Shared Flashcard Set

Details

Micro-TEST #1-Lecture 3
Lecture 3
83
Microbiology
09/12/2009

Additional Microbiology Flashcards

 


 

Cards

Term
1. What are some characteristics of the ideal antimicrobial drug?
Definition
Selectively toxic to microbe but nontoxic to host cells
Microbicidal
Relatively soluble; functions even when highly diluted in body fluids
Remains potent long enough to act and is not broken down or excreted prematurely
Doesn’t lead to the development of antimicrobial resistance
Complements or assists the activities of the host’s defenses
Remains active in tissues and body fluids
Readily delivered to site of infection
Reasonably priced
Does not disrupt the host’s health by causing allergies or predisposing the host to other infections
Term
2. Any chemical used in treatment, relief, or prophylaxis of a disease is called
Definition
Chemotherapeutic drug prophylaxis
Term
3. Use of a drug to prevent potential for infection of a person at risk is called
Definition
Prophylaxis
Term
4. The use of chemotherapeutic drugs to control infection is called
Definition
Antimicrobial chemotherapy
Term
5. “antimicrobial drug” is commonly known as
Definition
5. Antimicrobials
Term
6. Substances produced by the natural metabolic processes of some microorganisms that can inhibit or destroy other microorganisms are called
Definition
6. Antibiotics
Term
7. Drugs that are chemically modified in the laboratory after being isolated from natural sources
Definition
7. Semisynthetic drugs
Term
8. The use of chemical reactions to synthesize antimicrobial compounds in the lab
Definition
8. Synthetic drugs
Term
9. Antimicrobials effective against a limited array of microbial types are
Definition
9. Narrow spectrum (limited spectrum)
Term
10. Antimicrobials effective against a wide variety of microbial types are
Definition
10. Broad spectrum (extended spectrum)
Term
are common metabolic products of aerobic spore-forming bacterial and fungi
Definition
11. Antibiotics
Term
12. Describe the different targets of antimicrobial drugs
Definition
12. Inhibition of cell wall synthesis
Breakdown of the cell membrane structure or function
Inhibition of nubleic acid synthesis, structure or function
Inhibition of protein synthesis
Blocking of key metabolic pathways
Term
13. These drugs are cell wall inhibitors
Definition
13. Penicillins, cephalosporins, vancomycin
Term
14. These drugs are protein synthesis inhibitors acting on ribosomes.
Definition
14. Chloramphenicol, erythromycin, clindamycin, streptogramin (synercid
Term
15. ________ and __________ block synthesis of peptidoglycan causing lysis on the cell wall.
Definition
15. Penicillin and cephalosporin
Term
16. _______ do not penetrate the outer membrane and are less effective against gram-negative bacteria
Definition
Penicillins
Term
17. Can broad spectrum penicillins and cephalosporings cross the cell walls of gram-negaritive bacteria?
Definition
17. Yes
Term
18. What do polymyxins do?
Definition
18. They interact with phospholipids and cause leakage, particulary in gram-negative bacteria.
Term
19. Which 2 drugs form complexes with sterols on fungal membranes that causes leakage
Definition
19. Amphotericin B and nystatin
Term
20. What purpose do aminoglycosides (streptomycin and gentamicin) serve?
Definition
20. They insert on sites on the 30S subunit and cause misreading of the Mrna
Term
21. _______block attachment of tRNA on the A acceptor site and stop further synthesis.
Definition
21. Tetracyclines
Term
22. What is it called when a drug competes with normal substrate for enzyme’s active site?
Definition
22. Competitive inhibition
Term
23. This is an additive effect, achieved by multiple drugs working together, requiring a lower dose of each
Definition
23. Synergistic effect
Term
24. Name 3 antibiotics that affect the cell wall
Definition
24. Penicillins, cephalosporins, beta-lactam antibiotics
Term
25. Antibiotics that damage the cell membrane are called
Definition
25. Polymyxins
Term
26. Name 2 antibiotics that act on DNA or RNA
Definition
26. Fluoroquinolones and rifampin
Term
27. These 4 antibiotics interfere with protein synthesis
Definition
27. Aminoglyosides, tetracycline antibiotics, chloramphenicol, macrolides
Term
28. Antibiotics that block metabolic pathways
Definition
28. Sulfonamides
Term
29. What is the drug of choice for gram-positive cocci (streptococci) and some gram-negative bacteria (meningococci and syphilis spirochete)
Definition
29. Penicillin
Term
30. What are some examples of semisynthetic penicillins?
Definition
30. Amipcillin, carbenicillin, amoxicillin have broader spectra-gram negative enteric rods
Term
31. What are some examples of penicillinase-resistant
Definition
31. Methicillin, nafcillin, cloxacillin
Term
32. What are the primary problems with penicillins
Definition
32. Allergies and resistant strains of bacteria
Term
33. What is the enzyme called that breaks the beta-lactam ring and is the cause for resistance to the beta-lactam antibiotics
Definition
33. Beta-lactamase (penicillanase)
Term
34. This ring is a key structure in certain antibiotics that inhibit the bacterial cell wall synthesis
Definition
34. Beta-lactam ring
Term
35. This acid is an additive that makes an antibiotic resistant to the beta-lactamase produced by resistant bacteria. It is added to amoxicillin to make augmentin
Definition
35. Clavulanic acid
Term
36. Describe cephalosporins
Definition
36. Account for majority of all antibiotics administered
Isolated from cephalosporium acremonium mold
Beta-lactam ring that can be altered
Relatively broad-spectrum, resistant to most penicillinases
Cause fewer allergic reactions
Some given orally, many given parenterally( IM or IV).
Term
37. In the cephalosporins group, this generation is most effective against gram-positive cocci
Definition
37. First generation- cephalothin, cefazolin
Term
38. This generation is more effective against gram-negative bacteria
Definition
38. Second generation- cefaclor, cefonacid
Term
39. This generation has a broad spectrum activity against enteric bacteria with betalactamases
Definition
39. Third generation- cephalexin, cefotaxime
Term
40. This generation is the widest spectrum against both gram positives and gram negatives
Definition
40. Fourth generation- cefepime
Term
41. This beta-lactam antibiotic is a broad-spectrum drug for infections with aerobic and anaerobic pathogens
Definition
41. Imipenem
Term
42. What drug is a newer narrow-spectrum drug for infections by gram-negative aerobic bacilli. It may be used by people allergic to penicillin.
Definition
42. Chromobacterium violaceum
Term
43. This is a narrow-spectrum peptide produced by Bacillus subtilis (major ingredient of Neosporin ointment)
Definition
43. bacitracin
Term
44. This is a narrow-spectrum peptide with fatty acid component, detergent activity
Definition
44. polymyxin
Term
45. These antibiotics act on DNA or RNA and are broad-spectrum, potent, readily absorbed from the intestines
Definition
45. Fluoroquinolones
Term
46. This antibiotic blocks RNA polymerase preventing transcription. Used to treat TB and leprosy
Definition
46. Rifampin
Term
47. These 4 antibiotics interfere with protein synthesis
Definition
47. Aminoglycosides, tetracyclines, chloramphenicol, macrolides
Term
48. Composed of 2 or more amino sugars and an aminocyclitol ring
Definition
48. aminoglycosides
Term
49. This aminoglycoside is used for bubonic plague, tularemia, TB
Definition
49. streptomycin
Term
50. This aminoglycoside is less toxic, used against gram-negative rods
Definition
50. gentamicin
Term
51. These antibiotics bind to ribosomes and block protein synthesis
Definition
51. tetracycline antibiotics
Term
52. What are tetracycline antibiotics indicated for
Definition
52. mycoplasma pneumonia, STDs, Rocky mountain spotted fever, Lyme disease, typhus, acne, and some protozoa
Term
53. This drug blocks peptide bond formation and is very toxic and can cause irreversible damage to bone marrow- not often used.
Definition
53. chloramphenicol
Term
54. This macrolide has a large lactone ring with sugars and has fairly low toxicity
Definition
54. macrolides
Term
55. Which macrolide is used most commonly
Definition
55. azithromycin
Term
56. These antibiotics block metabolic pathways- synthetic drugs
Definition
56. sulfonamides, sulfisoxazole, silver sulfadiazine, trimethoprim
Term
57. What were the first antimicrobial drugs?
Definition
57. sulfonamides
Term
58. Name 4 antifungal drugs
Definition
58. polyenes, griseofulvin, synthetic azoles, flucytosine
Term
59. This polyene mimics lipids, most versatile and effective, topical and systemic treatments but can be toxic
Definition
59. amphotericin B
Term
60. This topical treatment is good against yeast
Definition
60. nystatin
Term
61. This antifungal drug has a lot of side effects
Definition
61. flucytosine
Term
62. What are the most commonly used antifungal meds?
Definition
62. azoles
Term
63. This antifuntal drug is for cutaneous mycoces, vaginal and oral candidiasis and some systemic mycoces
Definition
63. ketoconazole
Term
64. This antifungal drug is an oral treatment for vaginal candidiasis and AIDS and mycoces
Definition
64. fluconazole (diflucan
Term
65. These two antifungal drugs are topical meds for skin, mouth, and vaginal infections. Used for athletes foot and is OTC
Definition
65. Clotrimazole and miconazole
Term
66. Name 3 types of antiparasitic drugs
Definition
66. Antimalarial, antiprotozoan, and antihelminthic drugs
Term
67. All the “quines” drugs (quinine, chloroquinine, primaquine, meflogquine) are considered
Definition
67. Antimalarial drugs
Term
68. Metronidazole, quinicrine, sulfonamides, tetracyclines are all
Definition
68. Antiprotozoan drugs
Term
69. This antiparasitic drug group immobilize, disintegrate, or inhibit metabolism of worm
Definition
69. Antihelminthic drugs (mebendazole, pyrantel, piperazine, niclosamide)
Term
70. These drugs block penetration into host cell
Definition
70. Antiviral drugs
Term
71. These antiviral drugs block transcription or translation
Definition
71. Acyclovir (for herpes virus), ribavirin, AZT (for HIV)
Term
72. This antiviral drug prevents maturation of viral particles
Definition
72. Protease inhibitors ( for HIV)
Term
73. This antiviral drug is used for HCV (hep C)
Definition
73. Interferon
Term
74. What are some mechanisms of drug resistance?
Definition
74. Drug inactivation, decreased permeability to drug or increased elimination of drug from cell, change in metabolic patterns, change in drug receptors
Term
75. What are 3 side effects of drugs
Definition
75. Toxicity to organs- liver, kidneys, GI tract, cardio system, nervous system, resp. tract, blood forming tissue, skin, bones, teeth
allergic responses-drug acts as an antigen. PCN allergies most common.
suppression and alteration of normal flora-causing a “superinfection”
Term
76. What are some considerations in selecting an antimicrobial drug
Definition
76. Nature of microbe causing infection
degree of microbe’s sensitivity to various drugs
toxicity of the drug
overall medical condition of patient
Term
77. This technique is an in-vitro process that determines susceptibility and resistance
Definition
77. Kirby-Bauer technique
Term
78. When is testing needed for drug sensitivity
Definition
78. For groups of bacteria that commonly become resistant to antibiotics
Term
79. The smallest concentration of drug that visibly inhibits growth is called____. This aids in determining the lowest effective dose of a drug and is used for comparison studies between antimicrobials.
Definition
79. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC)
Term
80. The ratio of the dose of the drug that is toxic to humans as compared to its minimum effective (therapeutic) dose is called______.
Definition
80. Therapeutic index
Term
Definition
81. The smaller the ratio of the therapeutic index, the higher/lower risk of toxicity to the pt.
Term
81. The smaller the ratio of the therapeutic index, the higher/lower risk of toxicity to the pt.
Definition
81. Higher risk
Term
82. A higher/lower TI will have a greater margin of safety.
Definition
82. Higher TI