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Micro Exam 4 (final)
Micro Exam 4 (final)
102
Microbiology
12/10/2009

Additional Microbiology Flashcards

 


 

Cards

Term

 


The first antibiotic discovered was

Definition

 

 

penicillin

Term
The antibiotic streptomycin binds with  tRNAmet at the 30S ribosome.  For this information you can conclude that streptomycin
Definition
prevents transcription in prokaryotes
Term

 

 

 

In the presence of penicillin, what kills the bacteria?

 

Definition
it undergoes osmotic lyses
Term

 


 Chloramphenicol

Definition
interferes with protein synthesis in microorganisms
Term

 


Tetracycline is the drug of choice in treating most

Definition
Rickettsial infections
Term

 

 

Penicillin G is most effective against

Definition
log phase gram-positive bacteria
Term

 

 

Tetracycline antibiotics interfere with 

Definition
protein synthesis
Term

 

 

Cephalosporins act by 

Definition
interfering with cell-wall biosynthesis
Term

 


Amoxicillin is preferable to penicillin because it

Definition
is absorbed more easily from the intestines when taken orally
Term

 

 

The beta-lactam nucleus is the basic structure of the 

Definition
penicillins
Term

 


In competitive inhibition, sulfanilamide is used by a bacterium in an abortive attempt to 

Definition
form folic acid
Term

 


Isoniazid is of particular value 

Definition
for treating tuberculosis
Term



All aminoglycoside antibiotics function by 

Definition
attaching irreversibly to ribosome and preventing protein synthesis 
Term



Members of the genus Streptomyces

Definition
produce many well-known antibiotics
Term

 


Both the cephalosporin and penicillin antibiotics

Definition
act on the cell wall of bacteria
Term

 


Which of the following antibiotics is not bactericidal?

Definition

Aminoglycosides

 

Term



Chloroquine, primaquine, and quinine are of value for the treatment of

Definition
cases of malaria
Term

 


What is the action of the antibiotic rifampin?

Definition
inhibiting RNA synthesis
Term


Use of antibiotics in animal feed leads to antibiotic- resistant bacteria because

Definition

the antibiotics kill susceptible bacteria, but the few that are naturally resistant live and reproduce, and their progeny repopulate the host animal  

Term


What is the alternative drug used in treating syphilis and gonorrhea infection in penicillin sensitive patient? 

Definition
tetracycline
Term

 


Which antibiotics do not inhibit cell wall biosynthesis? 

Definition
neomycin
Term


A common feature of bacitracin and polymyxin B is that both antibiotics

Definition
are produced by Bacillus species
Term


What is the action of macrolides like erythromycin?

Definition
inhibiting protein synthesis
Term


Which antibiotic is not given to pregnant women because is stunts fetus bone growth? 

Definition
tetracycline
Term

All the following apply to the tetracycline antibiotics except

A.  they are associated with discoloration of the teeth.

B.  they are used for rickettsial and chlamydial diseases.

C.  they are broad-spectrum antibiotics.

D. they may cause aplastic anemia or the gray syndrome

 

Definition
they may cause aplastic anemia or the gray syndrome
Term



A virion is 

Definition
a complete infection virus particle
Term

 


The definition of lysogeny is 

Definition
phage DNA is incorporated into host cell's chromosome
Term


A clearing due to phage replication on a confluent "lawn" of bacteria is called a 

Definition
plaque
Term


Cytopathic effects are changes in host cells due to 

Definition
viral infections
Term



All viruses possess

Definition
a genome and capsid
Term

 


A bacteriophage is a type of virus that 

Definition
replicates within bacteria
Term

 

The togaviridae cause equine encephalitis and other diseases.  These RNA viruses have a symmetrical capsid with 20 equilateral triangles and 20 edges and 12 points.  Such a capsid is an example of a(n) 

 

Definition
isohedral capsid
Term



Describes a method by which an envelope virus leaves the host cell while acquiring an envelope

Definition
budding
Term

 


Latent animal viruses are present in cells as 

Definition
proviruses
Term

The following steps occur during multiplications of the DNA virus like Herpes viruses.  What is the third step?

A.  Attachment

B. Biosynthesis

C.  Penetration

D.  Release

E.  Uncoating

 

 

Definition
biosynthesis
Term



Viral envelopes are usually acquired by 

Definition
bidding through the membrane of the cell
Term

 

 

neuramindase of influenza viruses assists in 

Definition
release of virus through the cell membrane
Term

 


 

Animal viruses have attachment sites

 

Definition
over the entire surface of the capsid
Term

 

 

The retrovirus can synthesize DNA from RNA because it contains

 

Definition
the enzyme reverse transcriptase
Term


 

The viruses of influenza, measles and mumps are know for their ability to 

 

Definition
clump red blood cells
Term

 

 

The nucleic acid of a virus encased in its protein coat is often referred to as the 

 

Definition
nucleocapsid
Term

 

 

Yellow fever is a viral disease of the liver.  As such, the yellow fever virus is classified as a

 

Definition
viscerotropic virus
Term

 

You have isolated an animal virus whose capsid is a tightly wound coil resembling a corkscrew or spring.  Such a capsid is referred to as a(n)

 

 

Definition
helix
Term
Rous sarcoma virus causes a cancer in chickens.  This is a(n) ________ virus, which is classified in the _______ because it contains reverse transcriptase. 
Definition
RNA, retroviridae
Term

 

The rabies virus is a(n) __________ virus, which is classified in the ________ group.  

Definition
RNA, rhabdoviridae
Term

 

 

All the following are possible methods for cultivating viruses except

A.  fertilized chicken eggs.

B.  tissue cultures.

C.  laboratory animals.

D. blood agar medium

 

 

Definition
D. blood agar medium
Term

Which of the following is true of the influenza virus?

A.  The virion has no envelope.

B. The virion undergoes antigenic variations

C.  The virion has no protein associated with it.

D.  Replication of the virion takes place in the body's liver cells. 

Definition
the virion undergoes antigenic variations
Term


The respiratory synctial virus takes its name from the 

Definition
a formation of giant cells in the tissue formation cells
Term

Viruses that have spikes on their envelopes and contain both hemagglutinin and neuraminidase cause

Definition
influenza
Term

The fluid-filled vesicles occurring in cases of chickenpox contain

Definition
large amounts of viruses
Term
An 8-year-old female has scabs and pus-filled vesicles on her face and throat.  Three weeks earlier she had visited her grandmother who had shingles.  What infection does the 8-year-old have? 
Definition
chickenpox
Term
When is Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV) more commonly seen?
Definition
in most children under the age of 5
Term

 


SARS is caused by a

Definition
corona virus
Term

 

The etiologic agent of warts is

 

Definition
Papillomavirus
Term



Which one of the following is not a dermotropic viral disease?

A.  Chickenpox

B.  Mumps

C. SARS

D.  Rubella

Definition
SARS
Term



The etiologic agent of fever blisters

Definition
Herpes simplex
Term

 


.  How can herpes simplex HSV-1 be prevented?

Definition
dont kiss someone who has a cold sore
Term



German measles is similar to measles because

Definition
a skin rash occurs in both diseases
Term



Herpes zoster, or shingles, is an adult disease caused by 

Definition
the same virus that causes chickenpox
Term

 


Most cases of herpes zoster, or shingles, occur in

Definition
people over 50 years of age
Term

The MMR immunization program has significantly affected the annual incidence of all the following diseases except

A.  rubella

B.  German measles

C.  mumps

D.  measles

E. chickenpox  

Definition
chickenpox
Term


A large, brick-shaped DNA virion is the responsible agent of 

Definition
smallpox
Term


 The prospect for developing a vaccine for the common cold are not promising because

Definition
many different viruses can cause the common cold
Term

  All the following characteristics apply to rhinoviruses except

A. they are DNA viruses with helical symmetry

B.  the belong to the Picornaviridae family of viruses.

C.  that take their name from the Greek rhinos meaning nose.

D.  they can cause head colds.

E.  they can be transmitted by hand-to-hand contact.  

Definition
they are DNA viruses with helical symmetry
Term

 

The scientific name for measles is

Definition
rubeola
Term

 

Each of the following diseases is caused by a member of the herpesviridae, except

A.  chickenpox

B.  shingles

C. smallpox

D.  cold sores

 

 

Definition
smallpox
Term

 

All the following statements are associated with parainfluenza except:

A.  the parainfluenza virus is an RNA virus

B.  this is a disease associated with summer weather

C.  parainfluenza is generally a milder disease than influenza

D. parainfluenza is most often seen in children over the age of 6

 

Definition
parainfluenza is most often seen in children over the age of 6
Term


The rotavirus and echovirus are both associated with

Definition
gastrointestinal distress
Term



Yellow fever is so-named because

Definition
it is accompanied by substantial jaundice 
Term


The adjectives western equine, La Cross, and California all apply to 

Definition
forms of arboviral encephalitis 
Term

Vaccine are available for all of the following diseases, except

A.  yellow fever

B.  rabies

C. mononucleosis

D.  polio

Definition
mononucleosis
Term

Infectious mononucleosis is caused by Epstein-Barr virus.  Another condition caused by this virus is 

Definition
Burkett's Lymphoma
Term

If a woman has hepatitis B receive from an emergency blood transfusion, which of the following types of virus will be present? 

Definition
a DNA virus
Term

Liver inflammation is a principal symptom of a disease transmitted by contaminated food and water as well as by contact, arthropods, and sexual intercourse.  This disease is 

Definition
hepatitis A
Term

A woman with a fluctuating fever comes to a physician. She says that every bone in her body feels like it's breaking. Of the following, the patient is likely to be suffering from

Definition
dengue fever
Term

 

 

All hepatitis infections are commonly associated with

 

Definition
liver infections
Term

 

The Sabin polio vaccine consists of viruses inactivated with formaldehyde, whereas the Salk vaccine is made with attenuated viruses.

true or false?

 

Definition
false
Term

 

Lassa fever and Marburg disease are typical of the viral diseases that affect the skin and cause severe pocklike lesions to form. 

true or false?

 

Definition
false
Term

 

Ebola hemorrhagic fever is associated with a filovirus.

true or false?

Definition
true
Term

 


A typical zoonosis

 

Definition
rabies
Term

Symptoms for this hemorrhagic fever are fever, headache, joint and muscle aches, sore throat, and weakness. This followed by diarrhea, vomiting, and stomach pain. A rash, red eyes, hiccups and internal and external bleeding may be seen in some patients. What is this disease?

Definition
ebola
Term



The virus of hepatitis A is

Definition
very resistant to physical and chemical agents
Term

Once the symptoms have fully materialized in an individual, rabies has

Definition
one of the highest mortality rates of any human disease
Term

The reason hepatitis C infections are often misdiagnosed is because

Definition
symptoms develop slowly
Term

 

Rubor, calor, tumor and dolar are

Definition
four characteristic signs of inflammation 
Term

All the following may be effects of complement activation except

A.  lysis of the cell through cytoplasmic leakage.

B.  attraction of phagocytes

C.  contraction of smooth muscles through histamine release

D. enhanced T-lymphocyte activity through thymus gland interaction

E.  formation of an attack complex. 

Definition
enhanced T-lymphocyte activity through thymus gland interaction
Term

Which of the following exhibits the highest phagocytic activity in the blood?

A.  Neutrophils

B.  Erythocyytes

C.  Lymphocytes

D. Basophils

E.  Eosinophils

Definition
neutrophils
Term

Normal microbiota provide protection from infection by 

Definition
out-competing newcomers
Term
Chill is a sign that the body temperature is 
Definition
rising
Term

The classical pathway for complement activation is initiated by 

Definition
antigen-antibody reactions
Term

 

 

Macrophages arise from these. 

Definition
lymphocytes
Term

A nonspecific resistance factor effective against viral infection is 

Definition
interferon
Term

Which of the following is the best definition for innate immunity?

A.  resistance is a response to a particular microbe

B.  a response that is directed only against a particular microbe

C.  a system that protects us against trauma and disease

D. several nonspecific diseases present in all humans from the time of birth

Definition
several nonspecific diseases present in all humans from the time of birth
Term
Neutrophils are those leukocytes that function
Definition
as phagocytes in body resistance
Term


The link between macrophages and neutrophils is that both cells

Definition
are phagocytes
Term


A nonspecific leukocyte effective against viral infection is

Definition
NK cell
Term

Which of the following leukocytes are involved in acquired immunity?

Definition
monocytes and macrophages
Term



Opsonins may be described as

Definition
antibodies that enhance the efficiency of phagocytosis
Term

Natural killer (NK) cells can be describe by all of the following except

A.  NK cells have special receptors on the surface of their membrane.

B.  NK cells recognize the body’s cells and do not attack them.

C.  NK cells bind to the target cell and induce lysis.

D. NK cells rely on class II MHC proteins to separate normal cells from target cells

 

Definition
NK cells rely on class II MHC proteins to separate normal cells from target cells
Term

 NK cells secrete two enzymes that attack foreign, virus infected or cancerous cells. What are they?

Definition
perforin and granzymes
Term

 

All of the following statements are true about the complement except

A.  complement is a series of 15 proteins circulating in the lymphatic system.

B.  complement works in a nonspecific manner.

C.  C3 molecules activate other complement components

D.  complement components interact with phagocytes.

 

Definition
complement is a series of 15 proteins circulating in the lymphatic system.
Term


The innate immune system recognizes pathogens by identifying unique microbial molecular sequences not found on host cells. This system of recognition is called  

 

Definition
PAMP