Shared Flashcard Set

Details

Medical Terminology Chap 6
Medical Terminology Chapter Chapter 6-Skeletal and Muscular Systems
150
Medical
06/28/2010

Additional Medical Flashcards

 


 

Cards

Term
arthr/o
Definition
joint
Term
burs/o
Definition
purse or sac, bursa
Term
carp/o
Definition
wrist
Term
chondr/o
Definition
gristle, cartilage
Term
condyl/o
Definition
knuckle of a joint
Term
cost/o
Definition
rib
Term
cran/o, crani/o
Definition
skull, cranium
Term
fasci/o
Definition
fascia
Term
femor/o
Definition
thigh/ femur
Term
fibr/o
Definition
fiber
Term
fibul/o
Definition
fibula
Term
ili/o
Definition
flank, hip, groin, ilium of the pelvis
Term
ischi/o
Definition
haunch, hip joint, ischium
Term
menisci/o
Definition
meniscus
Term
muscul/o
Definition
muscle
Term
myel/o
Definition
bone marrow
Term
my/o, myos/o
Definition
muscle
Term
oste/o
Definition
bone
Term
pariet/o
Definition
wall
Term
patell/o
Definition
patella
Term
petr/o
Definition
stone
Term
phalang/o
Definition
phalanges
Term
phys/o
Definition
growth
Term
pub/o
Definition
pubis
Term
radi/o
Definition
radius
Term
sacr/o
Definition
sacrum
Term
skelet/o
Definition
skeleton
Term
spondyl/o, vertebr/o
Definition
vertebra
Term
stern/o
Definition
chest, sternum
Term
synov/o, synovi/o
Definition
synovial
Term
tars/o
Definition
tarsal bone
Term
ten/o, tendon/o
Definition
tendon
Term
tax/o
Definition
reaction to a stimulus, movement
Term
troph/o
Definition
development
Term
arthralgia
Definition
condition of joint pain, often the first symptom of joint or bone disease and joint injury
Term
ataxia
Definition
the inability to coordinate muscles during a voluntary activity
Term
atrophy
Definition
reduced muscle size and strength due to a lack of movement
Term
bradykinesia
Definition
abnormally slow movement that is usually a clinical sign of an underlying bone, muscle or nervous disorder.
Term
decalcification
Definition
the abnormal reduction of calcium in bone often caused by a hormonal disorder upsetting the calcium balance between bloodstream and bone
Term
dykinesia
Definition
difficulty in movement
Term
dystrophy
Definition
a deformity arising during development, a sign of a congenital disease that occurs in different forms
Term
hypertrophy
Definition
a sign of excessive muscle growth or development, often induced by exercise enthusiasts. Produced by the addition of protein to muscle fibers, which is stimulated by strenuous muscle activity
Term
myalgia
Definition
muscle pain, a common type is lactic acid buildup in muscles as a result of anaerobic respiration during strenuous exercise
Term
tenodynia
Definition
tendon pain
Term
ankyl/o
Definition
crooked
Term
carcin/o
Definition
cancer
Term
kyph/o
Definition
hump
Term
leuk/o
Definition
white
Term
lith/o
Definition
stone
Term
lord/o
Definition
bent forward
Term
menisc/o, menisci/o
Definition
meniscus
Term
por/o
Definition
hole
Term
sarc/o
Definition
flesh or meat
Term
scoli/o
Definition
curved
Term
achondroplasia
Definition
a disease that causes dwarfism that is genetically determined and causes abnormal lack of growth of long bones
Term
ankylosis
Definition
disease in which the joints are abnormally stiff and movement is difficult
Term
arthritis
Definition
general disorder resulting in inflammation and degeneration of a joint. Two major types are osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis
Term
arthrochondritis
Definition
a temporary condition caused by localized infection in which the articular cartilage within synovial joints undergoes inflammation resulting in joint pain during movements.
Term
bunion
Definition
an abnormal enlargement of the joint at the base of the big toe caused by an inflammation of a bursa near the big toe
Term
bursitis
Definition
inflammation of a bursa, saclike things that act to cushion certain joints
Term
bursolith
Definition
a calcium deposit within a bursa of the foot, confirmed with an x-ray and typically surgically removed.
Term
carpal tunnel syndrome
Definition
a condition characterized by inflammation of the wrist (tenosynovitis) that causes pressure against the median nerve resulting in local pain and restricted movement.
Term
carpoptosis
Definition
aka, wrist drop. a condition of weakness of the wrist resulting in difficulty supporting the hand
Term
cramps
Definition
prolonged, involuntary muscular contractions that cause pain
Term
Degenrative joint disease
Definition
DJD, a general term describing a disease of joints in which the cartilage undergoes degeneration. This disease is progressive and as the cartilage degrades it is often replaced with bone
Term
Duchenne's muscular dystrophy
Definition
DMD, a children's disease causing skeletal muscle degeneration, resulting in progressive muscle weakness and deterioration.
Term
epicondylitis
Definition
epicondyles are small bony elevations on the humerus near the elbow joint. In epicondylitis this area of the elbow becomes inflamed usually due to an injury
Term
fibromyalgia
Definition
a disease of unknown origin that produces widespread pain of musculoskeletal structures of the limbs, face, and trunk. Some evidence suggests it may be caused by sleep deprivation
Term
fracture
Definition
clinical term for a break in a bone
Term
Colles fracture
Definition
a break in the distal part of the radius
Term
Comminuted fracture
Definition
break resulting in fragmentation of the bone
Term
compression fracture
Definition
a crushed break, often due to weight or pressure applied to the bone during a fall
Term
displaced fracture
Definition
a break causing an abnormal alignment of bone pieces
Term
epiphyseal fracture
Definition
a break at the location of the growth plate, which can affect growth of the bone
Term
greenstick fracture
Definition
a slight break in a bone that appears as a slight fissure in an x-ray
Term
nondisplaced fracture
Definition
a break in which the broken bones retain their alignment
Term
pott's fracture
Definition
a break at the ankle that affects both bones of the leg
Term
spiral fracture
Definition
a spiral-shaped break often caused by twisting stresses along a long bone
Term
gout
Definition
a disorder in which an abnormal accumulation of uric acid crystals in the joints causes sharp pain in the joints of the toes. These crystals are waste products of protein metabolism, therefore this disease is exacerbated by a high protein diet
Term
herniated disk
Definition
the rupture of an intervertebral disk, which causes pressure against spinal nerves which generates back pain. This injury is often caused by sudden movement or an attempt to lift a heavy object
Term
kyphosis
Definition
a spinal deformity in which the upper thoracic curve bends posteriorly, causing an abnormal hump at the upper back that often accompanies osteoporosis.
Term
lordosis
Definition
an exaggerated anterior spinal curve in the lumbar area
Term
scoliosis
Definition
a lateral curvature of the spine with a congenital origin usually in the thoracic or lumbar regions
Term
Marfan's syndrome
Definition
a congenital disease that results in excessive cartilage formation at the epiphyseal plates (growth plates) forming abnormally long limbs and a tall, thin body form. Also, the heart valves are deformed causing valvular heart disease.
Term
meniscitis
Definition
the meniscus is a crescent-shaped band of cartilage that supports certain joints, such as the knee and shoulder. Meniscitis is the inflammation of the meniscus and it results in joint pain.
Term
myasthenia gravis
Definition
a disease characterized by a progressive failure of muscles to respond to nerve stimulation.
Term
myeloma
Definition
a malignant tumor in the red bone marrow
Term
myocele
Definition
an injury in which the muscle tears through the fascia, a layer of tough connective tissue surrounding the muscle, causing a protrusion.
Term
myositis
Definition
a local inflammation of muscle
Term
osteitis
Definition
inflammation of the bone, often a result of an injury or infection
Term
osteitis deformans
Definition
aka Paget's disease, results in bone deformities due to an acceleration of bone loss, often has symptoms of severe bone pain and frequent fractures. Some evidence suggests this is caused by a virus.
Term
osteocarcinoma
Definition
bone cancer arising from epithelial tissue that has invaded the bone.
Term
osteosarcoma
Definition
bone cancer arising from connective tissue, usually within the bone itself. Is a more aggressive form of bone cancer
Term
leukemia
Definition
malignant bone cancer that arises from the cells of the red bone marrow, named because of the high levels of deformed white blood cells present in blood samples that are diagnostic of the disease
Term
osteogenesis imperfecta
Definition
an inherited disease resulting in impaired bone growth and fragile bones. This disease is progressive, has symptoms of severe bone pain, skeletal deformities, and frequent fractures.
Term
osteomalacia
Definition
a disease resulting in the softening of bones, generally caused by a hormonal imbalance resulting in gradual loss of calcium to bone tissue.
Term
osteomyelitis
Definition
inflammation of the red bone marrow usually caused by a bacterial infection
Term
osteoporosis
Definition
the abnormal loss of bone density common with the elderly, especially postmenopausal women. Results in loss of posture and flexibility
Term
paraplegia
Definition
paralysis of the area below the hips, including both legs
Term
quadriplegia
Definition
paralysis of all four limbs
Term
polymyositis
Definition
a condition caused by bacterial infection in which a group of muscles become infected and react with inflammation
Term
rickets
Definition
a condition in which the bones become softened due to the excessive removal of calcium for other body functions. Caused by a lack of calcium and/or vit D in the diet. A child with rickets often suffers from bowing of the legs and growth retardation
Term
rotator cuff injury
Definition
the rotator cuff is a combo of four muscles (teres minor, supraspinatus, infraspinatus, and subscapularis) and their tendons that surround and stabilize the shoulder joint. A tear of one of these tendons or muscles can cause local inflammation, pain, and joint dislocation
Term
spinal cord injury
Definition
a trauma to the vertebral column, SCI.
Term
spondylarthritis
Definition
an uncommon condition of intervertebral joints that leads to a gradual inability to flex and bend the back
Term
sprain
Definition
a tear of collagen fibers within a ligament, usually caused by stretching the ligament beyond its normal range without warming or slow stretching
Term
strain
Definition
a tear of a muscle usually caused by stretching a muscle beyond its normal range, often causes a bruise.
Term
temporomandibular joint disease
Definition
disease of the temporomandibular joint at the junction of the mandible and the temporal bone, results in frequent dislocations that make it difficult and painful to move the jaw during speaking and chewing
Term
tendonitis
Definition
inflammation of a tendon
Term
tenosynovitis
Definition
a form of tedonitis that involves inflammation of the synovial mambrane surrounding the the joint
Term
electr/o
Definition
electricity
Term
fasci/o
Definition
fascia
Term
lamin/o
Definition
thin, lamina
Term
orth/o
Definition
straight
Term
syn/o
Definition
connect
Term
arthrocentesis
Definition
a procedure in which excess fluids in inflamed joints are aspirated, or withdrawn by suction, through a surgical puncture into the synovial cavity of the joint
Term
arthroclasia
Definition
a procedure in which an abnormally stiff joint must be broken during surgery to increase the range of motion, or ROM.
Term
arthrodesis
Definition
surgical fixation of a joint
Term
anthrogram
Definition
an x-ray of a joint after injection of contrast media, air, or both to highlight the synovial joint.
Term
anthrolysis
Definition
a procedure in which a joint is loosened of abnormal restrictions, such as calcium deposits and bursoliths
Term
arthroplasty
Definition
surgical repair of a joint. A complete arthroplasty refers to a joint replacement
Term
arthroscopy
Definition
an endoscopic visual examination of a joint cavity that uses an instrument that integrates fiber optics, live-action photography, and computer enhancement, an arthroscope. When this procedure is part of a surgery, arthroscopic surgery
Term
arthrotomy
Definition
a surgical incision into the synovial cavity of a joint
Term
bursectomy
Definition
a surgery involving the removal of a bursa from a joint
Term
chiropractic
Definition
the field of therapy that is centered on manipulation of bones and joints, most commonly the vertebral column
Term
chondrectomy
Definition
surgical removal, or excision, of the cartilage associated with a joint. Commonly uses arthroscopy to reduce the size of the incision and improve the surgeon's view
Term
chondroplasty
Definition
surgical repair of cartilage associated with a joint
Term
costectomy
Definition
surgery involving the removal of a rib
Term
cranioplasty
Definition
a procedure in which one or more bones of the cranium undergo repair during surgery
Term
craniotomy
Definition
a procedure in which the surgeon enters the cranial cavity
Term
diskectomy
Definition
a surgical procedure that is used frequently to reduce the pain of a herniated disk by surgically removing the intervertebral disk. Also called spinal fusion when the adjacent vertebrae are fused together.
Term
Spondylosyndesis
Definition
the alternate term for spinal fusion
Term
laminectomy
Definition
a procedure during which the part of the vertebra known as the lamina is surgically removed to relieve pressure on the spinal cord
Term
electromyography
Definition
a procedure in which the strength of a muscle contraction can be measured and recorded
Term
fasciotomy
Definition
a surgical incision into the connective tissue sheath surrounding a muscle called fascia
Term
fracture reduction
Definition
a procedure in which broken bones are aligned to their normal positions. Doing this without surgery is called closed fracture reduction.
Term
Internal and external fixation
Definition
use of pins, screws, rods, or plates to stabilize an alignment. This can also be applied outside the skin (external).
Term
bone grafting - electrical bone stimulation
Definition
procedures that can be applied to stimulate the healing process if the normal healing process is impeded.
Term
myoplasty - myorrhaphy
Definition
surgical repair of a muscle, may include a procedure called myorrhaphy in which the torn ends of the muscle are sutured together
Term
NSAIDs
Definition
nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, the most common pharmacological treatment for most conditions, including muscle and bone pain. I.e. aspirin and ibuprofen
Term
orthotics
Definition
the field of medical support involving the construction and fitting of orthopedic appliances to assist a patient, such as lifts or artificial limbs (prosthesis)
Term
ostectomy
Definition
the surgical removal or excision of bone tissue, performed to remove unwanted bone formations
Term
osteoclasis
Definition
a procedure in which a bone is broken purposely to correct a defect or an improperly healed fracture
Term
osteopathy
Definition
a medical field that emphasizes the relationship between musculoskeletal system and overall health with an emphasis on body alignment and nutrition
Term
osteoplasty
Definition
the surgical repair of bone
Term
podiatry
Definition
specialty that focuses on foot health
Term
tenomyoplasty
Definition
a surgical procedure involving repair of both muscle and tendon
Term
tenorrhaphy
Definition
surgery in which a torn tendon is sutured together
Term
tenotomy
Definition
surgical incision on the tendon
Term
vertebroplasty
Definition
a surgical procedure that repairs damaged or diseased vertebrae