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Athanasius, the Creed, Martyrs, and St. Augustine
Study question over Athanasius, the Nicene Creed, Church Martyrs, and St. Augustine
115
Bible Studies
12/05/2010

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Term
The church has always had two tethers holding to orthodoxy. What are those 2 tethers?
Definition

(1) Who Jesus was, and

(2) What Jesus accomplished

Term
The first tether concerning the person of Jesus (Who Jesus really was) was first tested in the 4th century by what great heretic?
Definition
Arius
Term
The faced ran into problems with its theology because of a committment to two particular points. What were those two points?
Definition

(1) It was committed to monotheism, and yet

(2) It wanted to give Jesus His proper worship

Term
What was Arius chief error?
Definition
Arisu argued that there was atime when Jesus did not exist. As a result, he argued Jesus was created.
Term
What one word was Arius committed to making mean "was made?"
Definition
begotten
Term
What phrase in the Nicene Creed argues against Arius' understanding of the word "begotten?"
Definition
"begotten, not made"
Term
What other passage did Arius like to quote to argue that Jesus was created?
Definition
He liked to quote Colossians 1 which says that Jesus is the firstborn of all creation.
Term
Who was the great champion of orthodoxy that fought against Arius?
Definition
Athanasius
Term
How did Athanasius understand the term "begotten?"
Definition
He understood it to focus on the relationship between the Father and the Son...that their relationship was unique not one of Creator/creature.
Term
The phrase "contra mundum" is forever linked to Athanasius and was actually put on his grave. What does "contra mundum" mean?
Definition
Against the world
Term
How many times was Athaniasius exiled?
Definition
5 times
Term
What portion of the Nicene Creed is a lot longer than its counterpart in the Apostle's Creed?
Definition
The "Jesus" section of the Nicene Creed is a lot longer than the "Jesus" section of the Apostle's Creed because it had to answer Arianism.
Term
Did the decision at Nicea actually end the conflict over Arianism?
Definition
No, the conflict kept going until the Council of Constantinople in 381 AD.
Term
Which Church Council ruled against Arius?
Definition
The Council of Nicea
Term
What year was the Council of Nicea?
Definition
325 AD
Term
Who presided over the Council of Nicea?
Definition

The Emperor

Constantine

Term
What was Constantine's actual view of the conflict between Arius and Athanasius?
Definition
He thought it was making a big deal out of nothing.
Term
What modern day religious groups can be considered Arian?
Definition
Both Jehovah's Witnesses and Mormons
Term
What is the view that believes their is only one person in the godhead and that He appears sometimes as the Father, sometimes as the Son, and sometimes as the Spirit?
Definition
modalism
Term
What passage best argues against "modalism?"
Definition

The baptism of Jesus

(the Son is in the water, the Father is in heaven, and the Spirit is descending like a dove).

Term
What's the difference between "homoousias" and "homoiousias?"
Definition

"homoousias" means the same substance;

"homoiousias" means similar substance.

Term
What was the name of the Edict that ended Christian persecution?
Definition
Edict of Milan
Term
What was the name of the battle were Constantine claimed to see a sign in the sky?
Definition
Milvian Bridge
Term
Who was the last Roman emperor before Constantine to persecute the church?
Definition
Diocletian
Term
Who was it that Constantine defeated at the Milvian Bridge?
Definition
Maxientius
Term
What was the symbol that Constantine had his soldiers paint on their shields?
Definition
chi rho
Term
Constantine was baptized as a baby. (T/F)
Definition

False.

Constantine put off baptism until right before his death.

Term
Before Constantine died he had both his eldest son and wife executed.(T/F)
Definition
True.
Term
Constantine moved the capital of Roman Empire from Rome to Constantinople.(T/F)
Definition
True
Term
Constantine's mother Helena was venerated in the ancient church for recovering the actual cross of Christ.(T/F)
Definition
True
Term
Medieval legends claim St. Helena (Constantine's mother) actually transported the Sancta Scala from Jerusalem to Rome.(T/F)
Definition
True
Term
St. Helena, Constantine's mother, is reported to have found the actual burial place of Jesus and to have built the original Church of the Holy Sepulchre.(T/F)
Definition
True. She is also supposed to have recovered the three nails usd to crucify Jesus.
Term
Constantine is often attributed with changing Christian worship to Sunday.(T/F)
Definition

True.

He did say that everyone should pay homage on the day of the sun (pure paganism) but Christians already worshipped on Sunday because that was the day on which the resurrection took place.

Term
Constantine included lots of Christian symbols like the chi rho on his trumphal arch.(T/F)
Definition

False.

Nary a one.

Term
In Constantine's day there were more actual Christians in the Eastern Empire than the Western Empire.(T/F)
Definition
True
Term
Constantine's father, Constantius, was actually the Emperor of the Western Empire under Diocletian.(T/F)
Definition
True
Term
(True/False) Most of the Emperors that followed Constantine  more or less supported the Arian position.
Definition
True.
Term
The first persecutions of Christians came at the hands of Jews who rejected the claims of Jesus.(T/F)
Definition

True.

See the Book of Acts,

and the examples of Stephen and James.

Term
The first heavy persecution of Christians at the hands of the Romans came from Nero.(T/F)
Definition
True
Term
Which two Christian leaders died under Nero's persection?
Definition

(1) Peter, and

(2) Paul

Term
What does tradition say about the martyrdoms of Peter and Paul uner Nero?
Definition

(1) Peter was crucified upside down,

(2) Paul was beheaded

Term
Why wasn't Paul crucified?
Definition
He was a Roman citizen.
Term
Why were Christian so often charged with being atheists by the Romans?
Definition
They refused to confess Caesar as Lord or to sacrifice to him.
Term
Polycarp was a very famous early martyr. He was often said to have been a disciple of which apostle?
Definition
the Apostle John
Term
How old was Polycarp when he was executed?
Definition
About 100
Term
What was Polycarp's famous response to denying Jesus?
Definition
"Eighty-six years have I served Him and He has done me no wrong; how can I blaspheme my King who saved me."
Term
Under the reign of Marcus Aurelius many Christian were sentenced to be killed in the arena.(T/F)
Definition

True.

Especially true in Gaul.

Term
Under the Emperor Decius, Christians were first persecuted across the entire Empire.(T/F)
Definition

True.

Remember the word "decimate."

Term
The Great Persecution took place over a ten year period starting 303 AD.(T/F)
Definition
True
Term
Constantine declared Christianity to be the official state religion of the Roman Empire in 324 AD.(T/F)
Definition
True.
Term
What was the original meaning of the word "martyr?"
Definition
witness
Term
The martyr Polycarp had a dream in which he something that belonged to him on fire. He understood it to mean he was going to be burned at the stake. What was the item?
Definition
his pillow
Term
What does the word "apostasy" mean?
Definition
It means to "fall away."
Term
The church often remebered and celebrated the anniversary of a martyr's death. What did they call them?
Definition
heavenly birthdays
Term
The early church often venerated the bones of martyrs leading to abuses.(T/F)
Definition

True.

Sad but true.

Term
One of the more famous martyrs of the third century was a young, twenty-two year old woman who lived in Carthage in North Africa named Perpetua.(T/F)
Definition
True
Term
(True/False)
Perpetua's father was relentless in trying toget her to recant.
Definition
True.
Finally the Roman's became so angry with him they beat him.
Term
Perpetua had a dream about a bronze ladder going up to heaven with a dangerous dragon at its base. The dragon symbolized Satan.(T/F)
Definition
True.
Term
Perpetua was initally to a terrified heifer that tossed here about causing great injury. When Perpetua was finally thrown to the ground she was very concerned about only one thing. What was it?
Definition
She was concerned about covering up her thighs because her dress was torn. She  was very modest.
Term
How was Perpetua finally killed?
Definition
A gladiator struck her with a sword crushing her shoulder. She helped him guide his sword into her throat.
Term
What distinction is usually applied to Thomas Bilney?
Definition
That he was the first of the English Reformation martyrs.
Term
Bilney was involved in another famous character's conversion. Who was it?
Definition
Hugh Latimer
Term
How did Bilney set about sharing the gospel with Latimer?
Definition
He told Latimer he wanted him to hear his confession. During the confession he explained the gospel to Latimer.
Term
What was Latimer's response to Bilney's attempt to evangelize him?
Definition
He said it was like hearing the very voice of the Holy Spirit.
Term
What was it that caused Bilney to start reading the Bible?
Definition
It was his interest in Erasmus' Greek New Testament.
Term
What other famous reformer is connected to Erasmus' NT?
Definition

Martin Luther

He used it to translate the Bible into German.

Term
What is the famous quote that link Erasmus and Luther?
Definition
Erasmus laid the egg that Luther hatched.
Term
What was the main difference between Erasmus and Luther?
Definition
Erasmus wanted to clean up some of themoral problems facing the Catholic Church. Luther wanted it change its theology.
Term
What passage was it that reallt got to Bilney?
Definition

1 Timothy 1:15

 

 

 

 

Jesus came into the world to save sinners; of whom I am

the chief.

 

 

 

"

Term
Bilney and the other early reformers at Cambridge met regularly at a taven in Cambridge. What was it called?
Definition
The Whitehorse Inn
Term
Who was the Chancellor to the King that had BIlney arrested?
Definition
Sir Thomas More
Term
What a did Bilney do that caused him such shame?
Definition
He recanted the faith under pressure
Term
What did More do when Bilney returned to gospel preaching?
Definition
He had him rearrested and burned at the stake.
Term
What strange thing did Bilney do the night before he was burned at the stake?
Definition
While friends were visiting him in prison, he stuck his finger into a candle flame and burned away the flesh.
Term
What strange thing did Bilney do the day of his execution?
Definition
He ran toward the stake and embraced (hugged) it.
Term
What is the title usually associated with William Tyndale?
Definition
Father of the English Bible
Term
What was different about Tyndale's translation in English?
Definition
It was based on Greek and Hebrew texts...not Latin.
Term
Did the church in England ever sanction Tyndale's work?
Definition
No
Term
List two of the words Tyndale coined when doing his translation?
Definition
scapegoat; Passover
Term
In how many languages was Tyndale fluent?
Definition
8
Term
What did Tyndale do when the church refused him permission to publish and English Bible?
Definition
He moved to the continent and kept on working on it.
Term
How did the church respond to Tyndale leaving for the continent?
Definition
It sent someone to track him down and have him arrested and burned.
Term
What was the traitor's name that betrayed Tyndale?
Definition
Henry Phillips
Term
What was it Tyndale said right before he was killed?
Definition
Lord, open the king of England's eye.
Term
What did Tyndale say to the man that refused to allow him to translate the Bible into English?
Definition
If God spares my life, I will cause the plowboy to know more Scripture than you.
Term
What led to the death of Ridley and Latimer?
Definition
The death of King Edward and the ascension of Queen Mary (Bloody Mary)
Term
For what was Latimer most famous?
Definition

He wonderful preaching.

He was the King's chaplain.

Term
What did their executioners tie around Ridley and Latimer's necks?
Definition
gunpowder
Term
What did Latimer say to Ridley when they were being executed?
Definition
Play the man, Master Ridley. We shall this day light a candle that will never be put out.
Term
Who was forced to watch the execution of Ridley and Latimer?
Definition
Thomas Cranmer
Term
What position did Cranmer hold?
Definition

Archbishop

of Canterbury

Term
What two things did Cranmer write?
Definition

(1) the 39 articles, and

(2) the Book of Common Prayer

Term
Who was responsible for Cranmer being appointed the Archbishop of Canterbury?
Definition
Anne Boleyn
Term
What unusual thing did Cranmer do at his execution?
Definition
He stuck the shand that he signed the recantation papers with into the flame first.
Term
Where Jim Elliot and Nate Saint?
Definition
missionaries to to South America
Term
What happened to Elliot and Saint?
Definition
they were murdered by the Auca Indians
Term
What year were Elliot and Saint killed?
Definition
1956
Term
In what century did St. Augustine live and minister?
Definition
5th Century AD
Term
Why is Augustine revered so by Protestants?
Definition
He is revered because of his emphasis on grace.
Term
Where was Augustine born?
Definition

Thagaste, North Africa

(Modern Algeria)

Term
What was Augustine's mother's name?
Definition
Monica
Term
What led to Augustine writing the City of God?
Definition
The fall of Rome on 410 AD.
Term
Who was Augustine's most famous enemy?
Definition
Pelagius
Term
What is Augustine's most famous book?
Definition
The Confessions
Term
What was Pelagius' chief error?
Definition
He denied the reality of original sin believing salvation was an issue of behavior not grace.
Term
One of Augustine's prayers irked Pelagius. What was the prayer?
Definition
Grant what thou commandest, and command what you will.
Term
What kind of book is the Confessions of Augustine?
Definition
It is a spiritual biography written as a prayer.
Term
From what country was Pelagius?
Definition
Britain
Term
What was Pelagius chief argument regarding God's commands?
Definition
He argued God would not give commands men could not keep.
Term
Did Pelagius believe Adam died as a result of his sin?
Definition
No he believed he was created mortal and would have died regardless of his sin.
Term
Did Pelagius believe in original sin?
Definition
No, he believed chilren were born innocent like Adam.
Term
Who was Donatus?
Definition
He was a Christian pastor.
Term
What was the primary issue in the Donatist controversy?
Definition
It concerned whether those who had fled persecution should be permitted back into the church.
Term
What was the seconday issue regarding pastors that fled?
Definition
It concerned whether the sacraments they had administered were still valid.
Term
What was Augustine's view regarding the sacraments administered by pastors who had fled persecution?
Definition
He believed they were valid because of Christ's faithfulness not the fleeing minister's faithfulness.