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Memory
Memory
74
Psychology
03/03/2012

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Cards

Term
Memory acquisition is to memory retention as ________ is to ________.
Definition
d. encoding; storage
Term
To recognize the active information processing that occurs in short-term memory, researchers have characterized it as ________ memory.
Definition
working
Term
As compared with long-term memory, short-term memory is ________ permanent and ________ limited in storage capacity.
Definition
less; more
Term
The extensive rehearsal necessary to encode nonsense syllables best illustrates
Definition
effortful processing
Term
Although Jordan could not recall the exact words of a poem he had recently heard, he clearly remembered the meaning of the poem. This best illustrates the importance of
Definition
a. semantic encoding.
Term
It is easier to remember “what sobriety conceals, alcohol reveals” than to recall “what sobriety conceals, alcohol unmasks.” This best illustrates the value of
Definition
b. acoustic encoding.
Term
When you hear familiar words in your native language, it is virtually impossible not to register the meanings of the words. This best illustrates the importance of
Definition
b. automatic processing.
Term
putting items into familiar, manageable units
Definition
Chunking
Term
mental pictures; a powerful aid to effortful processing
Definition
imagery
Term
encoding of meaning, including the meaning of words
Definition
sematic encoding
Term
Students who review previously learned course material at various times throughout a semester to pass a comprehensive final are especially likely to demonstrate long-term retention of the course material. This best illustrates the value of
Definition
spacing effect
Term
At a block party, Cyndi is introduced to eight new neighbors. Moments later, she remembers only the names of the first three and last two neighbors. Her experience illustrates
Definition
serial position effect
Term
example of this is...our tendency to recall the last and first item on the list
Definition
serial position effect
Term
distribute study or practice to yield better long-term retention than is achieved through mass study
Definition
spacing effect
Term
repetition of information either to maintain it in consciousness or to encode it for storage
Definition
rehearsal
Term
encoding that requires attention and conscious effort
Definition
effortful processing
Term
unconscious encoding of incidental information, such as space,time,and frequency, and of well-learned information, such as word meanings
Definition
automatic processing
Term
persistence of learning over time throughout he storage and retrieval of information
Definition
memory
Term
An understanding of the spacing effect provides insight into effective strategies for
Definition
a. rehearsal.
Term
momentary memory of a visual-only lasting a few secs-ex;lic place driving by
Definition
iconic memory
Term
momentary sensory memory of hearing-
Definition
echoic memory
Term
Ebbinghaus observed that it is much easier to learn meaningful material than to learn nonsense material. This best illustrates the advantage of

Definition
c. semantic encoding.
Term
The peg-word system relies heavily on the use of
Definition
a. visual encoding.
Term
Combining individual letters into familiar words enables you to remember more of the letters in this sentence. This best illustrates the value of

d. chunking.
Definition
chunking
Term
For a moment after hearing his dog’s high-pitched bark, Mr. Silvers has a vivid auditory impression of the dog’s yelp. His experience most clearly illustrates ________ memory.
Definition
d. echoic
Term
Which of the following is believed to be the synaptic basis for learning and memory?
Definition
long-term potentiation
Term
Mr. Nydam suffers from amnesia and is unable to remember playing golf on a particular course. Yet the more he plays the course, the more his game improves. His experience illustrates the need to distinguish between

Definition
c. explicit memory and implicit memory.
Term
implicit-non-declaritive
Definition
conscious recollection
Term
explicit-declaritive
Definition
unconscious recollection
Term
For a fraction of a second after the lightning flash disappeared, Ileana retained a vivid mental image of its ragged edges. Her experience most clearly illustrates the nature of _______ memory.
Definition
a. iconic
Term
When you have to make a long-distance call, dialing an unfamiliar area code plus a seven-digit number, you are likely to have trouble retaining the just-looked-up number. This best illustrates the limited capacity of ________ memory.

Definition
c. short-term
Term
Most Americans still have accurate flashbulb memories of the 9/11 terrorist attacks in 2001. This best illustrates that memory formation is facilitated by

Definition
d. the body’s release of stress hormones.
Term
Having read a story once, certain amnesia victims will read it faster the second time even though they can’t recall having seen the story before. They have most likely suffered damage to the
Definition
a. hippocampus.
Term
the activation often unconsciously- may need a cue or prompt to access memory out-ex; looking at someone else's wedding pics trigger my own wedding memories
Definition
priming
Term
retrieved info learned already;example-fill in the blank test
Definition
recall
Term
needs prompt-memory in which the person need only i.d. items previously learned ;example-multiple choice test
Definition
recognition
Term
ex-walk into a room and forget why-return to where you were previously to try and remember
Definition
context effect
Term
encode info while your mind is in a certain state of mind-ex; some have to listen to music to take a test bc thats how they study
Definition
state dependent learning
Term
mood influences how we encode info-and retrieve it
Definition
mood congruent
Term
The happier Judie is, the more readily she recalls experiences with former teachers who were warm and generous. This best illustrates that emotional states can be
Definition
a. retrieval cues.
Term
While in a context similar to one you’ve been in before, you see a stranger who looks and walks like one of your friends. These circumstances are likely to trigger the experience of
Definition
a. déjà vu.
Term
Which test of memory typically provides the fewest retrieval cues?

Definition
b. recall
Term
A measure of your memory in which you need to pick the correctly learned answer from a displayed list of options is known as a measure of
Definition
b. recognition
Term
To recall his early life experiences, Aaron formed vivid mental images of the various rooms in his childhood home. Aaron was applying the process of

Definition
d. priming.
Term
Whenever Valerie experiences intense feelings of fear, she is overwhelmed with childhood memories of her abusive parents. Valerie’s experience best illustrates

Definition
b. mood-congruent memory.
Term
these memories are masking old ones-new material interferes with retrieval of old information
Definition
retroactive interference
Term
prior learning interferes with recall of new information
Definition
proactive interference
Term
During her evening Spanish language exam, Janica so easily remembers the French vocabulary she studied that morning that she finds it difficult to recall the Spanish vocabulary she rehearsed that afternoon. Her difficulty best illustrates
Definition
b. proactive interference.
Term
After Teresa was verbally threatened by someone in a passing car, she was asked whether she recognized the man who was driving the car. Several hours later, Teresa mistakenly recalled that the driver was a male rather than a female. Teresas experience best illustrates

Definition
c. the misinformation effect.
Term
Recalling something that you had once merely imagined happening as something you had directly experienced best illustrates

Definition
d. source amnesia.
Term
Forming many associations between new course material and what you already know is an effective way to build a network of
Definition
a. retrieval cues.
Term
Austin cant remember Jack Smiths name because he wasnt paying attention when Jack was formally introduced. Austins poor memory is best explained in terms of

Definition
b. encoding failure.
Term
While taking the final exam in American history, Marie was surprised and frustrated by her momentary inability to remember the name of the first president of the United States. Her difficulty most clearly illustrates
Definition
d. retrieval failure.
Term
Although Ron typically smokes two packs of cigarettes a day, he recalls smoking little more than a pack a day. This poor memory best illustrates
Definition
b. motivated forgetting.
Term
The surprising ease with which people form false memories best illustrates that the processes of encoding and retrieval involve

Definition
d. memory construction.
Term
Several months after watching a science fiction movie about spaceship travel and alien abductions, Steve began to remember that he had been abducted by aliens and personally subjected to many of the horrors portrayed in the movie. His mistaken recall best illustrates

Definition
c. source amnesia.
Term
We want to forget the bad and remember the good
Definition
motivated forgetting
Term
examples of sins of forgetting
Definition
absent mindedness-repression-decay
Term
ex; of sins of distortion
Definition
misatribution-biasect-suggestability
Term
sins of intrusion
Definition
persistance(unwanted memories keep coming back)
Term
encoding failure
Definition
didnt encode info correctly-we didnt put enough effort into it
Term
often distorted by others assumptions-ex:u saw a wreck-you hear on the news that the driver was driving crazy-u assume he was drinking now
Definition
memory construction
Term
ex is when a child gets abused by the uncle-the mother says to the child,its not a big deal that how he shows love
Definition
misinformation effect
Term
you feel like something is true yet it never happend to you
Definition
false memories
Term
declarative memory-explicit
Definition
Fact-Knowledge:everyday(where we park)
general(52 weeks in year)
Academic(smarty stuff)
Term
declarative memory-explicit
Definition
sematic memory-episodic-flashbulb
Term
nondeclarative-implicit
Definition
unconscious-skills,procedures-skills that are well rehearsed
Term
the more emotional the event
Definition
the stronger the memory
Term
stress causes hormones to release
Definition
cortisol
Term
cortisol increases glucose that increases..
Definition
arousal-to sear into memory permanently
Term
highly stressed brains wont be as efficient due to this hormone
Definition
cortisol
Term
too much stress can corrode
Definition
neural connections
Term
flash bulb memory
Definition
ex-where were u at 911- experiencing it right now, feels like u were their all over again
Term
amnesia
Definition
memory decay caused by different things-damage to the brain