growth at different temperatures

37 deg C = grows as a yeast
25 deg C = grows as a filament
Term
True or False

Asexual reproducing fungi do not exhibit genetic diversity.
Definition
True
Term
What three structures are associated with asexually reproducing fungi?
Definition
Sporangiospore (in a sac)
Sporangium (sac containing spores)
Conidia (spores not enclosed in sac)
Term
What pH do fungi need to be near for survival?
Definition
5.0
Term
True or False:

Molds are aerobic fungi while yeasts are faculative anaerobes
Definition
True
Term
Which of the following is false:

Fungi grow in a low sugar or salt environment and require high amounts of moisture to survive

Fungi require less nitrogen to survive than many other species

Fungi metabolize complex carbohydrates

Fungi grow in a pH relatively near 5.0
Definition
Fungi grow in a low sugar or salt environment and require high amounts of moisture to survive

Typically, fungi grow in high surgar or salt environements and do not need very much moisture. This is why they require less nitrogen than many other species
Term
A mycosis is a ...
Definition
fungal infection
Term
What are the 5 categories of fungal infections (based off of degree of tissue involvement and mode of entry into body)
Definition
Systemic
Subcutaneous
Cutaneous
Superficial
Opportunistic
Term
This type of fungi causes systemic mycoses? How does it enter the body?
Definition
Saprophytic fungi living in the soil

They enter the body via inhalation of endospores
Term
What are the two systemic mycoses discussed during lecture?
Definition
Histoplasmosis

Coccidioidomycosis
Term
A subcutaneous mycoses is one that is ______________________. It is caused by __________ fungi which lives in _______________. Its route of transmission is ________________
Definition
A subcutaneous mycoses is one that is BENEATH THE SKIN. It is caused by SAPROPHYTIC fungi which lives in SOIL/VEGETATION. Its route of transmission is DIRECT IMPLANTATION OF SPORES IN PUNCTURE OR WOUND.
Term
What type of mycoses is Sporothrix schenckii associated with?
Definition
Subcutaneous mycoses
Term
Dermatophytes cause _____________ mycoses. They secrete ___________. The route of transmission for this mycoses is _________________________.
Definition
Dermatophytes cause CUTANEOUS mycoses. The secrete KERATINASE. Their route of transmission is DIRECT CONTACT WITH INFECTED HUMAN
Term
Trichophyton, epidermophyton, and microsporum are associated with this type of mycoses.
Definition
Cutaneous mycoses (dermatomycoses)
Term
True or False:

In a normal habitat, opportunistic mycoses are highly pathogenic.
Definition
False:

Opportunistic mycoses only become pathogenic in a host who is immunocompromised.
Term
Mucormycosis, aspergillosis, and candidiasis all fall under which category of mycoses?
Definition
Opportunistic mycoses
Term
What two fungi are considered to cause Mucormycosis?
Definition
Rhizopus and Mucor
Term
Apicomplexans are also known as ...?
Definition
sporozoans
Term
Flagellates, one of the medically important protozoa, are also known as ...?
Definition
Mastigophora
Term
Amoebae, one of the medically important protozoa, are also known as...?
Definition
Sarcodina
Term
Amoebae move via ...?
Definition
Pseudopods
Term
This species of amoebae is known to cause amebic dystentery?
Definition
Entamoeba histolytica
Term
Trichomonas vaginalis falls under which category of protozoan?
Definition
Flagellates
Term
Giardia lamblia falls under which category of protozoans?
Definition
Flagellates
Term
Where would a hemoflagellate be found in the human body and how does it become transmitted?
Definition
Found in the blood or lymph fluids and it is transmitted by bites or feces of blood-feeding insects
Term
African sleeping sickness is caused by what genus and species of protozoan? This protozoan falls under which category?
Definition
Caused by Trypanosoma brucei which falls under Hemoflagellates
Term
True or False:

African sleeping sickness is associated with the tsetse fly.
Definition
True

The tsetse fly is an arthropod vector for Trypanosoma brucei
Term
Chagas' disease is caused by which protozoan? It is transferred to a human via which arthropod vector?
Definition
Caused by Trypanosoma cruzi and is transmitted by the kissing bug or reduviid bug
Term
Trypanosoma cruzi falls under which category of protozoan?
Definition
Hemoflagellates
Term
Plasmodium species fall under which category of protozoan? These species are the causative agent for which major disease?
Definition
Apicomplexans

Malaria
Term
True or False:

Plasmodium species definitve host is in the mosquito
Definition
True
Term
When a mosquito containing malaria bites you it injects what into the human body?
Definition
Injects a sporozoite (sexual stage)
Term
What does the term dioecious refer to?
Definition
Separate sexes
Term
True or False:

Monoecious is synonymous with hermaphrodidic
Definition
true
Term
Trematodes/flukes fall under which phyla of helminth?
Definition
Platyhelminthes
Term
An acetabulum is also known as a...?
Definition
Ventral sucker of a trematode
Term
What is the intermediate hose for a trematode?
Definition
Snail
Term
How does a trematode obtain its food?
Definition
From absorption through a cuticle
Term
A schistosome is also known as a ...?
Definition
Blood fluke
Term
Respectively, the scolex and proglottids are also known as?
Definition
Holdfast organ and segments on a cestode
Term
The infective stage of a nematode is ...?
Definition
Larvae or egg
Term
Which two helminth species discussed in lecture have their infective stage as larvae?
Definition
Necator americanus (hookworm) and Trichinella spiralis
Term
Trichinella spiralis is transmitted to humans by...?
Definition
Ingesting larvae
Term
What is a virion? What is it made of? Is there any special structure?
Definition
Complete, fully-developed viral particle composed of nucleic acid and surrounded by protein coat
Term
How do viruses multiply?
Definition
By taking over the host cells machinery (obligate intracellular parasite)
Term
How does a capsid differ from a capsomere?
Definition
Capsid - protein coat

Capsomere - protein subunits that make up capsid
Term
Between naked viruses and enveloped viruses, which is more resistant to killing?
Definition
Naked viruses
Term
What is the typical morphology of an enveloped virus?
Definition
Spherical
Term
What is the morphology of a complex virus?
Definition
helical and icosohedral
Term
What does the term icosahedron refer to?
Definition
A virus displaying 20 triangular faces and 12 corners
Term
In reference to viral taxonomy what do the follow suffixs' mean?
-virus
-viridae
-ales
Definition
-virus - genus names
-viridae - family names
-ales - order names
Term
What is the viral cytopathic effect?
Definition
Observation of cell deterioration on a culture virus
Term
Adenoviridae is associated with what pathological condition? Is this a DNA or RNA virus
Definition
common cold

DNA virus
Term
Herpesviridae is associated with cold sores and what other pathological condition? Is this a DNA or RNA virus?
Definition
mononucleosis

DNA virus
Term
Poxviridae is associated with what pathological conditions?

Is this a DNA or RNA virus?
Definition
small pox and cow pox

DNA virus
Term
True or FAlse

Papovaviridae and Hepadnaviridae are what RNA viruses?
Definition
False

DNA viruses
Term
True or FAlse:

A reoviridae is a negative sense ssRNA virus.
Definition
False

reoviridae is a double stranded rna virus
Term
What -viridae is responsible for rabies? influenza? Measles?

These -viridae all fall under the same type of virus (DNA/RNA) which type are they?
Definition
Rabies = Rhabdovirus
Influenza = Orthomyxoviridae
Paramyxoviridae = Measles

All fall under negative sense ssRNA viruses
Term
What are the two positive sense ssRNA viruses and what conditions are associated with each?
Definition
Picornaviridae - common cold, polio

Togaviridae - rubella, arthropod-borne viruses
Term
Togaviridae causes what two pathological conditions?
Definition
Rubella, arthropod-borne viruses
Term
Picornaviridae is responsible for what two pathological conditions?
Definition
common cold and polio
Term
True or False

Retroviridae is composed of 2 copies of positive sense ssRNA
Definition
true
Term
What is a provirus? What type of -viridae is it associated with?
Definition
Provirus - viral dna integrated into host cells chromosome

Associated with retroviridae
Term
True or False:

Reverse transcriptase works by forming DNA from RNA and then degrading to original viral RNA
Definition
True
Term
Viral adsorption is the process of...?
Definition
Attaching to the receptor site
Term
Viral penetration is the process of...?
Definition
Endocytosis or fusion of the virus into the host cell
Term
Viral uncoating is the process of...?
Definition
Releasing of nucleic acid
Term
Viral biosynthesis accomplishes two things, what are they?
Definition
Replication of nucleic acid

Production of capsid proteins
Term
Describe the steps involved for biosynthesis of DNA viruses?
Definition
transciption/translation of early genes

DNA replication

transciption/translation of late genes (capsid proteins)
Term
Describe the steps involved for biosynthesis of RNA viruses? (for + sense rna)
Definition
Positive RNA acts as mRNA and codes for/makes RNA polymerase. Then a - sense copy is made (used as a template for replication) or translation may occur directly
Term
Describe the steps involved for biosynthesis of RNA viruses? (for - antisense RNA)
Definition
- antisense RNA carries RNA polymerase and makes a + strand to be used as a template for replication. The formed + strand may also complex with mRNA to translate enzymes and capsid proteins
Term
Viral assembly (maturation) refers to the process of...?
Definition
assembling viral nucleic acid and capsids into virions
Term
What are two ways that a virus is "released"?
Definition
Budding (seen in enveloped viruses)
Lysis
Term
What are the three dna oncogenic viruses discussed in lecture and what type of cancer can they cause?
Definition
HPV - cervical cancer

EBV - burkitt's lymphoma

HBV - liver cancer
Term
What are the two RNA oncogenic viruses discussed in lecture and what type of cancer can they cause?
Definition
HTLV-1 and HTLV-2

Causes T cell leukemia and lymphoma
Term
Shingles is caused by what virus?
Definition
Herpes zoster
Term
True or False:

The infectious agent for a prion is purely protein.
Definition
True
Term
What is the value for amount of normal flora in the body?
Definition
1.0x10^14
Term
What is microbial antagonism?
Definition
normal flora inhibits overgrowth by pathogens
Term
Is alpha-hemolytic strep inhibiting beta-hemolytic strep considered microbial antagonism?
Definition
yes
Term
E. coli operates under commensalism or mutalism?
Definition
Mutalism because e. coli synthesizes vitamin K and B while the gut contents are used to e. coli growth
Term
True or False:

Mycobacterium leprae and treponema pallidum are culturable bacteria.
Definition
False

They are unculturable according to Koch
Term
What is the difference between signs and symptoms?
Definition
Signs - objective changes in body functions

Symptoms - subjective changes in body function
Term
Incidence vs prevalence?
Definition
Incidence is the number of new cases contracted withing a set population during specified period of time

Prevalence: total number of people infected within populations at any time
Term
bacteremia vs septicemia
Definition
bacteremia : transient bacteria in blood

septicemia: growth/multiplication of bacateria in blood
Term
What type of infection (primary, secondary, subclinical) is HIV and West Nile Virus?
Definition
Subclinical
Term
Convalescence is ...?
Definition
Period of recovery after an infection
Term
What does the term prodromal refer to?
Definition
Early, mild, non-speficic symptoms
Term
What is the reservoir for cholera? Tetanus?
Definition
Cholera - water

tetanus - soil
Term
Tinea capitis is an infection transmitted how?
Definition
Indrect contact (fomite)
Term
This bacteria is responsible for causing septic shock. It is a nosocomial infection. What does this term mean?
Definition
Pseudomonas aeruginosa

Nosocomial - hospital acquired infection
Term
What is the causitive agent for nosocomial UTI's?
Definition
Candida albicans
Term
Fibrooptic instruments are a way to transmit a disease from...?
Definition
Patient to patient
Term
The term selective toxicity refers to...?
Definition
Killing microorganism without harming the host
Term
Isoniazid is an antimicrobial which targets what species?
Definition
Mycobacterium
Term
What term refers to an overgrowth of the normal flora?
Definition
Superinfection
Term
How does penicillin act as an antimicrobial?
Definition
By inhibiting cell wall synthesis
Term
Augmentin contains penicillin and clavulanic acid, what is the purpose of the clavulanic acid?
Definition
It inhibits B-lactamase from cleaving the B-lactam ring
Term
How does a cephalosporin act as an antimicrobial?
Definition
Inhibits cell wall synthesis
Term
True or False:

Vancomycin is used against gram negative organisms
Definition
False

Only effective against gram positive
Term
How is vancomycin an antimicrobial?
Definition
Inhibits cell wall synthesis
Term
Isoiazid acts as an antimicrobial by...?
Definition
Inhibiting mycolic acid synthesis
Term
How do aminoglycosides act as antimicrobials?
Definition
inhibit protein synthesis by preventing tRNA from binding to 30s ribosomes
Term
What two antibiotics are considered aminoglycosides?
Definition
streptomycin and gentamicin
Term
Tetracyclines act as antimicrobials by...?
Definition
Inhibiting protein synthesis by preventing tRNA from binding to 30S ribosomes
Term
How do tetracyclines differ from aminoglycosides?
Definition
Tetracyclines are bacteriostatic

Aminoglycosides are bacteriocidal
Term
Chloramphenicol acts as an antimicrobial by...? Bacteriocidal or static?
Definition
Inhibiting protein synthesis by binding to 50S subunit of ribosome

Bacteriostatic
Term
A macrolide (antimicrobial) is an alternative to what?
Definition
Penicillin
Term
Erythromycin, clarithromycin, and azithromycin are all part of what group of antimicrobials?
Definition
Macrolides
Term
How do macrolides act as antimicrobials?
Definition
Inhibiting protein synthesis by binding to 50S ribosome subunit
Term
What type of antimicrobial works by injuring the plasma membrane?
Definition
polymyxins
Term
How does Rifampin act as an antimicrobial?
Definition
Inhibiting synthesis of mRNA
Term
The antibiotic most likely to be used against pseudomonas infections is?
Definition
Ciprofloxacin
Term
How do quinolones act as antimicrobials?
Definition
inhibit DNA gyrase
Term
Antibiotics ending in _________ are part of the group quinolones?
Definition
-acin
Term
What type of antibiotic works by blocking folic acid synthesis?
Definition
sulfonamides
Term
TMP-SMZ is an antibiotic of what category?
Definition
sulfonamides
Term
amphotericin B works by...?
Definition
binding to ergosterol in fungal plasma membranes
Term
Triazoles work by...?
Definition
interfering with sterol synthesis
Term
Terinafines work by...?
Definition
interfering with sterol synthesis (different than triazoles)
Term
Griseofulvin, a class of anti-fungals, works by...?
Definition
inhibiting fungal reproduction by blocking microtubule assembly and interfering with mitosis
Term
Herpesvirus infections are treated with what types of antivirals?
Definition
Those ending in -ovir

ancyclovir, valacyclovir, etc
Term
The antiviral drug category, amantadine, works by...?
Definition
preventing penetration of cell by virus
Term
The antiviral drug, zanamivir or oseltamivir, works by...?
Definition
inhibiting neuraminidase
Term
The HIV drug zidovudine and didanosine work by...?
Definition
blocking activity of reverse transcriptase of HIV
Term
The HIV drug indinavir and saquinavir work by...?
Definition
Inhibiting HIV protease activity
Term
The HIV drug Enfuvirtide works by...?
Definition
Inhibiting fusion of HIV to its receptor on host cell
Term
A parenteral route of infection is one where the pathogen enters from...?
Definition
Breaks in the skin
Term
What is the gram reaction of an organism which produces an exotoxin?
Definition
Gram positive
Term
What is the most lethal type of substance known?
Definition
Exotoxins
Term
The Diphtheria toxin is dangerous because it inhibits what human process?
Definition
protein synthesis of eukaryotic cells
Term
Diphtheria toxin has two polypeptides, A and B. What does each do?
Definition
A - active portion of toxin

B - binding portion
Term
Endotoxins are cause by what type of gram bacteria?
Definition
Gram negative bacteria
Term
How does an endotoxin get into the system?
Definition
Gram negative bacteria die and the cell walls undergo lysis, thus releasing the endotoxin into the blood stream
Term
What is the portal of exit for the following

TB
HSV-1
Polio
Food-borne illness
STD
HIV
Hepatitis
Malaria
Definition
HSV-1 - mouth
TB - mouth and nose
Polio - feces
Food-borne illness - feces
STDs - gonadal secretions
HIV - gonadal secretions, blood
Hepatitis - blood
Malaria - blood (only by vector)