Shared Flashcard Set

Details

Medical Terminology Chap 7
Medical Terminology Chapter 7 Blood and Lymphatic System
102
Medical
07/03/2010

Additional Medical Flashcards

 


 

Cards

Term
poikil/o
Definition
irregular
Term
anisocytosis
Definition
the presence of red blood cells of unequal size
Term
iso-
Definition
equal
Term
bacteremia
Definition
the presence of bacteria in a sample of blood. this is a sign of infection
Term
erythropenia
Definition
an abnormally reduced number of red blood cells
Term
hemolysis
Definition
the rupture of the red blood cell membrane
Term
hemorrhage
Definition
the abnormal loss of blood from the circulation that is a sign of illness or truama
Term
leukopenia
Definition
an abnormally reduced number of white blood cells. Also called leukocytopenia
Term
macrocytosis
Definition
the presence of abnormally large red blood cells
Term
poikilocytosis
Definition
the presence of tear-shaped red blood cells
Term
polycythemia
Definition
an abnormal increase in the number of red blood cells in the blood. Also called erythrocytosis
Term
splenomegaly
Definition
abnormal enlargement of the spleen that is a symptom of injury or infection
Term
thrombopenia
Definition
a disease that has a symptom of abnormally reduced number of platelets
Term
toxemia
Definition
the presence of toxins in the bloodstream
Term
aut/o
Definition
self
Term
fung/o
Definition
fungus
Term
globin/o
Definition
protein
Term
hydr/o
Definition
water
Term
iatr/o
Definition
physician
Term
idi/o
Definition
individual
Term
necr/o
Definition
death
Term
nosocom/o
Definition
hospital
Term
nucle/o
Definition
kernel or nucleus
Term
sept/o
Definition
putrefying; wall or partition
Term
staphylococc/o
Definition
staphylococcus
Term
streptococc/o
Definition
streptococcus
Term
thym/o
Definition
wartlike, thymus gland
Term
AIDS
Definition
acquired immunodeficiency syndrome-a disease caused by HIV which disables the immune response by destroying important white blood cells, helper T cells.
Term
allergy
Definition
the body's immune response to allergens, which are foreign substances that produce a reaction including immediate inflammation. some major types are allergic rhinitis (hay fever) and allergic dermatitis
Term
anaphylaxis
Definition
an immediate reaction to a foreign substance that includes rapid inflammation, vasodilation, bronchospasms, and spasms of the GI tract
Term
anemia
Definition
the reduced ability of red blood cells to deliver oxygen to tissues due either to reduced number of red blood cells or a reduction in amount of an oxygen-binding protein in red blood cells called hemoglobin.
Term
aplastic anemia
Definition
in which the red bone marrow fails to produce sufficient numbers of normal blood cells
Term
iron deficiency anemia
Definition
caused by a lack of iron resulting in the body's inability to produce adequate amounts of hemoglobin
Term
sickle cell anemia
Definition
in which the hemoglobin is defective within cells, resulting in misshaped red blood cells that cause obstructions in blood vessels
Term
pernicious anemia
Definition
caused by an inadequate supply of folic acid
Term
anthrax
Definition
a bacterial disease that has a blackening effect on the skin and lungs
Term
autoimmune disease
Definition
a disease caused by a person's own immune response attacking otherwise healthy tissues, i.e. RA, multiple sclerosis
Term
botulism
Definition
an illness caused by the ingestion of food contaminated with the neurotoxin produced a bacteria. Often occurs when food is improperly canned.
Term
communicable disease
Definition
a disease that is capable of transmission from one person to another. Transmitted through direct contact, indirectly by contact with bodily fluids or by way of vectors (usually insects such as fleas)
Term
diphtheria
Definition
an infectious disease resulting in acute inflammation of the mucous membranes, primarily in the mouth and throat. Characterized by the formation of an obstructive, leatherlike membrane in the throat
Term
dyscrasia
Definition
any abnormal condition of the blood
Term
edema
Definition
the leakage of fluid form the bloodstream into the interstitial space between body cells causes swelling and is one aspect of inflammation. The swelling in called edema
Term
fungemia
Definition
a fungal infection that spreads throughout the body by way of the bloodstream
Term
gas gangrene
Definition
infection of the wound caused by anaerobic bacteria, which cause some additional damage to local tissue when bllod flow is reduced due to some reason, including diabetes
Term
hemotoma
Definition
a mass of blood outside blood vessels and confined within an organ or space within the body, usually in a clotted form. Commonly known as a bruise or contusion
Term
hemoglobinopathy
Definition
the general term for a disease that affects hemoglobin within red blood cells
Term
hemophilia
Definition
an inherited bleeding disorder that results from defective or missing blood-clotting proteins that are necessary components in the coagulation process, hence those suffering from this disease often suffer abnormal blood loss.
Term
hemorrhagic fever
Definition
an infectious disease that causes internal bleeding (internal hemorrhage)and high fevers. Often caused by viruses and has a high rate of mortality
Term
Hodgkin's disease
Definition
a malignant form of cancer of lymphatic tissue that is characterized by the progressive enlargement of lymph nodes, fatigue, and deficiency of the immune response. Also called Hodgkin's lymphoma. Less common than non-Hodgkin's lymphoma.
Term
iatrogenic disease
Definition
a condition that is caused by medical treatment
Term
idiopathic disease
Definition
a disease that develops without a known or apparent cause
Term
immunodeficiency
Definition
a condition resulting from a defective immune response. Occurs when there are insufficient numbers of functional white blood cells, especially lymphocytes, available to defend the body from sources of infection. A related term, immunocompromised, which describes a patient suffering from an immunodeficiency
Term
immunosuppression
Definition
a reduction of an immune response may be caused by disease or by the use of chemical, pharmacological, or immunologic agents. The suppressed status of the immune response that results is called immunosuppression
Term
incompatibility
Definition
the combination of two blood types that result in the destruction of red blood cells. May occur during a blood transfusion causing severe consequences
Term
infection
Definition
a multiplication of disease-causing microorganisms, or pathogens, in the body. A disease caused by infection is called an infectious disease.
Term
inflammation
Definition
the physiological process that serves as the body's initial response to injury and many forms of illness-the swelling of body tissue. The swelling results from the movement of plasma from capillaries into the extracellular space to produce edema or fluid accumulation in tissue. Common symptoms of inflammation: swelling, redness, heat, and pain
Term
influenza
Definition
a viral disease characterized by fever and an acute inflammation of respiratory mucous membranes. Is highly contagious and is capable of mutating to escape detection by white blood cells
Term
leukemia
Definition
a cancer that originates from cells within the blood forming tissue of the red marrow, the tumor spreads throughout the red marrow, transforming the blood-forming tissue into a mass that produces abnormal white blood cells
Term
lymphadenitis
Definition
inflammation of the lymph nodes. An acute form is common during infections
Term
lymphoma
Definition
a malignant tumor originating in lymphatic tissue
Term
malaria
Definition
a disease caused by a parasitic protozoan that infects red blood cells and the liver during different parts of its life cycle. The vector of this disease in the Anopheles mosquito and the symptoms include periodic flares of high fever
Term
mononucleosis
Definition
a viral disease characterized by enlarged lymph nodes and spleen, atypical lymphocytes, throat pain, pharyngitis, fever, and fatigue. Caused by the Epstein-Barr virus and is a communicable disease
Term
necrosis
Definition
the death of one or more cells or a portion of tissue or organ. A cell, cells, tissue, or organ that is dead is often called necrotic
Term
nosocomial infection
Definition
an infectious disease that is contracted during a hospital stay.
Term
plague
Definition
any infectious disease that is widespread and causes extensive mortality
Term
rabies
Definition
a viral infection that is spread from the saliva of an infected animal usually by way of bite. The virus acts of the central nervous system to cause paranoia and paralysis, is usually fatal. Also called hydrophobia, because of the panic of paralysed animals unable to drink water
Term
septicemia
Definition
a systemwide disease caused by the presence of bacteria and their toxins in the circulating blood. Also called sepsis. A person suffering from septicemia is referred to as septic
Term
smallpox
Definition
a viral disease caused by the variola virus. Gets its name in an effort to distinguish it from syphilis which had larger pustules or pox.
Term
staphylococcemia
Definition
a condition in which the presence of the bacterium staphylococcus is in the blood. A frequent causes of wound infections, foodborne illness, skin inflammation, osteomyelitis, and nosocomial infections. Commonly called a staph infection
Term
streptococcemia
Definition
a condition in which the bacterium streptococcus is in the blood. Commonly caused strep infection. Frequently begins in the throat as a form of pharyngitis called strep throat which is isn't managed can spread to the bloodstream which distributes it to vital organs. The heart valves are particularly vulnerable & can sufffer permanent damage if infected.
Term
tetanus
Definition
a disease caused by a neurotoxin released by the bacterium Clostridium tetani. The toxin acts on the central nervous system causing convulsions and spastic paralysis. Infection results from improperly cleaned puncture wounds
Term
thymoma
Definition
a tumor originating in the thymus gland
Term
bi/o
Definition
life
Term
globin/o
Definition
protein
Term
thromb/o
Definition
clot
Term
antibiotic therapy
Definition
a therapeutic treatment involving the use of a substance with known toxicity to bacteria. The antibiotic may be obtained from a fungus, usually a mold, or other bacteria.
Term
anticoagulant
Definition
a chemical agent that delays or prevents the clotting process in blood. Often administered to dissolve existing unwanted clots or to reduce the likelihoos of clot formation after surgery
Term
antiretroviral therapy
Definition
a pharmacological therapy that is useful in battling a class of viruses that tend to mutate quickly, called retroviruses. Used against HIV
Term
attenuation
Definition
the process in which pathogens are rendered less virulent, or infectious, prior to their incorporation into a vaccine preparation
Term
autologous transfusion
Definition
a transfusion of blood donated by a patient for their personal use. Common practice before surgery to avoid potential incompatibility or contamination of blood
Term
blood chemistry
Definition
a test or series of tests on a sample of plasma to measure the levels of its composition, including glucose, albumin, triglycerides, pH, cholesterol, and electrolytes
Term
blood culture
Definition
a clinical test to determine infection in the blood. Performed by placing a sample of blood in a nutrient-rich medium in an effort to grow population of bacteria for analysis
Term
blood transfusions
Definition
the introduction of blood, blood products, or a blood substitute into a patient's circulation to restore blood volume to normal levels. Two types: autologous transfusion and homologous transfusion
Term
coagulation time
Definition
a timed blood test to determine the time required for a blood clot to form. Prothrombin time (PT) and partial thromboplastin time (PTT) are two types of tests.
Term
complete blood count
Definition
a CBC is a common lab test that evaluates a sample of blood to provide diagnostic information about a patient's general health. Includes tests such as hematocrit, hemoglobin, red blood count, and white blood count. Sometimes a platelet count (PLT) is also included.
Term
differential count
Definition
a microscopic count of the number of each type of white blood cell in a sample of blood
Term
hematocrit
Definition
HCT or Hct, a procedure included in a complete blood count that measures the percentage of red blood cells in a volume of blood. Obtained by centrifuging a sample of blood to separate the cells from plasma in the centrifuge tube.
Term
hematology
Definition
the general field of medicine focusing on blood-related disease
Term
hemoglobin
Definition
a procedure in a CBC that measures the level of hemoglobin in red blood cells (in grams). Abbreviated HGB or Hgb. Any level below normal is considered anemia
Term
hemostasis
Definition
the stoppage of bleeding
Term
homologous transfusion
Definition
the transfusion of blood that is voluntarily donated by another person. Requires blood-type work called crossmatching to prevent incompatibility
Term
immunization
Definition
a treatment which establishes immunity against a particular foreign substance that may otherwise cause disease. Includes inoculation of antigen components that stimulate the patient's immune response to produce memory lymphocytes and antibodies, which will be available in the blood to provide immune protection when future exposure occurs
Term
immunology
Definition
a study concerned with immunity and allergy
Term
immunotherapy
Definition
the treatment of infectious disease by the administration of pharmacological agents, such as serum, gamma, globulin, treated antibodies, and suppressive drugs
Term
lymphadenectomy
Definition
the surgical removal of one or more lymph nodes
Term
platelet count
Definition
PLT, a lab procedure that calculates the number of platelets in a known volume of blood. A reduced PLT suggests potential failure of hemostasis since platelets play a major role in clot formation and coagulation
Term
prophylaxis
Definition
any treatment that tends to prevent the onset of an infection or other type of disease
Term
red count count
Definition
a lab test included in a CBC that measures the number of red blood cells within a given volume of blood
Term
splenectomy
Definition
the surgical removal of the spleen. Often necessary if it has ruptured
Term
thrombolysis
Definition
a treatment that is performed to dissolve an unwanted blood clot or thrombus
Term
vaccination
Definition
the inoculation of a foreign substance that has reduced virulence or a reduced ability to cause infection, as a means of providing a cure or prophylaxis
Term
vaccine
Definition
a preparation that is used to activate an immune response to provide acquired immunity against an infectious agent