Shared Flashcard Set

Details

Master Gardeners Exam
Covers MG Quiz Questions
192
Gardening
03/26/2012

Additional Gardening Flashcards

 


 

Cards

Term
What are two key environmental factors to consider when locating or planning a flower planting?
Definition
Amount of required sun and moisture.
Term
In annual flower bed design, what is the primary plant characteristic that warrants most consideration?
Definition
Flowers and foliage.
Term
What must you be careful of in using organic mulch as a weed control method in flower beds?
Definition
Using too much mulch!
Term
What are two advantages of annual gardening starting with seeds instead of purchased transplants?
Definition
Cheaper, more varieties.
Term
How can you overcome soil crusting and poor seedling emergence when direct seeding flowers?
Definition
Use light "potting mix" in seed furrow or cover with vermiculite or mulch.
Term
What are two main reasons for dead-heading?
Definition
continued bloom by preventing seed formation, improved aesthetic quality of the plant.
Term
Why is it important to clean up plant refuse from the flower garden at the end of the season?
Definition
control insects and disease.
Term
What is meant by the term stratify when applied to seeds?
Definition
cold treatment
Term
What is a tender bulb?
Definition
one which is not tolerant of Indiana winter temperatures and must be taken out of the ground.
Term
When should soil be prepared for flower gardening?
Definition
Fall
Term
Why is phosphorous so important for bulb type flower crops?
Definition
Phosphorous promotes healthy bulbs which improves next year's bloom.
Term
How long, at a minimum, should foliage be left on a bulb plant?
Definition
until it dies naturally, can be easily pulled out.
Term
When should bulb plant fertilization be done for an established planting?
Definition
Immediately after bloom time.
Term
T or F. Wrap the trunk of all newly planted shade trees immediately after planting in spring.
Definition
F
Term
T or F. Pruning a forsythia shrub in winter will hurt the plant.
Definition
F
Term
T or F. Deciduous trees lose their leaves at the end of the growing season.
Definition
T
Term
T or F. Topping trees is an acceptable pruning practice to enhance the health of a tree.
Definition
F
Term
T or F. For a large shade tree, it is safe to apply a soil sterilant herbicide to the soil 40 ft. from the tree.
Definition
F
Term
T or F. Pines are well suited for low spots (areas the gather and hold water) in your landscape.
Definition
F
Term
T or F. A properly pruned hedge is wider at the base and narrower at the top.
Definition
T
Term
T or F. Tree wound dressing should always be used on pruning cuts.
Definition
F
Term
T or F. When planting deciduous trees, fall is the best time and spring is second best.
Definition
F
Term
T or F. Pruning at planting time should be minimal (primarily limited to dead/diseased/damaged limbs) and limited bare root stock.
Definition
T
Term
T or F. Fertilization of woody plants should be done according to soil test recommendations (P & K) and 2-4 lbs N/1000 sq. ft. for root zones of most deciduous trees.
Definition
T
Term
T or F. Iron chlorosis in pin oak is thought to be caused by a deficiency of iron in the soil.
Definition
F
Term
T or F. To best prepare broadleaf evergreen shrubs (like rhododendrun)for winter, one should deeply water until ground is frozen, use mulch, and install wind protection.
Definition
T
Term
T or F. When planting a new tree, the root flare should be visible above the soil.
Definition
T
Term
T or F. The term conifer means "cone bearing".
Definition
T
Term
T or F. Our state tree is the tulip tree.
Definition
T
Term
T or F. Mulch should be mounded up like a volcano around a newly planted tree.
Definition
F
Term
T or F. Taxus spp. (Japanese Yew) is an evergreen shrub that can be pruned back to bare wood and it will regrow.
Definition
T
Term
T or F. Pruning cuts on the limbs of larger trees should be made as close to the trunk as possible through the branch collar zone.
Definition
F
Term
What side of the garden should you plant sweet corn?
Definition
On the north side so it doesn't shade out other crops.
Term
Bean
Definition
Warm
Term
Broccoli
Definition
cool
Term
tomatoes
Definition
warm
Term
corn
Definition
warm
Term
eggplant
Definition
warm
Term
squash
Definition
warm
Term
peas
Definition
cool
Term
cauliflower
Definition
cool
Term
List 4 techniques useful for small plot intensive gardening
Definition
vertical gardening, interplanting, succession planting, wide row or band planting, container gardening, stretching the season (cloche, mulch).
Term
Mr. N.O. Plants says he's having trouble getting his carrot seeds to come up through the soil. Can you give him some suggestions?
Definition
Don't plant too deep, try anti-crustant (light mulch) over seedrow such as vermiculite, grass clippings.
Term
What is the minimum number of hours of direct sunlight a garden location should receive?
Definition
6
Term
Why is it important to allow the soil to dry somewhat before preparing a seed or transplant bed?
Definition
Because when soil is worked while too wet, it forms hard clumps which persist throughout the season and soil structure is damaged.
Term
Name six crops that would be suitable for a fall harvested crop.
Definition
Radishes, lettuce, cabbage, brussel sprouts, broccoli, cauliflower, peas, spinach, kale, endive.
Term
What is the best method of improving a heavy clay loam that is poorly drained?
Definition
Add organic matter such as manure, compost, mulch; raised beds.
Term
When is the optimum time to prepare garden soils for planting? Explain.
Definition
Fall prep is ideal because soil will warm and dry faster for spring planting and usually drier. Not recommended for erosion prone sites.
Term
How often should a vegetable garden be watered and how much water should be applied?
Definition
Once every 7-10 days apply 1-1.5 inches in one application.
Term
Does sweet corn demand a larger sized planting than most other vegetables? Explain.
Definition
Depends on wind to distribute pollen so the more plants, the better the chances for good pollination. Plant corn in a block of several short rows rather than 1 long row for better pollen distribution.
Term
Mrs. Ima Squash claims that her husband planted their zucchini plants next to their cucumbers and she is afraid they will cross pollinate and ruin both crops. What should she do?
Definition
They cannot cross but even if they could, only the offspring would be affected, not current fruits. Would need to collect seeds for this to happen.
Term
Mr. Hornworm tells you that his tomatoes have a disease that causes a black, leathery spot on bottom of fruit. he wants to know what he can spray with to prevent from spreading to other plants. What to do?
Definition
Sounds like blossom end rot which is not an infectious disease. caused by calcium deficiency in fruit related to moisture extremes and not a lack of calcium. most common on early setting fruit.
Term
tubers are turning green, what caused this and how to prevent?
Definition
green is chlorophyll produced in response to exposure to light. Tubers also produce solanine in response to light which is toxic. accumulates in the green tissue and just below. remove and discard green portions.
Term
Rank 4 most important times to fertilize lawn and give amount of fertilize in lbs N per 1000 ft. squared
Definition
1. September 1 lb/1000 ft.
2. November 1.5 lb/1000 ft.
3. Mid Late May 1 lb/1000 ft.
4. Mid-Late July .75 lb/1000 ft.
Term
4 important points for mowing turfgrass area
Definition
mow high (3" plus), keep blades sharp, don't remove more the 1/3 of leaf area per mowing, mow in different directions, return clippings to yard.
Term
When is the optimum time to seed cool season grasses in north central IN
Definition
Aug. 15-Sept. 15
Term
Broadleaf weeds are best controlled with applications of herbicides in the
Definition
Fall
Term
The best time to fertilize the lawn is in
Definition
Sept.
Term
What time of year is best for renovating an existing, or seeding a new lawn?
Definition
Early Autumn
Term
T or F. Cool season turfgrass species are recommended for central IN
Definition
T
Term
Zoysia grass is not suggested for central IN
Definition
T
Term
Preemergent crabgrass controls should be applied after the crabgrass reaches a height of 2"
Definition
F
Term
The most important element in a lawn starter fertilizer is Phosphorous
Definition
T
Term
A good turf fertilizer would contain mostly nitrogen
Definition
T
Term
Lawn clippings should be left on the lawn if not excessive
Definition
T
Term
Bluegrass blends are preferred over single varieties
Definition
T
Term
A good grass for shady lawns is annual ryegrass
Definition
F
Term
Thatch is a layer of inorganic material built up in the lawn and is caused by excessive lawn clippings.
Definition
F
Term
Water lawns infrequently but deeply
Definition
T
Term
Mole control is best obtained through the use of insecticides spread on the lawn to kill the grubs.
Definition
F
Term
Crabgrass germinates in late summer or early fall
Definition
F
Term
There is little danger of harming tomato plants when treating lawns with 2-4-D in May.
Definition
F
Term
Define Habitat
Definition
Habitat is the combination of food, water, shelter, and space arranged to meet the needs of wildlife
Term
Name 3 different types of food that you can provide for wildlife
Definition
insects, seeds, green vegetation, fruits, nuts
Term
what is the number one source of protein for adult hummingbirds
Definition
insects
Term
name one way to make your bird bath more attractive or safer for your birds
Definition
add movement to the water, or clean the bath frequently.
Term
name 3 methods for dealing with "nuisance" wildlife.
Definition
exclusion, cultural/habitat modification, frightening, repellants, toxicants, trapping, shooting.
Term
name one resource that might help you with wildlife problems
Definition
extension agent, FNR 404-W publication, conservation officers
Term
why won't poison peanuts work on moles?
Definition
moles are insectivores, so unless the peanuts are wriggling, they won't be interested.
Term
rabbits eat the vegetables, can you shoot them?
Definition
rabbit hunting season is fall and with av valid hunting license, you can.
Term
herbicide most effective against perrenial weed?
Definition
translocation post emergence
Term
which is not part of a grass leaf?
Definition
blade, ligule, stamen, auricle.

stamen.
Term
a sedge can easily be identified due to its:
Definition
triangular system
Term
the best time to apply a pre-emergence crabgrass herbicide is
Definition
in the spring before the crabgrass germinates.
Term
which of the following does not affect the amount of drift put out by a sprayer
Definition
temperature
Term
a perrenial plant
Definition
often spreads by both seeds and vegetative structure.
Term
ornamental plants contacted by 2-4-D often display the following symptoms
Definition
twisting of the stems and petioles.
Term
A contact herbicide is normally not effective against established perennial weeds because
Definition
the chemical will not move into the root system
Term
which of the following is not a type of name used to describe a herbicide
Definition
scientific, common, chemical, trade

scientific
Term
the following might cause a pre-emergence herbicide to fail to control weeds
Definition
application after weeds are established, failure to adjust rate to soil type, lack of rainfall after application.
Term
which of the following would be expected to affect the performance of a pre-emergence herbcide the least?
Definition
amount of sand in the soil.
Term
three major life cycles of plants are
Definition
annual, bi-ennial, perennial
Term
herbicides are not used very often in home gardens because of
Definition
the large variety of crops grown in small area
Term
a non-selective herbicide would be best suited for controlling
Definition
weeds in cracks of a driveway.
Term
selective herbicide
Definition
a chemical which only kills certain plant species.
Term
contact herbicide
Definition
chemical with only kills portions of the plants wetted by the spray.
Term
incorporation
Definition
a process used to move herbicide into upper surface of soil.
Term
volatilization
Definition
the formation of vapors from a herbicide.
Term
2-4-D
Definition
a growth regulator herbicide
Term
auricle
Definition
claw like projections of grass leaf which clasp stem.
Term
T or F. Infectious plant diseases are caused by living agents called pathogens.
Definition
T
Term
Name the four most common types of plant pathogens.
Definition
Fungi, Bacteria, Viruses, Nematodes.
Phytoplasmas and parasitic plants are plant pathogens that are not as common.
Term
T or F. The majority of infectious plant diseases are caused by fungi.
Definition
T
Term
The disease triangle is comprised of:
Definition
Pathogen, susceptible host, and favorable environment.
Term
What does the disease triangle illustrate?
Definition
The three conditions needed in order for an infectious disease to develop.
Term
Most fungicides work primarily by...
Definition
Preventing fungus infection.
Term
Name three ways that plant diseases can be managed by cultural methods.
Definition
They include methods related to the removal of the pathogen (use of disease-free seed/transplants; good sanitation); removal of the favorable environment (pruning, timing of watering, planting date, spacing) and removal of a susceptible host (crop rotation, vigorous growing plants are usually less susceptible to disease).
Term
T or F. A plant virus can be controlled after it infects the plant.
Definition
F
Term
T or F. The presence of a plant pathogen means that infection and disease will occur.
Definition
F
Term
T or F. Fungi cannot produce their own food.
Definition
T
Term
Fungi reproduce by...
Definition
Spores
Term
An insect (or any other organism) that carries a pathogen is called a:
Definition
Vector
Term
One of the best ways to control some plant diseases without using pesticides and without caring for existing plants is.
Definition
Genetic resistance (selecting resistant plants and/or cultivars).
Term
Your lilacs have powdery mildew and you have roses nearby. Will the powdery mildew spread to the roses? Why or why not?
Definition
No. Because of host specificity. Disease causing organisms are very specific to the kind of plant they infect. Even though powdery mildew affect both roses and lilacs, a different species of fungus attacks each.
Term
Irrigation can affect development. What can you do when irrigating your plants to help minimize the chance of disease?
Definition
Avoid watering the foliage. If you need to water overhead, water early in the morning so the leaves dry off quickly. Avoid frequent irrigations. For most plants, allow the soil to dry between waterings. Continuous wet soil may cause root death due to anaerobic conditions and/or promote infection by rot pathogens.
Term
Apple scab is the most significant pest problem on crabapple trees. What is the best way to control this disease?
Definition
Select a highly resistant cultivar.
Term
In order to determine if a plant has the soil-borne fungus that causes Verticillium Wilt, you must examine...
Definition
The vascular tissue for discoloration.
Term
T or F. Two different host plants are required for the devlopment of the cedar quince rust disease.
Definition
T
Term
What two plant symptoms will help diagnose the disease pine tip blight?
Definition
Shortened brown needles at the tips of branches, black specks on the bottom of older opened cones (in the tree or on the ground) or at the base of infected needles.
Term
The first step in diagnosing a plant problem is
Definition
identifying the plant, by identifying the plant involved, you can narrow down the list of problem possibilities.
Term
A disease will occur if the following is present:
Definition
a favorable environment, a susceptible host, a pathogen. all three are required for a disease to occur.
Term
a pathogen is...
Definition
a disease causing organism, a fungus, generally widespread. an insect vector only disseminates the disease. Fungal pahtogens are generally present and widespread in nature.
Term
If a variety of different kinds of plants are all affected by a similar problem, the problem most likely relates to:
Definition
the site or weather. a disease is usually limited to a plant genus or species. if different types of plants (genus/species) are all affected in an area, then the problem is more likely due to the site or weather (or other situation).
Term
Infectious diseases usually show a
Definition
random pattern of symptoms. remember RBI, a random pattern means it is a biotic causal agent which means infectious.
Term
The spots of an infectious leaf disease usually appear
Definition
on or adjacent to the leaf veins. this is because water droplets tend to remain near the veins the longest period of time before evaporation, increasing the chances of infection.
Term
what three words should you remember when diagnosing plant problems?
Definition
signs, symptoms, situations.
Term
On a pine tree, where does the normal seasonal needle drop take place?
Definition
It occurs on the older, inner needles throughout the tree.
Term
When a person brings a sample of a plant problem to you to solve, what is one thing you must do (besides carefully examining the plant)?
Definition
Ask questions! there is usually no way to diagnose problems causes by situations without asking good questions
Term
How can you tell if a tree has produced normal growth the past several years?
Definition
By examining the distance between terminal bud scale scars.
Term
T or F. Plant problems mainly fit into two categories: a.) insects and other animal pests, and b.) infectious diseases.
Definition
F. Many plant problems are not caused by pests. Problems can be caused by certain environmental conditions, mechanical injury or chemical injury.
Term
T or F. A gall is an example of a "sign".
Definition
F. A gall is not the actual causal agent or evidence of its presence. A gall is plant tissue so it is considered a symptom rather than a sign.
Term
T or F. Sawdust from a wood borer is considered a sign.
Definition
T. The sawdust is usually mixed with excrement and is sometimes called frass. Sawdust is actually evidence of the insect's presence so it is a sign rather than a symptom.
Term
T or F. The whitish growth of powdery mildew on a plant is considered a symptom
Definition
F. It is a sign because the whitish material is the actual fungus.
Term
T or F. Holes in the trunk of the tree are a symptom of a wood boring insect.
Definition
F. Holes in the trunk are symptoms but they could also be due to birds like sapsuckers (holes produced in a vertical and/or horizontal pattern).
Term
Which of the following is a true statement about galls?
Definition
Galls are abnormal growths on plants.
Term
Which of the following are not an insect?
Definition
Mite.

Insects include, beetle, wasps, and aphid.
Term
Which is not an arthropod?
Definition
slug.

Term
The best month to treat a blue spruce (with foliar insecticide) for bagworms?
Definition
June.
Term
Extensive webbing in walnut trees during August is most likely caused by:
Definition
fall webworm
Term
Japanese beetle traps are not recommended because they:
Definition
attract more beetles than they control and do not decrease plant damage.
Term
The immature stage of a beetle is often called a:
Definition
grub.
Term
Which landscape/flower/vegetable pest has such a different body that it is not an insect, arachnid, or even arthropod?
Definition
slug.
Term
The insect currently thought to be potentially the most harmful to trees in IN is?
Definition
Emerald Ash Borer
Term
Plants, using light energy, make carbohydrates by combining water and carbon dioxide in which of the following processes
Definition
Photosynthesis
Term
A ripened ovary is a
Definition
fruit
Term
asparagus is an edible
Definition
stem
Term
a flower that is considered to be "perfect", botanically speaking, has
Definition
at least both stamens and pistil, may be lacking petals and/or sepals
Term
leaves that are attached in pairs with one on each side of a stem are called.
Definition
opposite
Term
water is absorbed through
Definition
root hairs
Term
the stalk that attaches a leaf blade to the plant stem is called a
Definition
petiole
Term
the place on a stem where the leaf is attached is called a
Definition
node
Term
plants that take two years to complete their life cycles are called
Definition
biennials
Term
vessels that carry water and nutrients upwards in a plant from roots to stems to leaves are
Definition
kylem
Term
Photosynthesis increases as temp. increases.
Definition
true
Term
The loss of water from plants through its leaves as water vaporizes is called
Definition
transpiration
Term
Most summer plants are long day plants
Definition
true
Term
The male part of a flower is called the
Definition
pistil
Term
The transfer of pollen from stamen to pistil is called
Definition
pollination
Term
the plant part that is formed by the successful union of the male pollen cell and female ovule and thus carries characteristics of both parents is the
Definition
seed
Term
List the five soil forming factors
Definition
parent material, organisms, climate, topography, time.
Term
what is cation exchange capacity (CEC)? How do % of clay and % of organic matter affect it?
Definition
Cation exchange is the sum of + charges of the absorbed cations that the soil can hold. Increased % of clay and organic matter increases CEC.
Term
Which has a higher clay content? Topsoil or Subsoil?
Definition
Subsoil.
Term
Which has more organic matter, topsoil or subsoil?
Definition
Topsoil
Term
A pH of 5 is _____ times more acidic than a pH of 6.
Definition
10
Term
Which size particle is intermediate in size and has a smooth feel when textured?
Definition
Silt
Term
List three things you would know about a surface soil, dark in color?
Definition
Higher organic matter, fertile soil, poorly drained (maybe).
Term
What should you add to a heavy clay soil to improve its structure
Definition
organic matter.
Term
T or F. Most gardens in this area need lime?
Definition
T
Term
What would you add to soil to lower the pH?
Definition
Aluminum sulfate, sulfur, ferrous sulfate, etc.
Term
What qualifies an element as being essential for plants?
Definition
It is necessary for the completion of a plant's life cycle, (produce viable seed) or becomes constituent of the plant that in itself is essential such as Mg in chlorophyll.
Term
Which elements are considered to be essential for plant life?
Definition
Carbon, Hydrogen, Oxygen, Nitrogen, Phosphorous, Potassium, Calcium, Magnesium, Sulfur, Zinc, Iron, Manganese, Copper, Boron, Molybdenum, and Chlorine.
Term
Why do some nutrient deficiencies first show up in older growth, while other nutrient deficiencies show up first on newer growth?
Definition
Elements which are mobile in the plant will move into new growth so that deficiencies of such element show up first in older tissue. elements which are non-mobile in the plant will show deficiency symptoms in young tissue first.
Term
What is the difference between a macro-nutrient and micronutrient?
Definition
macro is essential element required by plants in relatively large quanity. micro required in relatively smaller quants.
Term
If a 50 lb bag of fertilizer is labeled with the analysis 5-10-5, how much nitrogen does it contain? How much phosphate? How much potash? What makes up the rest?
Definition
2.5 lbs N, 5 lbs. Phosphate, and 2.5 lbs. potash, the rest is inert filler.
Term
what is the role of soil pH in plant nutrition?
Definition
pH affects the reaction of essential nutrient elements with the soil particles, thus affecting the availability of these nutrients for uptake by the plant. some elements may become chemically bound to the soil at certain pH values, depriving plants of needed minerals.
Term
what is the optimum soil pH for most horticultural type plants?
Definition
6-7
Term
what advantages are there in banding fertilizer application rather than broadcasting?
Definition
Banding is more efficient since it places the fertilizer directly alongside where the plants will grow rather than wasting fertilizer between rows where only the weeds will benefit.
Term
How often is soil testing advised for gardens?
Definition
every 3-5 yeras.
Term
How do "organic" fertilizers compare to inorganic, commercially prepared fertilizers
Definition
commercially prepared fertilizers generally contain nutrient elements in the chemical form which is readily taken up by plants when it becomes dissolved in the soil solution. "Organic" sources often improve soil structure as well as providing nutrients but those nutrients are usually in chemical forms which must be converted into a form that be taken up by plants. Thus organic sources are usually more slowly available.
Term
T or F. Selecting a pesticide is the first and most important step in solving plant problems.
Definition
F, identitify the problem first!
Term
T or F. It is illegal to use any pesticide in a manner not consistent with the information given on the product label.
Definition
T
Term
T or F. Most pesticides can be stored for 10 years without loss of effectiveness.
Definition
F
Term
All pesticide labels state:
Definition
Keep out of reach of children
Term
LD50 refers to
Definition
dose of active ingredient that is deadly to 50% of lab tested animals
Term
the substance is highly corrosive and can burn skin and eyes
Definition
danger
Term
moderate toxicity, 1-3 teaspoonfuls can kill an adult
Definition
Warning
Term
extreme toxicity, a taste can kill an adult
Definition
danger and poison
Term
slightly toxic, an ounce or more can kill an adult
Definition
caution
Term
If a pesticide is spilled on your skin, what should be your first action
Definition
wash off the pesticide with cool, clean water.
Term
signs and symptoms of pesticide poisoning usually occur within how many hours after exposure
Definition
12 hours
Term
which of the following is (are) potential mode of entry for pesticides into body
Definition
through mouth by eating or drinking, through skin by splashing on skin or clothes, through the nose or mouth by breathing fumes.
Term
The potential for a pesticide to drift away from the intended target is greatest under which of the following conditions?
Definition
spray droplet size is small, wind speed is high.