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Medical Terminology
ATC-Ch.3 The Skeletal System: Part A
76
Anatomy
10/04/2010

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Term
laminectomy
Definition
(oss-tee-oh-my-eh-LYE-tis) surgical removal of a spinal lamina
LAMIN means lamina and -ECTOMY means surgical removal)
Term
Fibrous dysplasia
Definition
bone disorder that destroys normal bone structure and replaces it with scar-like tissue
Term
Osteomyelitis
Definition
inflammation of the bone marrow and adjacent bone (oste/o means bone, myel means bone marrow, and -itis means inflammation). The bacterial infection that causes osteomyelitis often originates in another part of the body and spreads to the bone via the blood.
Term
Craniostenosis
Definition
(kray-nee-oh-steh-NOH-sis) is a malformation of the skull due to the premature closure of the cranial sutures (crani/o means skull, and -stenosis means abnormal narrowing).
Term
craniectomy
Definition
surgical removal of a portion of the cranium
Term
craniotomy (kray-nee-OT-oh-mee)
Definition
surgical incision or opening into the skull (crani means skull, and -otomy means a surgical incision). This procedure is performed to gain access to the brain to remove a tumor, to relieve intracranial pressure, or to obtain access for other surgical procedures
Term
cranioplasty (KRAY-nee-oh-plas-tee)
Definition
surgical repair of the skull (crani/o means skull, and -plasty means surgical repair
Term
Paget's disease
Definition
characterized by extensive bone destruction followed by abnormal bone
repair, the new bone is structurally enlarged, but weakened and filled with new blood vessels

is not hereditary, also called osteitis deformans, a bone disease of unknown cause
Term
Ewing's sarcoma
Definition
tumor that occurs in the bones of the upper arm, legs, pelvis, or rib, and is a form of bone cancer

peak incidence is between ages 10 and 20 years
Term
Osteopenia (oss-tee-oh-PEE-nee-ah)
Definition
thinner than average bone density in a young person (oste/o means bone, and -penia means deficiency). This term is used to describe the condition of someone who does not yet have osteoporosis, but is at risk for developing it
Term
Osteoporosis (oss-tee-oh-poh-ROH-sis)
Definition
a marked loss of bone density and an increase in bone porosity that is frequently associated with aging (oste/o means bone, por means small opening, and -osis means abnormal condition or disease)
Term
osteochondroma (oss-tee-oh-kon-DROH-mah)
Definition
a benign bony projection covered with cartilage (oste/o means bone, chondr means cartilage, and -oma means tumor). Benign means something that is not life threatening and does not recur. This type of tumor is also known as an exostosis (plural, exostoses).
Term
Spina bifida
Definition
the failure of the spinal canal to close around the spinal cord; only occurs during early pregnancy
Term
Kyphosis(kye-FOH-sis)
Definition
abnormal increase in the outward curvature of the thoracic spine as viewed from the side (kyph means hump and -osis means abnormal condition or disease). This condition, also known as humpback or dowager’s hump, is frequently associated with aging
Term
Lordosis(lor-DOH-sis)
Definition
abnormal increase in the forward curvature of the lumbar spine (lord means bent backward, and -osis means abnormal condition or disease). This condition is also known as swayback
Term
Compression fracture
Definition
fracture that occurs when the bone is pressed together (compressed) on itself, also known as a vertebral crush fracture
Term
Subluxation (sub-luck-SAY-shun)
Definition
partial displacement of a bone from its joint
Term
popliteal
Definition
posterior surface of the knee
Term
bursa (BER-sah)
Definition
fibrous sac that acts as a cushion to ease movement in areas that are subject to friction such as in the shoulder, elbow, and knee joints where a tendon passes over a bone (plural, bursae)
Term
patella (pah-TEL-ah)
Definition
bony anterior portion of the knee, also known as the kneecap
Term
Osteoclasis
Definition
the surgical fracture of a bone to correct a deformity (OSTE/O means bone and -CLASIS means to break)
Term
Osteorrhaphy(oss-tee-OR-ah-fee)
Definition
surgical suturing, or wiring together, of bones (oste/o means bone, and -rrhaphy means surgical suturing)
Term
Rheumatoid arthritis
Definition
autoimmune disorder affecting the connective tissues and joints
Term
Gouty arthritis (GOW-tee ar-THRIGH-tis)
Definition
a type of arthritis characterized by deposits of uric acid in the joints. Uric acid is a byproduct that is normally excreted by the kidneys. Gout develops when excess uric acid, which is present in the blood, forms crystals in the joints of the feet and legs, also known as gout
Term
Osteoarthritis(oss-tee-oh-ar-THRIGH-tis
Definition
most commonly associated with aging (oste/o means bone, arthr means joint, and -itis means inflammation),also known as wear-and-tear arthritis
Term
secondary bone cancer
Definition
describes tumors that have spread to bones from other organs such as the breasts and lungs
Term
Primary bone cancer
Definition
a relatively rare malignant tumor that originates in a bone. Malignant means becoming progressively worse and life-threatening. As an example, Ewing’s sarcoma is a tumor that occurs in the bones of the upper arm, legs, pelvis, or rib. The peak incidence is between ages 10 and 20 years
Term
myeloma(my-eh-LOH-mah)
Definition
a type of cancer that occurs in blood-making cells found in the red bone marrow (myel means bone marrow, and -oma means tumor). This condition can cause pathologic fractures and is often fatal
Term
the arm's bones
Definition
humerus is the bone of the upper arm;

radius (RAY-dee-us) is the smaller and shorter bone in the forearm and run up the thumb side of the forearm;

ulna (ULL-nah) is the larger and longer bone of the forearm. The proximal end of the ulna articulates with the distal end of the humerus to form the elbow joint.
Term
THR
Definition
total hip replacement or total hip arthroplasty; performed to restore a damaged hip to full function.
Term
PKR
Definition
-partial knee replacement-
procedure in which only part of the knee is replaced
Term
TKR
Definition
-total knee replacement-
all of the parts of the knee were replaced. This procedure is also known as a total knee arthroplasty
Term
greenstick fracture
Definition
the bone is bent and only partially broken
Term
comminuted fracture (KOM-ih-newt-ed)
Definition
the bone is splintered or crushed; comminuted means crushed into small pieces
Term
open fracture
Definition
the bone is broken and there is an open wound in the skin, also known as a compound fracture
Term
Hemarthrosis
Definition
blood within a joint space (HEM means blood, ARTHR means joint, and -OSIS means abnormal condition)
Term
Hemopoietic(hee-moh poy-ET-ick)
Definition
pertaining to the formation of blood cells (hem/o means blood, and -poietic means pertaining to formation). This term is also spelled hematopoietic
Term
Synovitis (sin-oh-VYE-tiss)
Definition
inflammation of the synovial membrane that results in swelling and pain of the affected joint (synov means synovial membrane, and -itis means inflammation). This condition can be caused by arthritis, trauma, infection, or irritation produced by damaged cartilage
Term
epiphysis
Definition
wide end of a long bone.
Term
diaphysis (dye-AF-ih-sis)
Definition
shaft of a long bone
Term
endosteum (en-DOS-tee-um)
Definition
the tissue that lines the medullary cavity (end- means within, oste means bone, and -um is a noun ending)
Term
Ostealgia (oss-tee-AL-jee-ah)
Definition
pain in a bone (oste means bone, and -algia means pain), also known as osteodynia
Term
Osteitis(oss-tee-EYE-tis)
Definition
inflammation of bone (oste means bone, and -itis means inflammation), also spelled ostitis
Term
Abbreviations
Definition
A fracture can be abbreviated as Fx.

CR= closed reduction

OP = osteoporosis
Term
Osteonecrosis (oss-tee-oh-neh-KROH-sis)
Definition
the death of bone tissue due to a lack of insufficient blood supply (oste/o means bone, and -necrosis means tissue death)
Term
Bursitis
Definition
inflammation of a bursa (BURS means bursa and -ITIS means inflammation).
Term
Chondromalacia (kon-droh-mah-LAY-shee-ah)
Definition
the abnormal softening of cartilage (chondr/o means cartilage, and -malacia means abnormal softening)
Term
Costochondritis
Definition
inflammation of the cartilage that connects a rib to the sternum (cost/omeans rib, chondr means cartilage, and -itis means inflammation)
Term
Chondroplasty
Definition
the surgical repair of cartilage (CHONDR/O means cartilage and -PLASTY means surgical repair).
Term
Costochondritis (kos-toh-kon-DRIGH-tis)
Definition
an inflammation of the cartilage that connects a rib to the sternum (cost/omeans rib, chondr means cartilage, and -itis means inflammation).
Term
arthroplasty (AR-throhplas-tee)
Definition
the surgical repair of a damaged joint (arthr/o means joint, and -plasty means surgical repair).
Term
The leg bones
Definition
The femur (FEE-mur) is the upper leg bone. Also known as the thigh bone, it is the largest bone in the body.

The tibia (TIB-ee-ah), also known as the shinbone, is the larger weight-bearing bone in the anterior of the lower leg
Term
Ankylosis (ang-kih-LOH-sis)
Definition
the loss, or absence, of mobility in a joint due to disease, injury, or a surgical procedure (ankyl means crooked, bent, or stiff, and -osis means abnormal condition or disease). Mobility means being capable of movement.
Term
Dislocation
Definition
the total displacement of a bone from its joint, also known as luxation (luck-SAY-shun)
Term
Lumbago(lum-BAY-goh)
Definition
pain of the lumbar region of the spine (lumb means lumbar, and -ago means diseased condition), also known as low back pain
Term
Ankylosing spondylitis (ang-kih-LOH-sing spon-dih-LYEtis)
Definition
a form of rheumatoid arthritis that primarily causes inflammation of the joints between the vertebrae.
Term
Traction
Definition
a pulling force exerted on a limb in a distal direction in an effort to return the joint to normal alignment.
Term
Closed reduction
Definition
the attempted realignment of the bone involved in a fracture or joint dislocation. The affected bone is returned to its normal anatomic alignment by manually applied forces and then is usually immobilized to maintain the realigned position during healing, also known as manipulation
Term
Immobilization
Definition
the act of holding, suturing, or fastening the bone in a fixed position with strapping or a cast, also known as stabilization
Term
Tendons, Ligaments, Cartilage
Definition
A tendon is a narrow band of nonelastic, dense, fibrous connective tissue that attaches a muscle to a bone. Do not confuse tendons with ligaments, which connect one bone to another bone.


Ligaments connect one bone to another.

Cartilage (KAR-tih-lidj) is the smooth, rubbery, blue-white connective tissue that acts as a shock absorber between bones.

Cartilage, which is more elastic than bone, also makes up the flexible parts of the skeleton such as the outer ear and the tip of the nose.
Term
Spondylolisthesis
Definition
the forward movement of a lower lumbar vertebra on the vertebra below it (SPONDYL/O means vertebrae and -LISTHESIS means slipping).
Term
Spondylitis
Definition
inflammation of the vertebrae
Term
Spondylosis (spon-dih-LOH-sis)
Definition
a degenerative disorder that can cause the loss of normal spinal structure and function (spondyl means vertebrae, and -osis means abnormal condition or disease), also known as spinal osteoarthritis
Term
hallux valgus
Definition
commonly known as a bunion
(HALLUX means big toe and VALGUS means bent)
Term
chondroma(kon-DROH-mah)
Definition
a slow-growing benign tumor derived from cartilage cells (chondr means cartilage, and -oma means tumor)
Term
Osteopenia (oss-tee-oh-PEE-nee-ah)
Definition
thinner than average bone density in a young person (oste/o means bone, and -penia means deficiency). This term is used to describe the condition of someone who does not yet have osteoporosis, but is at risk for developing it.
Term
Leukemia
Definition
a malignancy characterized by a progressive increase of abnormal leukocytes, is treated with a bone marrow transplant
Term
costochondritis
Definition
inflammation of the cartilage that connects a rib to the sternum.
Term
Chondromalacia(kon-droh-mah-LAY-shee-ah)
Definition
the abnormal softening of cartilage (chondr/o means cartilage, and -malacia means abnormal softening)
Term
chondroma(kon-DROH-mah)
Definition
a slow-growing benign tumor derived from cartilage cells (chondr means cartilage, and -oma means tumor)
Term
acetabulum (aass-eh-TAB-you-lum)
Definition
the hip socket, is the large circular cavity in each side of the pelvis that articulates with the head of the femur to form the hip joint
Term
Osteoclasis
Definition
the surgical fracture of a bone to correct a deformity (OSTE/O means bone and -CLASIS means to break)
Term
ostectomy (oss-TECK-toh-mee)
Definition
the surgical removal of bone (ost means bone, and -ectomy means the surgical removal)
Term
osteoplasty (OSS-tee-oh-plas-tee)
Definition
the surgical repair of a bone or bones (oste/o means bone, and -plasty means surgical repair)
Term
osteoporotic hip fracture (oss-tee-oh-pah-ROT-ick)
Definition
usually caused by weakening of the bones due to osteoporosis and can occur either spontaneously or as the result of a fall.
Term
the hand's bones
Definition
The phalanges are the bones of the fingers.

The metacarpals [Audio] (met-ah-KAR-palz) are the five bones that form the palms of the hand.

The eight carpals (KAR-palz) are the bones that form the wrist. These bones form the carpal tunnel, a narrow bony passage through which passes the median nerve and the tendons of the fingers.