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MGT 411
exam 3
45
Management
11/13/2011

Additional Management Flashcards

 


 

Cards

Term
Team Boundaries
Underbounded
Overbounded
Definition
Team Boundaries
Underbounded – team has numerous ties outside of the team, but this may impair the team’s ability to become cohesive
Overbounded – team is cohesive, but doesn’t have ability to work with those outside of the team – not ties beyond the team’s boundary
Term
Types of Teams Based on How They Relate with Their Environment Broadcasting Marketing Surveying Insulating
Definition

Insulating Focused on internal team functioning Can result in team being “out of touch”- isolated from other parts of the org. A: less likely to comprimies ideas/objectives. D: diconnected from the org. 

 

Broadcasting Internally focused – inform others of their actions-- interal team stuff until to ready to share. A: control neg info. D: may fail to meet the true needs of the cust.

 

Marketing Try to sell their output to others within/outside org.-- buy in of outsiders through self promotion and lobbying. A: highly visable, helpful for team. D: may fail to meet true needs of cust. 

 

Surveying _externally focused – try to meet needs of external groups-consindtrates on diagnosing needs of cust. A; greatest potential for cust sat. D: really expensive/time consuming. Posible dissatisfaction :(

Term
Team Member Roles * add book roles
Definition

Spokesperson Voice of the team Can be set by team, or by members of external environment Interpreter Deciphers information received by the team

 

Lobbyist Explains to outsiders, what the team is doing and why important – in language that they can understand - 

 

boundry spanner: bridge btwn ppl in the org that wouldn't usually interact

 

buffer: protects team from bad news that will hurt morale 

 

intrepreter: shapes the collective unerstanding of the team-- intreprets data from other teams

 

advisor: informs teams about what options to consider and which actions to take

 

gatekeeper: flow of info to and from team 

Term
Human & Social Capital
Definition
Human Capital
Some teams do better because of greater ability
social_ Capital
Resources available to an individual/team through social networks
Team inputs, coordination enhanced through having external contacts
Term
Communication Networks

*add strong ties/ weak ties def.
Definition
Gregory
clique Network
Close-knit, self-contained network
Everyone’s network pretty much the same

Berta
Entrepreneurial boundary spanning Network
Less tightly-knit group – more contacts in varied org areas
Less overlap in individual’s networks
No one in Panel B has same network as Berta
Term
Boundary Spanning
Definition
Boundary Spanner
Berta is one
Bridge between team and other units, organization, customers
Information Broker
Is the conduit of information flow between teams/org units
Fill structural roles
Connect individuals within organization who otherwise would not be connected
Break down functional ethnocentrism
Can be accomplished through interlocking teams
Term
Networks
clique/entreprnurial
Definition
Clique Network
Advantages
Cohesion
Efficient decision-making
Disadvantages
Redundant communication
Biased communication
Groupthink


Entrepreneurial Network
Advantages
Leverage diversity
Greater creativity
Disadvantages
Power struggles
Greater conflict
Both task and relationship
Term
Ways to Improve Team Integration
Definition
Expand the Size of the Network
Recognize the Limitations of Clique Networks
Diversify Networks
Homogeneity Bias
Have both “strong” and “weak” ties
Build Hierarchical Networks
Integrate across Teams
Term

Integrating Across Teams Roles

 

7

Definition

Liaison Roles: One individual team member sits in on other team meetings Overlapping membership Members are on more than one team at a given time See the rest within Exhibit 10-12

 

Overlapping membership: several emp are members of multiple teams

 

cross team intergrating teams: team composed of members from other teams

 

management teams: forge strategy for multiple teams and business

 

representative intergrating teams: non management team that can still make decisions that can effect system or context

 

individual intergrating roles: indviduals in specific functions provide intergration with more flexibility than team. 

 

improvement team: initiating changes to improve performance. 

Term
Team Knowledge
Not-Invented-Here (NIH) Syndrome

Reversed NIH
Definition
Not-Invented-Here (NIH) Syndrome
Overvalue internally derived knowledge
Reversed NIH
Overvalue externally derived knowledge
Consultants make their living based on this
This knowledge viewed as more scarce – thus, valuable
Undervalue/Ignore internally derived knowledge
Seen as it develops – so, you see when not fully crafted
Term
What Shapes Your Identity
Definition
Need for belonging
Within your team
Need for Distinctiveness
Comparison of your team to others
Social Comparison Theory
We judge ourselves against other individuals/teams
If beating us, it hurts our identity
We may take action to remedy
Term
Interteam Conflict
Definition
Two Main Types
Realistic: Conflict over resources
symbolistic: Conflict over values/beliefs
Interteam Conflict typically mixed-motive
Interteam Conflict more intense that interpersonal conflict

Term
Benefits of Interteam Conflict
Definition
More cohesion with individual teams
May provide differing ideas that were not raised within team
Due to conformity pressure
Redundant information, etc.
Assuming that we are talking about substantive vs. emotional
Term
Interteam Biases
Definition
Us vs. Them: Need for categorization
Implications: Plus: Simplifies life; allows us to protect group’s interests
Minus: Evaluate outgroups more extremely; stereotypes often incorrect
EX: CU "dirty Hippies"


In Group Bias – “We are #1”
Positive evaluation of your group, while having a negative evaluation of other groups

Outgroup homogeniety Bias
Assume members of comparison group are all the same
More so than your own group
Term
Ways to Attenuate Intergroup Conflict
Definition
Superordinate Goals
Contact
Not necessarily - the more contact with other groups, the greater the cooperation.
Need:
Institutional support
Acquaintance potential
Equal status
Shared goal & interdependent
Cross-group friendships
Cross-Cut Role Assignments
Term
Leadership
Definition
Ability to influence a group toward the achievement of goals
Can be:
Formal
Rank in organization
Informal
Not associated with rank
Term
Leadership Paradox
Definition
the team needs a leader but it can be detremental to the team:
inefficient
motivation
escalation of commitment
power struggle
Term
“Great Person” or Trait Theories
Definition
Traits that seem to differ leaders from non-leaders:Energy
Need for power
Honesty and integrity
Self-confidence
Flexibility
Intelligence
Achievement oriented
Emotional maturity
Job-relevant knowledge



However, in general traits don’t indicate success of leader.
Term
“Great Opportunity” or Behavioral Theories
Definition
Researched the behaviors of specific leaders
Assumes people can be trained to lead
Provides the basis of design for training programs
Term
University of Michigan Studies
behavior theory
Definition
employee-centered – strong emphasis on subordinates’ welfare
Production-centered – concerned with getting work done - emphasize the technical or task aspects of the job
Term
Ohio State Studies
behavior study
Definition
Developed two categories of leadership behavior
consideration – sensitive to peoples’ feelings – try to make things pleasant
Similar to “employee centered”
Initating– concerned with defining task requirements and other aspects of work agenda
Similar to “production centered”
Term
Distinctions
michigan V. Ohio
Definition
Michigan:
Employee-centered more productive


Ohio State:
High on both is best
Led to Leadership Grid Perspective
Term
Path-Goal Theory
4 types of leaders
Definition
Leader’s job is to adjust his/her behaviors to complement situational contingencies


Directive leader
Spell out what and how of task (Initiating Structure)
supportive leader
Subordinates’ needs/well-being (Consideration)
Achievement-oriented leader
Set goals, stress excellence, show confidence in subordinates
Participative leader
Consult with subordinates
Term
Path-Goal Theory
4 types of leaders
Definition
Leader’s job is to adjust his/her behaviors to complement situational contingencies


Directive leader
Spell out what and how of task (Initiating Structure)
supportive leader
Subordinates’ needs/well-being (Consideration)
Achievement-oriented leader
Set goals, stress excellence, show confidence in subordinates
Participative leader
Consult with subordinates
Term
Path Goal Theory - picture:
Definition
[image]
Term
Attribution Theory
Definition
We attribute qualities to leader based on performance
We all have preferences for what we’d like to have in a leader – that is what we consider to be qualities needed for a good leader
** IMPORTANT!** Leader Prototypes: what do you think makes a good leader? Everyone has a different perspective
Term
“New” Leadership Theories/Styles
Definition
Transformational vs. Transactional
Term
Transformational leaders -
Definition
Transformational leaders - inspire followers to transcend their own self-interests for the good of the organization

Use:
Intrinsic Motivation

Ex: Video: Braveheart-freedom: it wasn’t something he could show them- had to inspire
Term
Transactional leaders -
Definition
Transactional leaders - motivate their followers in the direction of established goals by clarifying role and task requirements
Use:
Extrinsic Motivation e.g., contingent rewards
EX: if you do this then I’ll give you x. Good in the ST: but resources for rewards can be limited
Term
Other Leadership Styles
Definition

Active: vs. Passive

 

Autocratic: leader wants all the control vs. Democratic: share power 

Term
LMX
Definition
Leader-member exchange:
Leaders give different team members different amounts of attention and _different types of treatment.
Similarity between leader and member
Members’ competence
Extraversion
Positive effects?
Negative effects?
Time consuming: jealousy/status
Term
Team Coaching
Definition
Coaching is about building teamwork – not doing the team’s work
Types:
Educational – focuses on ability, knowledge, and skill
Motivational – focuses on reducing social loafing and enhancing involvement
Consultative – focuses on how to best integrate members’ strengths and abilities.
Term
Power
Definition
Refers to a capacity that A has to influence the behavior of B so that B does something he or she would not otherwise do.
Term
Two Types of Power
Definition
Position
Personal
Term
Position Power
Definition
Reward
Coercive
Legitimate
Informational (not in your book)
Term
Position power: Reward Power
Definition
People comply with the wishes or directives of another because doing so produces positive Benefits
Can use intrinsic and extrinsic rewards
$; promotions; enriched jobs
Term
Position power: Coercive Power
Definition
One reacts to this power out of fear of the _negitive results that might occur if one failed to comply
Deny desired rewards
or administer punishment
Term
Position Power: Legitimate Power
Definition
Represents the formal authority to control and use organizational resources
Rely on subordinates’ internalized values that the “boss” has a “right to command” to control their behavior
Term
Position Power: Informational Power
Definition
Comes from access to and control Over information
Term
Personal Power
Definition
Resides in _individual (not in position)
Expert
Rational Persuation (not in book)
Referent

Term
Expert power -
2 types of Personal Power:

Rational Persuasion power –
Referent power
Definition
Expert power - influence wielded as a result of expertise, special skill, or knowledge


_Rational Persuasion power –
control another person’s behavior by getting them to accept the desirability of a goal and a reasonable way of achieving it

Referent power – ability to control another because the person wants to Identify with the power source
Term
Communicating via Technology
 Advantages/Disadvantages
 Effects of IT use on VT Processes
 Ways to Improve VT Performance
Definition
Term
Normalization of deviance:
Definition
you break one rule its easier to break it in the future.
Term
Sense making:
Definition
a process of making sense of the situation: if the leader makes it seem like not a big deal, and then the leader says “this is dangerous” but that is polar opposite of what they originally thought. Can’t switch that quickly.
Term
strong v weak ties
Definition
Strong ties are just that – ties where you have lots of interaction and that interaction is important for task completion.

Weak ties are those where you don’t need to talk to that person all that much.

Strong ties are important b/c you need those ties based on the interdependence of your interaction with that person. In contrast, weak ties allow you to reach out to people periodically so that you can get information that you don’t need all the time but at some points it is important to reach out to them for certain information. This would be difficult if you didn’t have some semblance of a r’ship with that person.